D.1.1 LIST THE EFFECTS OF MEDICINES AND DRUGS ON THE FUNCTIONING OF THE BODY A drug is any substance, by its chemical nature, that has an influence on the physical or mental functions of the human body. A medicine or pharmaceutical is a drug that leads to an improvement in health.
D.1.1 LIST THE EFFECTS OF MEDICINES ANDDRUGS ON THE FUNCTIONING OF THE BODY Medicines and drugs produce any or all of the following effects: -Alteration of incoming sensory sensations -Alteration of mood or emotions -Alteration of physiological state (eg. consciousness, activity levels, physical coordination
D.1.1 LIST THE EFFECTS OF MEDICINES AND DRUGS ON THE FUNCTIONING OF THE BODY Drugs that target the Analgesics, stimulants and nervous system, depressants the brain and the perception of stimuli Drugs that target Antacids the metabolic processes Drugs that supplement the Antibacterials and antivirals body’s natural ability to fight disease-causing organisms
D.1.1 LIST THE EFFECTS OF MEDICINES ANDDRUGS ON THE FUNCTIONING OF THE BODY Two classes of drugsDepressants- Result in relaxation (alcohol at low concentrations)Stimulants- Result in wakefulness and a sense of well-being (amphetamines, hallucinogens)Some drugs, such as caffeine, nicotine, and marijuana can fit into both categories
D.1.1 LIST THE EFFECTS OF MEDICINES ANDDRUGS ON THE FUNCTIONING OF THE BODY Placebo Effect NOT THISPlacebo: An inert chemical used as a control when testing a drug clinically.Placebo effect: the pharmacological effect on a person who has been given a placebo, rather than an active drug. (affected by mental attitude)It is thought that the placebo effect triggers natural healing processes in the body.~***Fun Fact***~ ‘Placebo is the Latin word meaning “I shall please”.
D.1.2 OUTLINE THE STAGES INVOLVED IN THERESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OFNEW PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS Procedure: isolating the new product from existing species (plants, animals) or synthesized chemically/ artificially subjecting the product to laboratory and clinical pharmacological studies (plant and animal testing) to demonstrate its effectiveness testing its effective dosage and lethal dosage rates establishing its therapeutic index / window testing on humans in an initial clinical trial, on volunteers and patience, half of which are given a placebo processing the product through other tests elaborating on clinical situations having it approved by the drug administration, as either an OTC (over the counter) drug or prescription drug
D.1.2 OUTLINE THE STAGES INVOLVED IN THERESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OFNEW PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTSClinical trial: recording the results of treating a group of patients with the drug and comparing them to group of similar patients receiving a different treatment or a placeboControl group: group of patients receiving a placeboDouble-blind study: Where the patients, the doctors and the drug company analysts do not know which patients receive what drug.
D.1.2 OUTLINE THE STAGES INVOLVED IN THERESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OFNEW PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS ThalidomideHad been subjected to toxicity test before marketed but critics have stated that these were superficial and incomplete.Not tested for birth defects and led to 10,000 deformed babies with phocomeliaAlso led to peripheral neuropathy in the mothers
D.1.3 DESCRIBE THE DIFFERENT METHODS OF ADMINISTERING DRUGS
D.1.4 DISCUSS THE TERMS THERAPEUTIC WINDOW, TOLERANCE AND SIDE-EFFECTSTherapeutic Window: range of a drugs concentration in the blood between its therapeutic (ED50) and its toxic (LD50) level.
D.1.4 DISCUSS THE TERMS THERAPEUTICWINDOW, TOLERANCE AND SIDE-EFFECTS Tolerance: When a larger dose of the drug is required in order to achieve the effect originally obtained by a smaller dose Acute tolerance: Occurs within a single exposure to the drug Chronic tolerance: Occurs gradually as the drug is taken repeatedly Cross-tolerance: Can develop between alcohol and other sedative/hypnotic drugs.
D.1.4 DISCUSS THE TERMS THERAPEUTIC WINDOW, TOLERANCE AND SIDE-EFFECTS SideEffects: Any effect other than the intended effect of drug treatment.