Opposition to Liberalism<br />Luddites<br />Main thinker – Ned Ludd<br /><ul><li>4476750198755Believed that machines should not replace the skilled textile workers because many people lost their jobs or became cheap labor to run machines
They destroyed machines at a variety of factories and used violence to get noticed.
When machine breaking became a capital offence, many were killed by armed guards hired to protect the machines.</li></ul>“Computers aren't a tool of liberation, but of destruction — look to the power they are chewing, the materials that go into making them, the pollution engendered in their manufacture, especially of batteries for laptops, despite the propaganda of 'greener' models, the radiation they emit and the health risks associated with associated wireless technology are being constantly debated.” – John Kinsella<br />“Technology isn't the deliverance of humanity, it is its damnation.” – John Kinsella<br />This is still in the “ice cream shop” of classical liberalism, due to the fact that the individual is still placed above the collective. While more products faster may be better for more people, that individual worker’s life is now ruined.<br />Chartists<br />-47625146050Main Thinker – London’s Working Men’s Association (William Lovett, George Howell, Richard Moore)<br /><ul><li>The London’s Working Men’s Association drew up a Charter, and the focus of the Charter was rights for voting
They desired pay for MP’s, annual elections, secret ballots and equal electoral districts
They wanted an end to the need for poverty qualifications for Parliament</li></ul>“to draw into one bond of unity the intelligent and influential portion of the working classes in town and country. To seek by every legal means to place all classes of society in possession of the equal political and social rights.” – William Lovett<br />“A man willing to work, and unable to find work, is perhaps the saddest sight that fortune's inequality exhibits under this sun.” – William Lovett<br />Similar to liberalism, chartism does place importance on individuals and their rights. However they do not believe economics should necessarily be equal, but focus on political equality for all.<br />Socialists – Utopian Socialists<br />4086225-1905 Main Thinker – Pierre-Joseph Proudhon<br /><ul><li>Utopian socialists valued humanity, and felt that a humane society could come about without political, economic or social changes.
They valued education, and felt that education for all was key to the ideal humane society.
Utopian socialists also wanted to improve living and working conditions.</li></ul>“Finding that no religion is based on facts and cannot be true, I began to reflect what must be the condition of mankind trained from infancy to believe in error” – Robert Owen<br />“For us, the direct benefit we think will be to introduce a wider range of students to all of the opportunities that are in aviation.” – Robert Owen<br />Utopian socialists are in some ways still a part of classical liberalism. They still wanted a liberal society, but felt that if a few changes were made society could be ideal. Individuals were still all valued, and they believed everyone had rights.<br />Socialists – Marxism<br /> Main Thinker – Karl Marx<br />-200025112395CAPITALISM IS EVIL<br />In order to bring about change, Marxists believed violence should be used if leaders were not willing to change<br />Wanted to abolish private property, child labor and they value equality<br />“Anyone who knows anything of history knows that great social changes are impossible without feminine upheaval. Social progress can be measured exactly by the social position of the fair sex, the ugly ones included.” – Karl Marx<br />“Capital is dead labor, which, vampire-like, lives only by sucking living labor, and lives the more, the more labor it sucks.” – Karl Marx<br />This is no longer a form of liberalism, because the individual has some value, but only as part of the whole. Private property is now gone, and that is a fundamental pillar of the liberalists belief.<br />-72390028575Classical Conservatives<br />Main Thinker – Edmund Burke<br />Believed society is an organic whole that should be structured with those best suited to leadership at the top of the hierarchy.<br />Stability is key, and to accomplish that “better people” should lead, because none have equal abilities.<br />Leaders should be humanitarian so they can care for subjects.<br />“A spirit of innovation is generally the result of a selfish temper and confined views. People will not look forward to posterity, who never look backward to their ancestors.” – Edmund Burke<br />“Applause is the spur of noble minds, the end and aim of weak ones.” – Edmund Burke<br />This is also not a form of liberalism, it is the opposite. It believes that a monarchy was the best form of government and wants to return to it, without any focus on the individuals’ rights.<br />