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D5 presentation

  1. 1. StimulantsChynna & April
  2. 2. Stimulants Drugs that increase a person’s mental alertness and awareness by stimulating the brain and central nervous system They are drugs that alter the levels of neurotransmitters They act as opposites to depressants. Examples: amphetamines, epinephrine (adrenaline), nicotine, caffeine
  3. 3. D.5.1 List the physiological effects ofstimulants Physiological effects: increase in heart rate blood pressure constriction of arteries relaxation of air passages therefore an increase breathing rate dilation of pupils sweating reduced appetite Increase concentration
  4. 4. D.5.1 List the physiological effects ofstimulants Other long term side effects: emotional instability or depression restlessness sleeplessness delusions and hallucinations
  5. 5. D.5.2 Compare amphetamines andepinephrine (adrenaline) Epinephrine (adrenaline): a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla upon stimulation by the central nervous system  A response to stress  Results in Anger or fear  Causes: increased heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, carbohydrate metabolism
  6. 6. D.5.2 Compare amphetamines andepinephrine (adrenaline) Amphetamines : chemically related to adrenaline  Sympathomimetic drug  Initially used to treat narcolepsy and issued to airmen in WWII to combat fatigue.  50s and 60s used as anti-depressants and slimming pills.  Regular use can lead to both tolerance and dependence  Short-term effects: increase heart race and breathing, dilation of pupils, decrease in appetite  fatigue  possible depression (as it wears off)  Long term effects: weight loss, constipation, emotional instability
  7. 7. D.5.2 Compare amphetamines andepinephrine (adrenaline) Physiological Similarities Increase physical energy by: 1) Increasing heart rate and blood pressure. 2) Increasing blood flow to the brain and muscles. 3) Increasing air flow to the lungs Increase mental awareness; trigger the "fight or flight" syndrome Dilation of the pupils Reduce appetite induce a sense of euphoria Both can lead to the rapid development of both tolerance and dependence (addiction), Both can have serious long-term effects if abuse/over used - depression and reduced resistance to infection. Abuse of amphetamines through overuse is a serious problem.
  8. 8. D.5.2 Compare amphetamines andepinephrine (adrenaline) Physiological Differences epinephrine (adrenaline) is regulated/produced naturally by the brain amphetamines are synthetic drugs Amphetamines are sympathomimetic
  9. 9. D.5.2 Compare amphetamines andepinephrine (adrenaline) Sympathomimetic drugs Mimics the effect of stimulation on the sympathetic nervous system, which deals with subconscious nerve responses Mimic the effects of naturally produced epinephrine (adrenaline) speeds up heart rate increases sweat production increases breathing rate examples: nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, speed, ecstasy
  10. 10.  Comparison of the Structures (similarities and differences)  Both based on the phenylethylamine structure  Both have a benzene (aromatic) ring with a hydrocarbon chain containing an amine.  Primary amine (1 C atom attached to N atom) in amphetamine and secondary amine (2 C atoms attached to N atom), NH in epinephrine.  Epinephrine has three hydroxy (-OH) groups while amphetamine has none.Ethyl Amine Structure
  11. 11. D.5.3 Discuss the short & long term effects of nicotine consumption Nicotine - obtained from tobacco plants, tomatoes, potatoes, eggplants, green peppers Usually it is taken in by inhalation of smoke from cigarettes, cigars, and pipe tobacco, and chewing. A fat soluble molecule and is easily able to go through blood-brain barrier and thus affects brain activity. Increases the release of adrenaline effects change with time, bringing about dependence and increased toleration.
  12. 12. Nicotine Largely responsible for 1/3 of the world’s population being addicted to smoking Withdrawal symptoms: craving for tobacco, nausea, weight gain, insomnia, irritability, and depression Sympathomimetic drug
  13. 13. D.5.3 Discuss the short & long term effects of nicotineconsumption Short term physiological effects of nicotine: increased heart rate / blood pressure reduced urine output as stimulating effect Increased levels of concentration/ alertness Reduced anxiety and tension Constricts blood vessels  stress to heart Smoking for the first time: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
  14. 14. D.5.3 Discuss the short & long term effects of nicotineconsumption Long term physiological effects: Increased risk of cancer Increased risk of heart disease/coronary thrombosis/peptic ulcers Increased risk of stroke Withdrawal symptoms/Weight gain on quitting Physical and psychological dependences and tolerance Toxic chemicals from smoking can increase risk of mouth, throat, and lung cancer CO from smoking reduces ability of the blood to carry CO2 Increased risk of bronchitis and emphysema Cigarettes are costly  nicotine addiction increases financial strains on families Can cause lung disease and adverse effects on pregnancy
  15. 15. D.5.4 Describe effects of caffeine &compare structure with that of nicotine Caffeine:  most widely used stimulant  Present in coffee, tea, cola drinks, some pain killers, other medicines  Evidence that consuming 400 mg of caffeine a day or more can cause dependence and physical side effects  Caffeine is a respiratory stimulant  In general, an intake of more than four cups of coffee per day is excessive. Pregnant women are advised to limit their caffeine intake.  Included in common painkillers to speed up effects (ex. nicotine, morphine, codeine, cocaine)  Is an Alkaloid – nitrogen-containing compounds of plant origin containing heterocyclic rings and tertiary amine groups  Stimulates the nervous system by increasing the metabolic rate of nerve cells.
  16. 16. D.5.4 Describe effects of caffeine &compare structure with that of nicotine Caffeine Content of different products Cup of ground coffee 80-120 mg Cup of instant coffee 65 mg Cup of tea 40 mg Cup of cola 40 mg Bar (100g) of plain chocolate 80 mg
  17. 17. D.5.4 Describe effects of caffeine &compare structure with that of nicotine
  18. 18. D.5.4 Describe effects of caffeine &compare structure with that of nicotine
  19. 19. D.5.4 Describe effects of caffeine &compare structure with that of nicotine Comparison of the structures of nicotine and caffeine Similarities Both contain a tertiary amine group. Both contain and five member rings made of carbon and nitrogen atoms. Both contain a six member ring made of carbon and nitrogen Differences Caffeine contains two amide groups, nicotine does not. Both contain an alkene (C=C) group. Caffeine has one and nicotine has two In caffeine the six and five member rings are fused while in nicotine they separated. Caffeine contains two carbonyl (C=O) groups and two amide (-N- C=O) groups