Framework for Promoting
Learning in Afterschool Programs
SRI International
Community Network for Youth Development
Practices to Promote
Afterschool Learning
Positive culture of learning
Meaningful learning activities
Effective adult assi...
External
Indicators
Grades
Attendance
Test scores
Retention
External Indicators
Policy makers, district and school adminis...
School Practices
Challenging assignments that draw on high-quality curriculum
Instruction from a qualified, caring teacher...
School Practices
Challenging assignments that draw on high-quality curriculum
Instruction from a qualified, caring teacher...
School Practices
Challenging assignments that draw on high-quality curriculum
Instruction from a qualified, caring teacher...
School Practices
Challenging assignments that draw on high-quality curriculum
Instruction from a qualified, caring teacher...
Afterschool
Learning
Outcomes
Mastery motivation
Persistence in
intellectual tasks
Self-Regulation
Collaborative skills
Bo...
Afterschool
Learning
Outcomes
Mastery motivation
Persistence in
intellectual tasks
Self-Regulation
Collaborative skills
Bo...
Afterschool
Learning
Outcomes
Mastery motivation
Persistence in
intellectual tasks
Self-Regulation
Collaborative skills
Bo...
Afterschool
Learning
Outcomes
Mastery motivation
Persistence in
intellectual tasks
Self-Regulation
Collaborative skills
Bo...
Practices to Promote
Afterschool Learning
Positive culture of learning
Meaningful learning activities
Effective adult assi...
Practices to Promote
Afterschool Learning
Positive culture of learning
Meaningful learning activities
Effective adult assi...
Practices to Promote
Afterschool Learning
Positive culture of learning
Meaningful learning activities
Effective adult assi...
Practices to Promote
Afterschool Learning
Positive culture of learning
Meaningful learning activities
Effective adult assi...
Practices to Promote
Afterschool Learning
Positive culture of learning
Meaningful learning activities
Effective adult assi...
Practices to Promote
Afterschool Learning
Positive culture of learning
Meaningful learning activities
Effective adult assi...
Organizational practices
Access to high quality
resources for organizing
curriculum
Staff preparation and ongoing
professi...
Organizational practices
Access to high quality
resources for organizing
curriculum
Staff preparation and ongoing
professi...
Organizational practices
Access to high quality
resources for organizing
curriculum
Staff preparation and ongoing
professi...
Rhythm is Essential
CONCENTRATINGEXPLORING CONNECTING
Academic
enrichment
activities
Field trips
Service learning
Homework...
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Framework for Promoting Learning in Afterschool Programs

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  • Research cited on this slide: Dynarski, M., Moore, M., Mullens, J., Gleason, P., James-Burdumy, S., Rosenberg, L., et al. (2003). When schools stay open late: The national evaluation of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers Program: Year 1 report. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.
  • Research references on this page: Newmann, F. M., Bryk, A. S., & Nagaoka, J. K. (2001). Authentic intellectual work and standardized tests: conflict or coexistence? Chicago, IL: Consortium on Chicago School Research.
  • Research references on this page: Oakes, J. (2004, June). Social policy and diversity: Inequality, stratification, and the struggle for just schooling. Paper presented at the International Conference of the Learning Sciences, Santa Monica, CA. Carlsen, W. S. (1988). The effects of science teacher subject-matter knowledge on teacher questioning and classroom discourse. Unpublished doctoral thesis . Dickinson, T. S., & Erb, T. O. (Eds.). (1997). We gain more than we give: Teaming in middle schools . Columbus, OH: National Middle School Association. Lee, V. E., Bryk, A. S., & Smith, J. B. (1993). The organization of effective secondary schools. Review of Research in Education, 19 , 171-267.
  • Research references on this page: Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education, 5 (1), 7-74. Crooks, T. J. (1988). The impact of classroom evaluation practices on students. Review of Educational Research, 58 (4), 438-481. Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1986). Effects of systematic formative evaluation: A meta-analysis. Exceptional Children, 53 (3), 199-208.
  • Research references on this page: National Research Council. (2002). Community programs to promote youth development . Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
  • Research cited on this slide: Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: Students' learning strategies and motivation processes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80 (3), 260-267. McLaughlin, M. W., Irby, M. I., & Langman, J. (1994). Urban sanctuaries: Neighborhood organizations in the lives and futures of inner-city youth . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Research cited on this slide: Butler, D. L., & Winne, P. H. (1995). Feedback and self-regulated learning: A theoretical synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 65 , 245-281. Nichols, J. D., & Steffy, B. E. (1999). An evaluation of success in an alternative learning programme: Motivational impact versus completion rate. Educational Review, 51 (3), 207-219. Youniss, J., & Yates, M. (1997). Community service and social responsibility in youth . Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  • Research cited on this slide: Slavin, R. E. (1990). Cooperative learnig: Theory, research, and practice . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Pretice Hall. Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Stanne, M. B. (2000). Cooperative learning methods: A meta-analysis .Unpublished manuscript, Minneapolis, MN. Catalano, R. F., Berglund, M. L., Ryan, J. A., Lonczak, H. S., & Hawkins, J. D. (1999). Positive youth development in the United States: Research findings on evaluations of positive youth development programs . Seattle, Washington: Social Development Research Group, University of Washington School of Social Work. Mahoney, J. L., Dirks, M. A., & Lord, H. (2003, April). Patterns of after-school care and the development of competence among disadvantaged children. Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Tampa, FL. Weisman, S. A., Soule, D. A., Gottfredson, D. C., Lu, S., Kellstrom, M. A., Womer, S. C., et al. (in press). After-school programs, anti-social behavior, and positive youth development: An exploration of the relationship between program implementation and changes in youth behavior. In J. L. Mahoney, J. S. Eccles & R. W. Larson (Eds.), Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after-school, and community programs . Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Research cited on this slide: Cheney, D. A., Abbott, R. D., Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Neel, R. S., & Peterson, P. (1997). The influence of the family, peer and school bond on school success and failure of middle school students. Seattle, WA: Social Development Research Group. Ogbu, J. (1987) Variability in minority student performance: a problem in search of an explanation. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 18, 312-334 Catalano, R. F., Berglund, M. L., Ryan, J. A., Lonczak, H. S., & Hawkins, J. D. (1999). Positive youth development in the United States: Research findings on evaluations of positive youth development programs . Seattle, Washington: Social Development Research Group, University of Washington School of Social Work. Roth, J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1999). How research on adolescence can inform youth development programs in the twenty-first century . New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.
  • Research links to support the need for a positive culture of learning: Butler, R. (1987). Task-involving and ego-involving properties of evaluation: Effects of different feedback conditions on motivational perceptions, interest, and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79 (4), 474-482. Griswold, E., & Urdan, T. C. (2001). Achievement goals and classroom motivation: Differences in personal motivational variables. Paper presented at AERA, Seattle, WA. Maehr, M. L., & Midgley, C. (1991). Enhancing student motivation: A school-wide approach. Educational Psychologist, 26 , 399-427.
  • Research links to support the need for authentic learning activities: Hmelo, C. E. (1995). Problem-based learning: Development of knowledge and reasoning strategies. Paper presented at the Seventeenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Philadelphia, PA. Lave, J., Murtaugh, M., & de la Rocha, O. (1984). The dialectic of arithmetic in grocery shopping. In B. Rogoff & J. Lave (Eds.), Everyday cognition (pp. 67-94). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. National Research Council. (1999). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience . Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Resnick, L. B. (1987). Education and learning to think . Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
  • Research links to support the need for effective adult assistance: Black, P., & Harrison, C. (2001). Feedback in questioning and marking: The science teacher's role in formative assessment. School Science Review, 82 (301), 55-61. Chi, M. T. H. (1996). Constructing self-explanations and scaffolded explanations in tutoring. Applied Cognitive Psychology Special Issue: Reasoning Processes, 10 (Spec Issue), S33-S49 Additional Info United Kingdom John Wiley & Sons http //www interscience wiley com/jpages/0888-4080/. Kluger, A. N., & deNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological Bulletin, 119 (2), 254-284. Midgley, C., Feldlaufer, H., & Eccles, J. S. (1989). Student/teacher relations and attitudes toward Mathematics before and after the transition to junior high school. Child Development, 60 , 981-992. Noblit, G. W., Rogers, D. L., & McCadden, B. M. (1995). In the meantime: The possibilities of caring. Phi Delta Kappan. 76, 680-685.
  • Research links to support the need for self-regulation: Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1989). Intentional learning as a goal of instruction. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), Knowing, learning, and instruction (pp. 361-392). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Butler, D. L., & Winne, P. H. (1995). Feedback and self-regulated learning: A theoretical synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 65 , 245-281. Hattie, J., Biggs, H., & Purdie, N. (1996). Effects of learning skills interventions on student learning: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 66 (2), 99-136. Mandinach, E. B. (1987). Computer learning environments and the study of individual differences in self-regulation . Unpublished manuscript, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Washington, DC.
  • Research links to support the need for positive connections to school: Cooper, C. R., Denner, J., & Lopez, E. M. (1999). Cultural brokers: Helping Latino children on pathways toward success. The Future of Children, 9 , 51-57. National Research Council. (2002). Community programs to promote youth development . Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
  • Research links to support the need to engage parents in youth’s learning: Epstein, J. L. (1991). Effects on student achievement of teachers' practices of parent involvement. Advances in Reading/Language Research, 5 , 261-276. Henderson, A. T. (1987). The evidence continues to grow: Parent involvement improves student achievement. Columbia, MD: National Committee for Citizens in Education.
  • Framework for Promoting Learning in Afterschool Programs

    1. 1. Framework for Promoting Learning in Afterschool Programs SRI International Community Network for Youth Development
    2. 2. Practices to Promote Afterschool Learning Positive culture of learning Meaningful learning activities Effective adult assistance Support for self-regulation Positive connections to school Support for parent engagement in youth’s learning Organizational practices Access to high quality resources for organizing curriculum Staff preparation and ongoing professional development targeted to academic assistance Policies and strategies that promote consistency and persistence in participation Afterschool Learning Outcomes Moving to Mastery Persistence in intellectual tasks Ability to Self- Regulate Skills for Working with Others Attacbment and Commitment to School School Practices Challenging assignments that draw on high-quality curriculum Instruction from a qualified, caring teacher Continuous assessment and feedback on learning Coordination and communication with after-school staff External Indicators Grades Attendance Test scores Retention Framework Overview
    3. 3. External Indicators Grades Attendance Test scores Retention External Indicators Policy makers, district and school administrators, and many members of the community have come to emphasize certain indicators of learning as important to emphasize. Progress on these indicators is linked to rewards and punishments to schools. Afterschool programs are being asked to report data on these indicators; some programs are being evaluated by how well they influence the indicators (see Dynarski et al., 2003). A framework for afterschool learning must consider how afterschool activities may affect these indicators. The framework must also recognize the critical role schools play in promoting change on these indicators. At best, afterschool programs play a part in—but do not determine—individual students’ grades, attendance, test scores, or rates of retention.
    4. 4. School Practices Challenging assignments that draw on high-quality curriculum Instruction from a qualified, caring teacher Continuous assessment and feedback on learning Coordination and communication with after-school staff School Practices Students who encounter challenging assignments that require them to interpret and synthesize what they know perform better on standardized tests than do students who are given assignments that require them only to recall facts (Newmann, Bryk, & Nagaoka, 2001).
    5. 5. School Practices Challenging assignments that draw on high-quality curriculum Instruction from a qualified, caring teacher Continuous assessment and feedback on learning Coordination and communication with after-school staff School Practices Students in schools with certified teachers perform better on measures of achievement than do students in schools with large numbers of teachers with emergency credentials (Oakes, 2004). Teachers’ subject matter knowledge influences the quality of their instruction, especially their ability to respond to students’ questions (Carlson, 1998). Students who perceive their teachers care about them are more motivated to learn (Darling-Hammond, 1997; Dickinson & Erb, 1997; Lee, Bryk, & Smith, 1993).
    6. 6. School Practices Challenging assignments that draw on high-quality curriculum Instruction from a qualified, caring teacher Continuous assessment and feedback on learning Coordination and communication with after-school staff School Practices Teachers who engage in more frequent assessment of student learning and provide feedback to students on how to improve produce significant learning gains on standardized tests (Black & Wiliam, 1998; Crooks, 1988; Fuchs & Fuchs, 1986).
    7. 7. School Practices Challenging assignments that draw on high-quality curriculum Instruction from a qualified, caring teacher Continuous assessment and feedback on learning Coordination and communication with after-school staff School Practices To ensure students have the opportunity to benefit from after-school programming, school staff need to be involved in two-way communication with after-school staff (National Research Council, 2002).
    8. 8. Afterschool Learning Outcomes Mastery motivation Persistence in intellectual tasks Self-Regulation Collaborative skills Bonding and commitment to school Afterschool Learning Outcomes Importance and Links to External Indicators: Students who adopt mastery goals for learning approach learning tasks as potentially challenging and as requiring effort to complete. Students who are more concerned with performance-avoidance, that is, preventing others from seeing them fail, tend to give up more easily on difficult tasks, especially if they are low-achieving (Ames & Archer, 1988). Students with mastery goals tend to persist more in the face of difficulty on challenging intellectual tasks (Ames & Archer, 1988). Role of Afterschool Programs Afterschool programs have been successful in promoting mastery goals and in providing youth with opportunities to persist on authentic, challenging tasks (McLaughlin, Irby, & Langman, 1994).
    9. 9. Afterschool Learning Outcomes Mastery motivation Persistence in intellectual tasks Self-Regulation Collaborative skills Bonding and commitment to school Afterschool Learning Outcomes Importance and Links to External Indicators Self-regulation is the process by which students plan for, organize, and monitor their own learning. Higher levels of self- regulation are associated with higher achievement levels in school (Butler & Winne, 1995). Role of Afterschool Programs Afterschool programs can improve student self-regulation, particularly students’ skills in planning and organizing activities and in reflecting on significant experiences associated with participation (Nichols & Steffy, 1999; Youniss & Yates, 1997).
    10. 10. Afterschool Learning Outcomes Mastery motivation Persistence in intellectual tasks Self-Regulation Collaborative skills Bonding and commitment to school Afterschool Learning Outcomes Importance and Links to External Indicators Collaborative skills are increasingly important for both schools and the workplace. Cooperative and collaborative learning experiences are positively associated with student achievement (Slavin, 1990; Johnson, Johnson, & Stanne, 2000). Role of Afterschool Programs Afterschool programs can improve students’ social skills and can also reduce anti-social behaviors (Catalano et al., 1999; Mahoney et al., 2003; Weisman et al., in press).
    11. 11. Afterschool Learning Outcomes Mastery motivation Persistence in intellectual tasks Self-Regulation Collaborative skills Bonding and commitment to school Afterschool Learning Outcomes Importance and Links to External Indicators Bonding to school has been cited as an important protective factor in supporting youth development (Cheney et al., 1997). Students vary in their level of identification with school and with doing well in school, a factor that has been used to explain the failure of some groups to do well in school (Ogbu, 1987). Role of Afterschool Programs Afterschool programs can help students feel more connected to school (Catalano et al., 1999; Roth & Brooks-Gunn, 1999).
    12. 12. Practices to Promote Afterschool Learning Positive culture of learning Meaningful learning activities Effective adult assistance Support for self-regulation Positive connections to school Support for parent engagement in youth’s learning Practices to Promote Afterschool Learning • Encouraging inquiry as an attitude and approach to difficult situations • Providing a program environment where mastery goals are rewarded • Discouraging comparisons among participants with respect to school performance
    13. 13. Practices to Promote Afterschool Learning Positive culture of learning Meaningful learning activities Effective adult assistance Support for self-regulation Positive connections to school Support for parent engagement in youth’s learning Practices to Promote Afterschool Learning • Relying on authentic intellectual activities to engage youth • Organizing activities that connect to youth’s interests and life experiences • Opportunities for collaboration in contexts where a diversity of expertise is needed for success
    14. 14. Practices to Promote Afterschool Learning Positive culture of learning Meaningful learning activities Effective adult assistance Support for self-regulation Positive connections to school Support for parent engagement in youth’s learning Practices to Promote Afterschool Learning • Attunement to youths’ needs and interests • Solving problems with youth rather than for them • Providing feedback focused on how to improve
    15. 15. Practices to Promote Afterschool Learning Positive culture of learning Meaningful learning activities Effective adult assistance Support for self-regulation Positive connections to school Support for parent engagement in youth’s learning Practices to Promote Afterschool Learning • Help with planning for studying, organizing for intellectual tasks, and monitoring progress toward goals • Providing youth with experiences of regulating their own learning process in a safe environment • Opportunities to reflect on and revise ideas
    16. 16. Practices to Promote Afterschool Learning Positive culture of learning Meaningful learning activities Effective adult assistance Support for self-regulation Positive connections to school Support for parent engagement in youth’s learning Practices to Promote Afterschool Learning • Tasks align with and complement schools’ focus on students’ individual academic needs • Adult staff articulate the importance and value of school learning • Adult staff help youth build bridges among the cultural worlds of school, home, and community
    17. 17. Practices to Promote Afterschool Learning Positive culture of learning Meaningful learning activities Effective adult assistance Support for self-regulation Positive connections to school Support for parent engagement in youth’s learning Practices to Promote Afterschool Learning • Staff communicate regularly with parents about students’ learning progress and needs • Staff encourage parents to talk to teachers about their child’s learning • Staff serve as advocates for parents in the school
    18. 18. Organizational practices Access to high quality resources for organizing curriculum Staff preparation and ongoing professional development targeted to academic assistance Policies and strategies that promote consistency and persistence in participation Organizational Practices Programs need access to high quality educational materials that are engaging to youth and that youth perceive as authentic, rather than as “school-like.” Programs can increase this access by actively seeking such curricula through professional networks, the Internet, and by co-creating curricula with youth and staff.
    19. 19. Organizational practices Access to high quality resources for organizing curriculum Staff preparation and ongoing professional development targeted to academic assistance Policies and strategies that promote consistency and persistence in participation Organizational Practices Staff may need special preparation to lead homework assistance centers, tutor youth, or orchestrate enrichment activities. They need to be prepared to answer students’ questions and to help students develop strategies to regulate their own learning. Organizations can build staff capacity by hiring staff with teaching credentials or experience and by equipping existing staff with knowledge and skills from research about effective instructional practices.
    20. 20. Organizational practices Access to high quality resources for organizing curriculum Staff preparation and ongoing professional development targeted to academic assistance Policies and strategies that promote consistency and persistence in participation Organizational Practices Policies to promote consistency and persistence in youth participation are necessary, because regular attendance is a pre-condition for effectiveness. Organizations can establish norms for participation among youth, procedures for follow-up when youth are absent, and strive to provide a variety of programming options to youth to motivate attendance.
    21. 21. Rhythm is Essential CONCENTRATINGEXPLORING CONNECTING Academic enrichment activities Field trips Service learning Homework Tutoring Group projects Playing sports Free choice activities Talking with friends Talking with adults

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