+ B9 and D2 Respiration and Antacids Raj Sikaria and not Casey Ste. Claire
+ B.9 Respiration B.9.1. Compare aerobic and anaerobic respiration of glucose in terms of oxidation/reduction and energy released. B.9.2. Outline the role of copper ions in electron transport and iron ions in oxygen transport.
+ B.9.1 Shared characteristics of aerobic and anaerobic respiration: Produce ATP (chemical energy) Glycolysis (converting glucose to pyruvate) Oxidation reaction Pyruvate (CH3COCOOH) Exothermic
+ Anaerobic Respiration Does not require oxygen Only produces 2 mol of ATP for every 1 mol of glucose consumed Pyruvate is reduced to lactic acid (C3H6O3) C6H12O6 ---> 2C3H6O3
+ B.9.2 Electron Transfer Chain (ETC): Couples electron transfer (ET) between donors and acceptors with H+ ion transfer across a membrane. Cytochromes: Made of hemes. Carries out ET Example: Cytochrome c oxidase (copper ions) Active site that is occupied by copper.
+ B.9.2 Iron acts as a transporter of oxygen through hemoglobin Fe2+ oxides to Fe3+ when it bonds to O2 Oxygen turns into superoxygen One molecule of hemoglobin can carry 4 molecules of oxygen (4 heme groups)
+ B.9.2 Concentration related to Partial Pressure(oxygen) Tissues intake excess oxygen
+ D.2.1 D.2.1. State and explain how excess acidity in the stomach can be reduced by the use of different bases.
+ Gastric Acid pH between 1.5-3.5. Composed of HCl Bicarbonate: the body’s antacid
+ D.2.1 Antacids can be combined with other compounds Alginates Anti-foaming agents Alginates prevent heartburn by creating a neutralizing layer that prevents acid reflux Anti-foaming agents like dimethicone help relieve bloating which is a symptom of acid reflux -Maalox would be an example