D6 presentation

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D6 presentation

  1. 1. D6: AntibacterialsCaleb Jarrell, Elizabeth Eden, WinnieShao
  2. 2. Introduction Antibacterials are chemicals which prevent the growth and multiplication of bacteria
  3. 3. D.6.1: historical development ofpenicillin Name to know: Alexander Fleming
  4. 4. D.6.1: historical development ofpenicillin In 1928, Alexander Fleming left an open Petri dish containing a culture of Staphylococcus aureus in the lab while on holiday. Upon return, he noticed a mould that had grown and inhibited the growth of the bacterium. He deduced that the mould (Penicillium notatum) produced a compound (penicillin) that inhibits the growth of bacteria. He published his results, but never pursued them further.
  5. 5. Historical development cont. Names to know: Howard Florey Ernest Chain
  6. 6. Historical Development cont. Florey and Chain used penicillin on a policeman who was dying of septicaemia in 1941, and recorded a dramatic improvement in his condition (before he died due to lack of a supply of penicillin) They discovered penicillins therapeutic action and its chemical composition, and overcame problems associated with isolating and purifying penicillin
  7. 7. Historical development cont. Florey went on to research large scale production of penicillin and efficient extraction of the active ingredient. In America, Jasper Kane and other Pfizer scientists found that by growing strains of penicillin mould in large tanks containing corn-steep liquor they could produce in bulk. In the 1950s the structure of penicillin was determined, enabling different types to be synthesized without recourse to moulds.
  8. 8. Historical Development Cont. Moyer, Coghill and Raper at the NRRL developed methods for industrialized penicillin production and isolated higher-yielding strains of the Penicillium fungus.

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