B4: LIPIDSFATS!!
General Info. - Lipids   Organic molecules with long hydrocarbon    chains     Contains   oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen ...
B.4.1: Compare the composition of the 3types of lipids found in the human body.   3 types     Triglycerides (aka fats an...
B.4.1. (Triglycerides)   Fat vs. Oil     Fat  saturated (Solid)     Oil  unsaturated (Liquid)   Triglycerides are fo...
B.4.1. (Triglycerides)   Can vary in length!   Always EVENLY numbered in length!
B.4.1. (Phospholipids)   Integral part of all cell membranes   Made of four components       GLYCEROL linked to TWO FAT...
B.4.2. (Phospholipids)                           Fatty Acid Chain                GlycerolCholine Group
B.4.1. (Steroids)   Also known as CHOLESTEROL     HighDensity Lipid (HDL)     Low Density Lipid (LDL)   Organic struct...
B.4.2: Outline the difference between HDLand LDL cholesterol and outline its   Both are LIPOPROTEINS   Have SAME structu...
B.4.3: Describe the difference in structurebetween saturated and unsaturated fatty   Saturated Fatty Acid       Every ca...
B.4.3. (Saturated vs.              SATURATED                                      UNSATURATED   Type        Molec.
Structu...
B.4.4: Compare the structures of the 2 essentialfatty acids linoleic (omega-6) and linolenic    Linoleic (ω‐6
faJy
acid) ...
B.4.4. (Linolenic (ω‐3
faJy
acid)   POLY-UNSATURATED fatty acid   Carboxylic acid with an 18 carbon chain and THREE cis-...
B.4.5: Define the term iodine number andcalculate the number of C=C double bonds in     Unsaturated fats can undergo addit...
B.4.5. (Calculating Iodine   2 Titrations     IBr and ICl mixed in glacial acetic acid  Iodine      is formed (YELLOW) ...
B.4.6: Describe the condensation ofglycerol and 3 fatty acid molecules to   Condensation     WATER is formed   ESTERIFI...
B.4.6. (Formation of
B.4.7: Describe the enzyme-catalyzedhydrolysis of triglycerides during   Fats and oils are hydrolyzed by enzymes to    GL...
B.4.7. (Triglycerides during
B.4.8: Explain the higher value of fats ascompared to carbohydrates.   Fats     Long hydrocarbon chains     Mass mainly...
B.4.8. (Reasoning for Higher   Amount of OXIDATION that takes place as the    compounds are converted to CO2 and H2O (Fat...
B.4.9: Describe the important roles of lipids inthe body and the negative effects they can      Cell Membranes (structura...
B.4.9. (“Good” Roles of Lipids)   Insulation and Protects Organs     Adipose  tissue (ADIPOCYTES)     Lipids are COVALE...
B.4.9. (“Bad” Roles of Lipids)   Cholesterol + LDL       A high-cholesterol diet can result in a high        concentrati...
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B4 presentation

  1. 1. B4: LIPIDSFATS!!
  2. 2. General Info. - Lipids Organic molecules with long hydrocarbon chains  Contains oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen Soluble in non-polar solvents  Organic solvents Insoluble in water Occur in only 3 forms
  3. 3. B.4.1: Compare the composition of the 3types of lipids found in the human body. 3 types  Triglycerides (aka fats and oils)  Phospholipids (aka lecithin)  Steroids (aka cholesterol)
  4. 4. B.4.1. (Triglycerides) Fat vs. Oil  Fat  saturated (Solid)  Oil  unsaturated (Liquid) Triglycerides are formed by CONDENSATION reaction between propane-1,2,3-triol (glycerol) and long chain carboxylic acids (fatty acids)
  5. 5. B.4.1. (Triglycerides) Can vary in length! Always EVENLY numbered in length!
  6. 6. B.4.1. (Phospholipids) Integral part of all cell membranes Made of four components  GLYCEROL linked to TWO FATTY ACIDS and a PHOSPHATE GROUP by esterification; phosphate is linked to a NITROGEN CONTAINING ALCOHOL
  7. 7. B.4.2. (Phospholipids) Fatty Acid Chain GlycerolCholine Group
  8. 8. B.4.1. (Steroids) Also known as CHOLESTEROL  HighDensity Lipid (HDL)  Low Density Lipid (LDL) Organic structure of 4 rings (always have 20 carbon atoms)
  9. 9. B.4.2: Outline the difference between HDLand LDL cholesterol and outline its Both are LIPOPROTEINS Have SAME structure LDL transports CHOLESTEROL TO THE ARTERIES where it lines the walls.  Saturatedfats  Cardiovascular disease HDL can REMOVE cholesterol from the arteries and transport it back to the
  10. 10. B.4.3: Describe the difference in structurebetween saturated and unsaturated fatty Saturated Fatty Acid  Every carbon has the maximum amount of hydrogens (SINGLE bonds only) Unsaturated Fatty Acid  DOUBLE bonds  LOWER MELTING POINT  Creates a “kink” or a bend STEARIC EFFECT (relevant to shape): the interjection of double bonded C atoms prevent the fatty acid molecules from approaching each other closely and hence interacting via Van der Waals’ forces.
  11. 11. B.4.3. (Saturated vs. SATURATED UNSATURATED Type Molec.
Structure Phys.
Structure Van
der
Waals Mel7ng
Points Saturated All
single
bonds
C‐C Straight
chains Greater
(more
 High
(solid
at
room
 atoms)

stronger
interac9on temp)Unsaturated One
C=C
(mono‐)
or
 Double‐bonds
 Lesser
(fewer
 Low
(liquid
at
room
 several
C=C
(poly‐) à
kinked
chain atoms)

weaker
interac9on temp)
  12. 12. B.4.4: Compare the structures of the 2 essentialfatty acids linoleic (omega-6) and linolenic  Linoleic (ω‐6
faJy
acid)  POLY-UNSATURATED fatty acid  Carboxylic acid with an 18 carbon chain and two cis- double bonds (C=C)  cis means on the same side  The first double bond is located at the 6th carbon from the methyl end (aka- the omega end) and the second is located at the 9th. Carboxylic Acid omega end
  13. 13. B.4.4. (Linolenic (ω‐3
faJy
acid) POLY-UNSATURATED fatty acid Carboxylic acid with an 18 carbon chain and THREE cis- double bonds (C=C) The first double bond is located at the 3rd carbon from the methyl end (aka- the omega end), the second is located at the 6th, and the third is located at the 9th. (Multiples of 3!) Carboxylic Acid omega end
  14. 14. B.4.5: Define the term iodine number andcalculate the number of C=C double bonds in  Unsaturated fats can undergo addition reactions  One mole of Iodine reacts with one mole of double bonds  Iodine is colored  As reaction takes place, purple color disappears  Fats can be described by their iodine number
  15. 15. B.4.5. (Calculating Iodine 2 Titrations  IBr and ICl mixed in glacial acetic acid  Iodine is formed (YELLOW)  IBr and Icl mixed in glacial acetic acid + sample of FAT in solution  Titrated w/ SODIUM THIOSULFATE  Concentration of iodine is determined Difference of concentration of AMOUNT OF IODINE (in 2 titrations) Ratio of FAT: IODINE
  16. 16. B.4.6: Describe the condensation ofglycerol and 3 fatty acid molecules to Condensation  WATER is formed ESTERIFICATION between the glycerol backbone and 3 fatty acid molecules http://nutrition.jbpub.com/resources/ animations.cfm?id=10&debug=0 Requires 3 FATTY ACIDS + 1 GLYCEROL Glycerol (3 carbon backbone)
  17. 17. B.4.6. (Formation of
  18. 18. B.4.7: Describe the enzyme-catalyzedhydrolysis of triglycerides during Fats and oils are hydrolyzed by enzymes to GLYCEROL and FATTY ACIDS Enzymes known as LIPASES This is the REVERSE of the formation of fats After hydrolysis, the products are broken down further by a series of REDOX REACTIONS Produces CARBON DIOXIDE, WATER, and ENERGY Fats are in a LESS OXIDIZED form than carbohydrates so the same weight of fat
  19. 19. B.4.7. (Triglycerides during
  20. 20. B.4.8: Explain the higher value of fats ascompared to carbohydrates. Fats  Long hydrocarbon chains  Mass mainly from CARBONS (oxygen: carbon ratio small) Carbohydrates  Contain EQUAL proportions of carbon and oxygen and TWICE AS MUCH HYDROGEN atoms Fats and Carbohydrates  metabolize  CO2 and H2O (products)
  21. 21. B.4.8. (Reasoning for Higher Amount of OXIDATION that takes place as the compounds are converted to CO2 and H2O (Fat needs more oxidation to occur)  In fats most carbons are bonded to hydrogen atoms, so when fats are metabolized they form more new C-O bonds, releasing more energy than carbohydrates (where C-O bonds exist)  The bond enthalpy of the C-O bond is high, so when it forms a large amount of energy is released Fat molecules require about half as much oxygen for the same number of carbon atoms  OXIDATION OF FATS IS LONGER, but produces more energy
  22. 22. B.4.9: Describe the important roles of lipids inthe body and the negative effects they can  Cell Membranes (structurally)  Phospholipids consist of a polar, hydrophilic phosphate ‘head’ and two hydrophobic fatty acid ‘tails’.  Phospholipid will always point toward water  creates the structure of the PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER  Energy Storage  TRIGLYCERIDE LIPIDS
  23. 23. B.4.9. (“Good” Roles of Lipids) Insulation and Protects Organs  Adipose tissue (ADIPOCYTES)  Lipids are COVALENT COMPOUNDS that do not conduct heat or electricity easily. Steroid Hormones  Cell-signaling  HORMONE-PROTEIN COMPLEXES + frequency Ω‐3
faJy
acids
reduce the risk of heart disease  increasing circulation and breaking down the
  24. 24. B.4.9. (“Bad” Roles of Lipids) Cholesterol + LDL  A high-cholesterol diet can result in a high concentration of LDLs in the bloodstream (hardening and blocking) Obesity  Carbohydrates not metabolized as turned into lipids via adipocytes (leading to increased body mass)  Increased body mass leads to strains on other body parts

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