D10
D.10.1 Describe the effects of lysergic acid    diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, psilocybin and    tetrahydrocannabinol•   L...
D.10.1 Continued Describe the effects of lysergic aciddiethylamide (LSD), mescaline, psilocybin and  • LSD  •Short term ef...
D.10.1 contd Describe the effects of lysergic aciddiethylamide (LSD), mescaline, psilocybin andtetrahydrocannabinol•   Lon...
D.10.1 contd Describe the effects of lysergic aciddiethylamide (LSD), mescaline, psilocybin andtetrahydrocannabinol•   Mes...
D.10.1 Contd.•   Mescaline Contd•   Short-term effects•   · does not create delusions•   - everything that the user percei...
•   Psylocybin•   - hallucinogenic compound found in certain mushrooms.•   - similar structure to that of serotonin•   - a...
D.10.1 contd• Psylocybin• - Short-term effects• · milder than LSD and mescaline• · Feelings are altered and the senses are...
D.10.1 Contd•   Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)•   - active ingredient in marijuana•   - mild hallucinogen made from the flower...
D.10.1 contd- THC•   Short term effects•   -      feeling of relaxation and enhanced auditory and visual    perception•   ...
D.10.2 Discuss the structural similarities anddifferences between LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin•   - The chemical structu...
D.10.2 contd• - they all contain an indole-ring-like structure    that is a 6-sided benzene ring with a fused 5-    sided ...
D.10.3 Discuss the arguments for and against the•   -        Pro•   -        medicinal use: research on the medical uses o...
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D10 presentation

  1. 1. D10
  2. 2. D.10.1 Describe the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, psilocybin and tetrahydrocannabinol• Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)• - does not occur naturally but is derived from ergot, a fungus that grows on wheat• - it takes a small amount to have an effect on people• - only .028 mg of LSD will produce a noticeable effect in most people• - people think it works my blocking the action of serotonin, one of the compounds responsible for transmitting impulses across synapses in the brain
  3. 3. D.10.1 Continued Describe the effects of lysergic aciddiethylamide (LSD), mescaline, psilocybin and • LSD •Short term effects •- lasts for about 12 hours •- restlessness •- dizziness •- desire to laugh •- distortions in sound and visual perceptions •- unpleasant hallucinations can lead to feelings of despair and suicide can be attempted •- may lead to the belief that you can fly •- this is why driving while on LSD is extremely dangerous. •- “Tripping.”
  4. 4. D.10.1 contd Describe the effects of lysergic aciddiethylamide (LSD), mescaline, psilocybin andtetrahydrocannabinol• Long term• - severe depression• - possibility of recurrences of LSD effects “flashbacks” months or even years afterwards• - no lasting physical negative effects• - although it can lead to psychological dependence• - has in the past been used medically in psychotherapy, but is no longer used legitimately as it may lead to psychosis in susceptible patients
  5. 5. D.10.1 contd Describe the effects of lysergic aciddiethylamide (LSD), mescaline, psilocybin andtetrahydrocannabinol• Mescaline•can be produced synthetically or is found in the spineless cactus,Lophophora williamsii, Peyote.•Physical effects•· Increased blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature•· Nausea commonly occurs just before the desired mental effects•· Numbness, weakness and tremors•· Loss of appetite•· Diarrhea
  6. 6. D.10.1 Contd.• Mescaline Contd• Short-term effects• · does not create delusions• - everything that the user perceives are intensified states of reality but not manifestations of non-present objects.• · Mescaline trips usually last 12 hours• · Sometimes mescaline may cause enjoyable feelings, other times it causes anxiety and terror• Long-term effects• · Similarly to LSD flashbacks may occur after using mescaline only once•
  7. 7. • Psylocybin• - hallucinogenic compound found in certain mushrooms.• - similar structure to that of serotonin• - affects serotonin functioning in order to produce its effects.• Physical effects• · appear within 20 minutes of ingesting the drug and last for about 6 hours• · vomiting, nausea, muscle weakness and lack of coordination
  8. 8. D.10.1 contd• Psylocybin• - Short-term effects• · milder than LSD and mescaline• · Feelings are altered and the senses are distorted• · May cause enjoyable emotions, but also those of fear and panic of death• Long-term effects• · Flashbacks
  9. 9. D.10.1 Contd• Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)• - active ingredient in marijuana• - mild hallucinogen made from the flowering tops, stems, leaves, and seeds of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa• - Hashish, which is made from the resin of the plant, is about five times stronger than marijuana
  10. 10. D.10.1 contd- THC• Short term effects• - feeling of relaxation and enhanced auditory and visual perception• - loss of sense of time, confusion, and emotional distress can result• - hallucinations occur in very rare cases• - can have a synergistic effect and increase the risk of sedation with depressants• Long term effects• - apathy and lethargy• - lowering of fertility together with all the risks associated with tobacco smoking
  11. 11. D.10.2 Discuss the structural similarities anddifferences between LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin• - The chemical structures of lysergic acid diethylamide, mescaline, and psilocybin are similar to those of natural neurotransmitters, especially serotonin.• - function by temporarily binding to the neurotransmitters’ binding sites and disrupting the interaction of nerve cells.
  12. 12. D.10.2 contd• - they all contain an indole-ring-like structure that is a 6-sided benzene ring with a fused 5- sided ring that contains nitrogen.• - . They vary from serotonin because of the methyl groups attached to them, which enable them to penetrate the central nervous system more easily• - Psilocybin has a phosphoric acid group attached to it and for LSD and mescaline, although the structure is not specifically an indole-ring, it is based around that form.• *Images on worksheet
  13. 13. D.10.3 Discuss the arguments for and against the• - Pro• - medicinal use: research on the medical uses of cannabis provides evidence that it is useful to prevent vomiting (anti-emetic), as a pain killer in cancer chemotherapy and AIDS and for the treatment of glaucoma, epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s chorea• - lower crime rate- the police freed to concentrate on other criminal activities, and gang activity will be reduced• - Economically beneficial, if it is taxed appropriately• - Freedom of the individual• - Anti• - possibly increased risk of heart disease and cancer through smoking• - some people claim that smoking cannabis can lead to the usage of harder drugs• - increased risk of dangerous driving while under the influence

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