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  2. 2. War   is a state of armed and often prolonged conflict carried on between states, nations, or other parties.
  3. 3. <ul><li>The late 19th century brought Europe prosperity, economic growth, and remarkable scientific discoveries and artistic creativity. However, when the 20th century began many problems that had gone unnoticed grew more serious. These caused the four years brutal conflict in Europe and that is the “World War 1”. </li></ul>
  4. 4. There are 4 main causes of World War 1. <ul><li>First is the ALLIANCE BETWEEN NATIONS. </li></ul>An alliance is an agreement made between two or more countries to give each other help if it is needed.
  5. 5. <ul><li>After the Franco – Prussian War, Germany took over the French Provinces Alsace and Lorraine. To keep those provinces from France, Otto von Bismarck, German Chancellor, began to make alliances with other European powers. </li></ul><ul><li>FIRST with Austria – Hungary and Italy known as the TRIPLE ALLIANCE. </li></ul><ul><li>The other alliance with Russia was weak . </li></ul>Otto von Bismarck
  6. 6. <ul><li>When a new Kaiser, William II, came to the throne Bismarck was forced out of the office. Germany abandoned its alliance with Russia and drew closer with Austria- Hungary. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>With the humiliation given to the French, they began to seek allies of its own. France entered into an alliance with Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain was also alarmed by the growth of Germany. Thus, France and Britain formed the “ENTENTE CORDIALE” which means “FRIENDLY UNDERSTANDING”. </li></ul><ul><li>Out of their mutual fear of Germany, Britain and Russia signed an agreement. This created the Triple Entente (France, Britain, and Russia). The Germans regarded this as a threat for Germany from east to west. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 1904 Entente Cordial This was an agreement, but not a formal alliance, between France and Britain. 1907 Anglo-Russian Entente This was an agreement between Britain and Russia 1907 Triple Entente      This was made between Russia, France and Britain to counter the increasing threat from Germany. 1894 Franco-Russian Alliance Russia formed an alliance with France to protect herself against Germany and Austria-Hungary                                                                                         1914 Triple Entente (no separate peace)                                       Britain, Russia and France agreed not to sign for peace separately. 1882 The Triple Alliance                                            Germany and Austria- Hungary made an alliance with Italy to stop Italy from taking sides with Russia 1881 Austro-Serbian Alliance                                      Austria-Hungary made an alliance with Serbia to stop Russia gaining control of Serbia 1879 The Dual Alliance                                          Germany and Austria-Hungary made an alliance to protect themselves from Russia
  9. 9. <ul><li>THE ALLIANCE SYSTEM HELD THE DANGER OF A </li></ul><ul><li>“ CHAIN REACTION”. </li></ul><ul><li>A conflict between any two nations was likely to expand and involve those countries’ allies. </li></ul>
  10. 10. > Second is MILITARISM . Militarism means that the army and military forces are given a high profile by the government.   <ul><li>The armies of both France and Germany had more than doubled between 1870 and 1914 and there was fierce competition between Britain and Germany for mastery of the seas.  </li></ul><ul><li>If one country increased the size of its army or built new and mightier battleships, other countries did the same. </li></ul>
  11. 11. > Third is NATIONALISM . Nationalism means being a strong supporter of the rights and interests of one's country. <ul><li>- Government did not always act on their nationalist ambitions, but such feelings made people quick to anger and less likely to use reason. </li></ul><ul><li>- The nationalism of the various countries throughout Europe contributed not only to the beginning but the extension of the war in Europe. Each country tried to prove their dominance and power. </li></ul>
  12. 12. > Fourth is the ASSASINATION OF ARCHDUKE FRANCIS FERDINAND. <ul><li>A Serbian nationalist named Gavrilo Princip assassinated Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austrian – Hungary. </li></ul><ul><li>To carry out Austria’s plan against Serbia, it turned for support to Germany. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Confident of German backing, Austria sent Serbia an ultimatum – a list of demands that Serbia had to answer within 48 hours. “If Serbia did not accept the ultimatum, Austria would declare WAR ” </li></ul><ul><li>The Serbs accepted all but one of Austria’s demands. </li></ul><ul><li>Austrians declared that this refusal meant that Serbia had rejected the entire ultimatum. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>War has been declared not only between Serbia and Austria/Germany but also within their alliances. The system of alliances and military plans trapped the nation one by one in a chain reaction from which they could not escape and this is the start of “World War 1”. </li></ul>
  15. 16. One Effect of Wars <ul><li>On the economy </li></ul><ul><li>Once a war has ended, losing nations are sometimes required to pay war reparations to the victorious nations. In certain cases, land is ceded to the victorious nations. Typically speaking, war becomes very intertwined with the economy and many wars are partially or entirely based on economic reasons. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>World War I was called the war to end all wars, and also the Great War. People thought that if the allies won there would never be war again. The lesson here is that if men don’t learn to get along, there will never be world peace. Fighting wars does not solve problems and does not guarantee that new wars won’t start. Wars only create bloodshed and deaths. </li></ul>