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Animal farm revising the novel
Literary Heritage Prose A664 Animal Farm George OrwellYou will have a choice of two questions and 45 minutes to answer. This is one half of the exam – the other being unseen contemporary poetry.
How is this part of the exam marked?AO1 Respond to texts critically and imaginatively; select and evaluate relevant textual detail to illustrate and support interpretations.AO2 Explain how language, structure and form contribute to writers’ presentation of ideas, themes and settings.Quality of Written Communication is assessed in this paper. Candidates are expectedto:•ensure that text is legible and that spelling, punctuation and grammar are accurateso that meaning is clear;•present information in a form that suits its purpose;•use a suitable structure and style of writing. A band 1 response:AO1 AO2 QWC•sophisticated critical •sensitive understanding of •text is legibleperception in response to and the significance and effects of •spelling, punctuation andinterpretation of text(s) writers’ choices of language, grammar are accurate and•cogent and precise structure and form assuredevaluation of relevant detail •meaning is very clearlyfrom the text(s) communicated
GEORGE ORWELL: Animal Farm Past Questions• In what way does Orwell powerfully depict the relationship between the pigs and the other animals in this extract? One extract based• How does Orwell vividly portray the importance of the sheep and dogs in Animal Farm? Remember to support your ideas with details from the novel. One general This is an open book exam so you will have clean copies of the text in front of you.
In what way does Orwell powerfully depict the relationship between the pigs and the other animals in this extract?They had won, but they were weary and bleeding. Slowly they began to limp back towards the farm. The sight of their dead comradesstretched upon the grass moved some of them to tears. And for a little while they halted in sorrowful silence at the place where thewindmill had once stood. Yes, it was gone; almost the last trace of their labour was gone! Even the foundations were partially destroyed.And in rebuilding it they could not this time, as before, make use of the fallen stones. This time the stones had vanished too. The force ofthe explosion had flung them to distances of hundreds of yards. It was as though the windmill had never been.As they approached the farm Squealer, who had unaccountably been absent during the fighting, came skipping towards them, whisking histail and beaming with satisfaction. And the animals heard, from the direction of the farm buildings, the solemn booming of a gun.‘What is that gun firing for? said Boxer.To celebrate our victory" cried Squealer.What victory? said Boxer. His knees were bleeding, he had lost a shoe and split his hoof, and a dozen pellets had lodged themselves in hishindleg.What victory, comrade? Have we not driven the enemy off our soil - the sacred soil of Animal Farm?But they have destroyed the windmill. And we had worked on it for two years!’What matter? We will build another windmill. We will build six windmills if we feel like it. You do not appreciate, comrade, the mightythings that we have done. The enemy was in occupation of this very ground that we stand upon. And now - thanks to the leadership ofComrade Napoleon - we have won every inch of it back again!Then we have won back what we had before, said Boxer.That is our victory, said Squealer.They limped into the yard. The pellets under the skin of Boxers leg smarted painfully. He saw ahead of him the heavy labour of rebuildingthe windmill from the foundations, and already in imagination he braced himself for the task. But for the first time it occurred to him thathe was eleven years old and that perhaps his great muscles were not quite what they had once been.
The Story Structure Plot each of the events onto a story structure graph• Major tells the other animals on the farm about a dream he has had in which animals live free from human slavery.• Major’s speech inspires the animals to rebel and they drive Mr Jones from the farm.• The farm is renamed ‘Animal Farm’ and the seven commandments are written on the barn wall.• The animals work hard to bring the harvest in• They discover the pigs have been taking all the apples and milk for themselves and the puppies are taken away by Napoleon to be educated privately.• The two neighbouring farmers are frightened that the revolution will spread to their own farms. They help Mr Jones attack Animal Farm.• The animals fend off the attack from the farmers and Mollie vanishes from the farm.• After he disagrees with Napoleon about the building of the windmill, Snowball is attacked by the dogs and driven from the farm.• The pigs move into Mr Jones’s house and sleep in beds, and Napoleon decides to trade with humans.• The animals build the windmill.• The animals face starvation. Napoleon takes his solicitor around the farm and tricks him into thinking that gossip about a famine is untrue.• Napoleon holds a show trial, accusing his opponents of ludicrous crimes. The accused animals are publically executed.• The pigs begin to alter the commandments on the wall of the barn to justify their actions.• Napoleon’s trade with his neighbour causes problems and the humans destroy the windmill.• Boxer collapses in the quarry. The pigs sell Boxer to the knacker’s yard as he is too weak to work.• The pigs begin to walk on their hind legs and the commandments are replaced with just one.• The animals look through the farmhouse window and can no longer see the difference between the pigs and the humans. Does it fit into the traditional three-part story structure?
Structure• What are the main factors that influence the structure of the story? As befits an allegory, the sequence of events in Animal Farm mirrors those of the Russian Revolution and its history under Stalin. The novel is divided into ten chapters and the farm’s decline into tyranny is marked by the gradual violation of each of the seven commandments.• Can you add these points to your graph?
Structure• In Chapter 2, the new dawn (page 27) is symbolic as well as literal. What might it stand for? It is as if the animals have woken up from a sleep. Chapter 2 makes us aware of just what the animals have fought for and how happy they are with the equal society that they think they have created after the revolution.
Structure The book charts the corruption of Major’s ideal in stages: Chapter 1 sets out the rebellion’s high ideals and acts as a marker by which we judge the pigs’ subsequent actions.• Look again at Major’s ideas in Chapter 1. Create a list.• How do the pigs’ actions live up to these? Provide evidence to support your answers (PEEEE)
Structure The turning point comes once Napoleon orders the execution of the pigs and the hens. Then there is a speedy descent into further betrayal – Boxer’s death and tyranny. Life deteriorates quickly once life has been taken – and it is not long before the pigs are walking on their hind legs, installing a phone and dressing in human clothing.• Plot this point onto your structure graph as the ‘turning point’.
Structure• Are there any similarities between the beginning and the end of the novel? If so what? By the end of the book, Napoleon sleeps in Jones’ bed, dines from his crockery and drinks alcohol. The circular nature of the plot is used by Orwell to highlight the depth of Napoleon’s descent and the irony of the revolution. He is worst than Jones as he has betrayed the animals’ trust.
Structure• What is the novel’s subtitle? What does having this add to the way we might respond to the novel?• “Animal Farm is still popular because of its apparent simplicity.” What features might collaborate this view? The book is set in a farmyard, its storyline progresses in clear stages, its main characters are animals: it seems at first to be a perfect children’s book. The simplicity of the book supports its subtitle ‘A Fairy Story’. The simple storyline; straightforward, sometimes comic characters and seemingly naive tone stop Animal Farm from being seen as a dry political pamphlet and allow Orwell’s message to reach the widest possible audience in a readable form. Even so, the book was rejected by publishers numerous times because of its anti-Stanlist message.
Structure• How does Orwell subvert the fairytale genre?• How is the ending of the novel ambiguous? What is the effect of this on the reader? We expect fairytales to be about the battle between good and evil – as in Animal Farm – but in this book, good is seen to be punished rather than rewarded. The ending’s ambiguity leaves the reader thinking the worst – that there is no possible happy ending to the story. We don’t expect fairytales to be nightmares.• If Animal Farm is not a fairy story, what is it? Animal Farm is not really a fairy story at all, but a bleak political satire.
Structure• What is the narrative voice used in the novel? What reasons might Orwell have had to use this? Orwell uses a third person narrator to tell us the story of Animal Farm. A third person narrator is a god-like, omnipotent figure who sees everything that happens in the story – and can even tell us what each character is thinking.
Structure Most fairy stories and fables have a third person narrator, but there are also other reasons why Orwell uses this technique: Detachment: Orwell’s narrator seems detached and gives the reader a similar distance from the events in the book. Although we are often given the animals’ interpretation of events, Orwell is careful to use phrases that leave us in no doubt about what is happening. For example, when Squealer is found at the bottom of the ladder in the middle of the night, it is described as ‘ a strange incident which hardly anyone was able to understand’ (page 94). The animals might not be aware of what is going on but it is obvious to us that Squealer has been caught red-handed changing the Commandments, and has fallen off the ladder as he is drunk. The gap between what is really happening and what we are told is exploited by Orwell to make a satirical point. Trust: We trust the narrator. We do not question his interpretation of the characters and we believe that he is telling the truth and showing us all that happens on the farm. This relationship between the reader and narrator is problematic and perhaps ironic in a book that is itself about the way in which language can be distorted.
StructureA Shift in ToneIn the final scene in the book there is a shift awayfrom Orwell’s detached narrator to the tone of adream or vision. This shift is emphasized byOrwell’s repetition of the animals’ trust in thepigs and that the promised utopia will arrivesome day (page 111-12), followed by Cloverseeing the pigs walking on their hind legs, and theacceleration towards the final scene. Thecontrast highlights the extent of the pigs betrayaland exploitation of the animals.
Structure Fable The story has similarities to another genre – the beast fable – in which animal characters are used to make serious moral points. In these works, such as Aesop’s Fables, the characters do not behave in a realistic way but are symbolic of certain attitudes. Animals are often the main characters in children’s books (such as The Wind in the Willows or The Jungle Book) for a similar reason. They do not have to be as ‘realistic’ as characters in other books and can be given one single, overriding personality trait.• Choose six of the characters in Animal Farm and identify the personality trait given to them by Orwell. What is each symbolic of?
Structure Unlike most beast fables, though, the ending of Animal Farm is ambiguous. There is no clear sense of how life will turn out for the animals. No clear moral is stated, although Orwell’s message throughout the text is clear.• What is Orwell’s message? Orwell was a life-long socialist whose political beliefs led him to fight for the Republicans against Franco’s fascists in the Spanish Civil War (1936-9). When the Second World War broke out, ill-health prevented him from signing up. Orwell’s experiences in the Spanish Civil War are relevant to the explicitly political Animal Farm. He became disillusioned with revolutionary politics after seeing the in-fighting between people who were meant to be on the same side. Orwell wasn’t just making a point about events in Russia in Animal Farm. He stated that the book was an attack on dictatorships in general and the way in which they seized and held onto power. He was not against revolutions but he did want to show people what happened when the people who led the revolution were allowed to do as they pleased.
Review the StructureList five features of structure inAnimal Farm. For each explainthe effect of the feature on thereader/story.
A longer practice question about the structure of the story:To what extent is Animal Farm a satire?Think about: Satire: literature that targets an issue, – Orwell’s use of allegory institution or idea and attacks it in such – The sequence of events a way as to make it look ridiculous or worthy of contempt. It is not the same – The genre as simply making fun of something, as – The book’s subtitle satirical writer has a purpose in attacking the target, other than making people laugh For a grade C: convey your ideas clearly and appropriately (you could use the words from the question to guide your answer) and refer to details from the text (use specific examples). For a grade A: make sure you show that you understand Orwell’s purpose in writing the story and how the structure and use of character, language and form drive this home to the reader. There points need to be woven into your answer.
Model AnswerOrwell’s use if allegory in Animal Farm helps to create satire. InOrwell’s novel the lead characters of Napoleon and Snowball act asrepresentations of the Russian Revolution’s key figures: Stalin andTrotsky. The presentation of these characters is made satiricalthrough Orwell’s choice of animal to represent these key figures.He chooses pigs to represent the political leaders, animals that areoften thought of as intelligent but greedy and unclean. This tellsthe audience about the characters; they are greedy andunderhand – particularly Napoleon, who becomes a dictator. Thisis of course allegorical and represents the rise of Stalin to the roleof dictator in the Russian Revolution. Orwell’s intention in usingan allegory was to highlight not just the wrongs of the RussianRevolution but the perils of allowing leaders to become toopowerful. The satirical element to the storytelling helps toportray the disgust he felt towards dictators.
Animal FarmLiterary Heritage Prose A664 How does Orwell use historical events in Animal Farm? Think about your answer to this question. Now share your answer with your group. AO1 Respond to texts critically and imaginatively; select and evaluate relevant textual detail to illustrate and support interpretations. AO2 Explain how language, structure and form contribute to writers’ presentation of ideas, themes and settings.
How is this part of the exam marked? AO1 Respond to texts critically and imaginatively; select and evaluate relevant textual detail to illustrate and support interpretations. AO2 Explain how language, structure and form contribute to writers’ presentation of ideas, themes and settings.Band AO1 AO2 QWC1 •sophisticated critical perception in response to •sensitive understanding of the •text is legible and interpretation of text(s) significance and effects of •spelling, punctuation and grammar are •cogent and precise evaluation of relevant detail writers’ choices of language, accurate and assured from the text(s) structure and form •meaning is very clearly communicated2 •critical engagement and insight in response to •critical insight into the •text is legible and interpretation of text(s) significance and effects of •spelling, punctuation and grammar are •evaluation of well-selected reference to detail of writers’ choices of language, accurate text(s) structure and form •meaning is very clearly communicated3 •clear, sustained responses to the text(s) •clear understanding of some of •text is legible •support from careful and relevant reference to the effects of writers’ choices of •spelling, punctuation and grammar are detail of the text(s) language, structure and form mainly accurate •meaning is clearly communicated4 •reasonably developed personal response to the •overall understanding that •text is legible text(s) writers’ choices of language, •some errors in spelling, punctuation and •use of appropriate support from detail of the structure and form contribute to grammar text(s) meaning/effect •meaning is clearly communicated for most of the answer
How is this part of the exam marked? AO1 Respond to texts critically and imaginatively; select and evaluate relevant textual detail to illustrate and support interpretations. AO2 Explain how language, structure and form contribute to writers’ presentation of ideas, themes and settings.Band AO1 AO2 QWC1 •sophisticated critical perception in response to •sensitive understanding of the •text is legible and interpretation of text(s) significance and effects of •spelling, punctuation and grammar are •cogent and precise evaluation of relevant detail writers’ choices of language, accurate and assured from the text(s) structure and form •meaning is very clearly communicated2 •critical engagement and insight in response to •critical insight into the •text is legible and interpretation of text(s) significance and effects of •spelling, punctuation and grammar are •evaluation of well-selected reference to detail of writers’ choices of language, accurate text(s) structure and form •meaning is very clearly communicated3 •clear, sustained responses to the text(s) •clear understanding of some of •text is legible •support from careful and relevant reference to the effects of writers’ choices of •spelling, punctuation and grammar are detail of the text(s) language, structure and form mainly accurate •meaning is clearly communicated4 •reasonably developed personal response to the •overall understanding that •text is legible text(s) writers’ choices of language, •some errors in spelling, punctuation and •use of appropriate support from detail of the structure and form contribute to grammar text(s) meaning/effect •meaning is clearly communicated for most of the answer Think about your answer to the starter question. What band would your response be in if you wrote it now?
Context (no using the study guide this lesson please)1. Match up the Russian historical events with the correct event in Animal Farm (cut them up and rearrange). Use the glossary and information sheet provided to help you. Stick it down when you are happy.2. Using the worksheet, complete the short summary of the parallels between the Russian Revolution and Orwell’s Animal Farm.3. Why do you think Orwell chose to use an allegory to show his feelings about revolution and dictatorships? Fiction is an indirect method of political commentary; if Orwell had written an academic essay, he could have named names, pointed to details, and proven his case more easily. Think about: – The events of the time in which he was writing (1943) – Who he wanted to hear his message – The way he wanted his readers to feel about the people and events – Is it about just the one historical event?4. Do you think Animal Farm’s message would come across effectively to someone who knows nothing about Soviet history or the conflict between Stalin and Trotsky? What might such a reader make of the story?
The Parallels between the events of Animal Farm and the Russian Revolution In the novel, Orwell portrays Lenin’s and the communist’s rise to power, seizing control from the Tsars through the character of ............ and the animals’ .............. against .............. Napoleon and Snowball, ............ and ................. in Orwell’s allegory, establish a Communist society which is represented by .................. which echoes ............. ideas. After ........... death there is a struggle for power between ................. and ................ and ............. is exiled; the historical parallels being ........... death followed by a power struggle between ........... and ................. which .......... won. Stalin slowly established his role as a dictator: taking more for himself and leaving the people without enough, rewriting history, purging anyone who opposed him. In Orwell’s novel ............... establishes his role as a dictator by: ................., ........................, ..................... Trying to protect the farm, Napoleon makes deals with .............. and ................. but is tricked with forged notes just as .................in an effort to protect the Soviet Union from attack negotiated with .......... and ................ but ......................... At the Tehran Conference the Soviet Union, Britain and the USA claimed to be allies but a few years later the .................. ... began which placed the Soviet Union against its wartime allies. Orwell’s novel ends with ............. and ................... having dinner together but Orwell hints at discord in .....................................................
Context (no using the study guide this lesson please)1. Match up the Russian historical events with the correct event in Animal Farm (cut them up and rearrange). Use the glossary to help you. When you are done matching, use the ‘Brief bit of history...’ to check and add to your comparison. Stick it down when you are happy.2. Write a short summary (150 words or less) of the parallels between the Russian Revolution and Orwell’s Animal Farm. Make sure to include the key words: allegory, communism, animalism, capitalist, proletariat, cult of personality, purges, show trial and the comparable characters/key historical figures and events.3. Why do you think Orwell chose to use an allegory to show his feelings about revolution and dictatorships? Fiction would seem a rather indirect method of political commentary; if Orwell had written an academic essay, he could have named names, pointed to details, and proven his case more easily. Think about: – The events of the time in which he was writing – Who he wanted to hear his message – The way he wanted his readers to feel about the people and events – Is it about just the one historical event?4. Do you think Animal Farm’s message would come across effectively to someone who knows nothing about Soviet history or the conflict between Stalin and Trotsky? What might such a reader make of the story?Extension:To what extent is the novel nothing more than an allegory for the Russian Revolution?
Political Terms Explanation The radical wing of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Party. Founded by Lenin, the Bolsheviks came to power in the 1917Bolsheviks October Revolution and eventually changed their name to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. According to Karl Marx, a capitalist is someone who has money and invests in business. This person then makes a profit if theCapitalist business does well. The period from 1949 to 1989, which was marked by a diplomatic and political standoff between the Soviet Union and WesternCold War powers. A government that is elected by the people or their representatives.Democracy A ruler whose decisions do not need anyone else’s agreement. Often, in dictatorships, any form of opposition has benDictator abolished, leaving the ruler with absolute power. Brainwashing someone into believing a particular opinion.Indoctrination A land-owning peasant. After the Russian Revolution, the kulaks did not want their farms to be collectivised. From 1929, StalinKulak began to exterminate them as a class. A follower of the ideas of Karl Marx (1818-1883)Marxist The lower or working class, especially those living in industrial societies whose only possession (according to Marx) was theProletariat value of their work. A form of government where the people – or the people they elect – have powerRepublic Description of someone or something that is working to destroy something, particularly a government (often behind theSubversive scenes/in secret) Description of a government that has absolute control over its citizens’ lives and does not allow them to raise any opposition.Totalitarian Most dictatorships are totalitarian. The emperor of Russia until 1914. the word is also used to mean tyrant, or autocrat, or – more generally – a person withTsar authority A person who governs in an unjust and violent way. Someone who uses their power in an unreasonable or selctiv way toTyrant oppress others can be said to be tyrannical.
A brief bit of history... Animal Farm is an allegory of Russian history. In 1917 the February Revolution overthrew the Tsar, but within months the Provisional Government was itself overthrown by the Communist Party, led by Lenin.Karl Marx and CommunismMarx believed that in a capitalist society workers were exploited by the people they worked for. Workers werepaid a wage to produce goods that were then sold at a higher price than they cost to make. Marx argued thatthe capitalists kept this profit and that if they paid the workers lower wages, they could increase their profit.For this reason, the capitalists and the workers would never see eye-to-eye, or have each other’s best interestsat heart. According to Marx, this situation created a class struggle. Marx said that eventually the workerswould rebel against the capitalists and overthrow them. They would then establish a more equal society.Marx wrote Das Kapital, which stated that society should be free and equal, and the Communist Manifestowhich called for workers to unite. Lenin took Marx’s ideas and adapted them to form his own brand ofCommunism.The Struggle of PowerLenin died in 1924. A struggle for power between Trotsky and Stalin followed. Trotsky believed that to protectthe Soviet Union, the revolution had to spread throughout the world in a ‘Permanent Revolution’, a slogan thatencapsulated his beliefs. Unlike Trotsky, Stalin felt that the country’s security lay in building its defences:‘Socialism in one Country’ was his competing slogan.The Soviet Union under StalinBy 1928, Stalin had become a dictator. His rule seemed to have little in common with the ideas of either Leninor Marx.Propaganda was a frequently used tool that further emphasised the control Stalin had over Soviet life. Stalinfrequently reinvented his history and that of the Soviet people. Past enemies were presented to the people asallies and vice versa. Those who were thought to oppose him were exiled or executed. In many cases ‘showtrials’ were staged in which people confessed to crimes that they had not committed. These purges (the officialname given to Stalin’s elimination of his opponents) created a climate of fear.Stalin exiled Trotsky in 1929. In Trotsky’s absence, Stalin blamed him for the country’s problems and claimedTrotsky was working with the country’s enemies to overthrow the government.
Animal FarmLiterary Heritage Prose A664 How does Orwell use historical events in Animal Farm? Think about the answer you gave to this question at the beginning of the lesson. Is your answer any different now? Share your new answer with your group and discuss together if you have been able to expand on your knowledge of the novel’s context to answer this question more thoroughly. Are you working in a higher band now? AO1 Respond to texts critically and imaginatively; select and evaluate relevant textual detail to illustrate and support interpretations. AO2 Explain how language, structure and form contribute to writers’ presentation of ideas, themes and settings.
Orwell wasn’t just making a point about the events in Russia inAnimal Farm. He stated that the book was an attack ondictatorships in general and the way in which they seized andheld onto power. He was not against revolutions but he didwant to show people what happened when the people wholed the revolution were allowed to do as they pleased. Examiner’s Tip: Writing about ContextAs the table you created shows, the historical context forAnimal Farm is very important. It is also fair to say that thebook is Orwell’s own creation, and that it is possible to writeinterestingly about it without making reference to the context.But understanding the history of the early twentieth century,and how Orwell responded to it, will enrich your answers andimpress the examiner!
• Orwell claimed his purpose in writing Animal Farm was ‘to fuse political and artistic purpose into one whole’. To what extent do you think he succeeded?
Character You should ensure you know:• Who they are• What they do in the book• What their role in the story is• How they are described and what this means• How they contrast/compare with other characters in the book• What the readers’ reaction to the character is and how this is shaped• Who their comparable historical figure/group is
Who is he?Major is a highly regarded pig, who is also a naturalleader who is : “Wise and benevolent”
How does Major contrast/compare with the other characters?In the book, Major is the main perpetrator and the startof the novel.“Is it not crystal clear, comrades, that all the evils of this lifeof ours spring from the tyranny of human beings?”
What is his role in the story?Major is the character that gets the ballrolling. He instigates the rebellion bytelling the animals about life: “This is mymessage to you comrades: Rebellion!”His ideas are referred to the whole waythrough the novel.
How is he described in the novel?Major is described a majestic looking pig witha wise and benevolent pig.“Benevolent” “Majestic looking pig”
Readers reaction to Major.The reader trusts Major.
Writing tips.Major represents the ideas of Marxism andLenism.What Major believes in in the novel is whatOrwell believes in but Major’s ideas aresubverted by the pigs later in the novel.
Who is Napoleon?Napoleon is the leader of Animal Farm. He is alarge and controlling Berkshire Boar whobecomes the leader of Animal Farm aftergetting rid of Snowball. He has a controllingpersonality and a murderous lust for power.He shows no qualms with stealing andmurdering to secure his station just a littlemore.
Not only that, he shows a disregard for the very tenants which and the other pigs laid down at the beginning of the book. He:• Sleeps in a bed• Trades with humans• Drinks alcohol• Murders other animals• Walks on two legs• And wears clothes.
How he’s described“And finally there was a tremendous baying ofdogs and a shrill crowing from the blackcockerel, and out came Napoleon himself,majestically upright, casting haughty glancesfrom side to side, and with the dogsgambolling around him.He carried a whip in his trotter”
This description is probably one of the mosteffective in the book. We see it from the pointof view of the animals, and it seems to casthim in a positive light, with the dogs“gambolling” and him being “Majesticallyupright”. But when the audience pictures it, itis imposing. It is scary, it is wrong and it is indirect violation of that which Napoleon onceseemed to uphold.
Who does he represent?Napoleon represents Stalin in Animal Farm.He is the greedy leader who is completelyuncaring for the people he leads, and insteadonly cares for his own power, his own wealthand keeping himself in alcohol. He is brutal,powerful and is almost worshipped by theproletariat.
QuotationsThe game is simple. We will give you a quotesaid by another animal about Napoleon. Youwill have to tell us who said it.
Who is Snowball?• Snowball is one of Orwells main characters in Animal Farm.• He is the farm’s intellectual and tries to rival Napoleon for the overall running of the farm.
What does he do in the book?/what is his role in the story?• Energetically promote the revolution and teaches the animals new skills.• Although he appears to care about the well being of the other animals, he supports Napoleon’s seizure of the apples.• Brave in battle and a brilliant strategist.• He is the mastermind behind the windmill.• For all his brilliance, he does not appear to notice Napoleon’s steady climb to power, or the use he makes of the dogs.• Snowball is nearly killed by Napoleon’s dogs and flees from the farm.
How is Snowball described and what does this mean?• Snowball is described as a charismatic and brilliant thinker ‘Snowball was...quicker in speech and more innovative’. He communicates his ideas very well to the other animals. He is dedicated to spreading Major’s revolution ideas, he along with the other pigs wrote out the 7 commandments which were expressed in Old Major’s dream and he is adament on spreading them and also making sure they are put into practice.• Snowball uses his skills to teach the animals to read and write. Snowball understands that the other animals are not as intelligent as him and he simplifies the rules ‘four legs good, two legs bad’.• Snowball is also described as being ruthless as he states ‘the only good human is a dead one’.
How does Snowball compare with other characters in the book?• Snowball and Napoleon are the main comparison because they both fight for leadership. Snowball has similarities with Napoleon: – In their appearance, Orwell chose for both of them to be pigs – Their leadership qualities: Orwell describes Snowball as a pig very similar to Napoleon— at least in the early stages. Both pigs wanted a leadership position in the "new" economic and political system (which is actually contradictory to the whole supposed system of equality). But as time goes on, both eventually realize that one of them will have to step down. Orwell says that the two were always arguing. "Snowball and Napoleon were by far the most active in the debates. But it was noticed that these two were never in agreement: whatever suggestion either of them made, the other could be counted to oppose it." Later, Orwell makes the case stronger. "These two disagreed at every point disagreement was possible." – Snowball shares and follows most of Major’s ideas. Snowball is one of the main animals that writes up the 7 commandments that were dreamt by old Major. Snowball also shares the commandments more than any other animals. – He can also be compared to Boxer because they are both very hard working and dedicated to the farm. The windmill was Snowballs idea, he worked long and hard to make the plans for it and put it into action, Boxers motto is ‘I will work harder’ and he puts this into action when working in the fields and on the windmill.
How does Snowball contrast with other characters?• Snowball’s ideas and views to the running the farm contrast with Napoleon, the most obvious - the windmill.• Snowball contrasts with other characters such as Boxer in that Snowball is very intelligent and good with communication.• Snowball contrasts with Napoleon as Napoleon is lazy and cowardly but as is shown in the Battle of the Cowshed Snowball is brave and works hard in designing the windmill.
What is the readers’ reaction to Snowball?The reader feels that Snowball is a genuine characterwho tries to do the best for his “comrades” and for thefarm. This idea is founded at the Battle of the Cowshedwhen the reader sees how passionate he is about theidea of a human-free farm and his support of therevolution. Snowball had planned for this attack for along time. Snowball’s great bravery helped the animalsdefeat the humans. ‘Without halting for an instant,Snowball flung his fifteen stone against Joness legs
Who is Snowballs comparable historical figure?Snowball’s represents Trotsky (Leon Davidovich Trotsky 1879-1940)in Orwell’s allegory.Trotsky was an early leader in communism. He helped lead the“October Revolution,” to get rid of Czar Nicolas II. Trotsky was a“true communist,” which means he followed Marx. Trotsky reallywanted to improve life for every Russian, but he was chased awayby Stalin and the KGB after a power struggle. But Trotsky was notonly exiled in body, he was also exiled from the minds of theRussian people - His historical role was altered; his face cut out ofgroup photographs of the leaders of the revolution. In Russia hewas denounced as a traitor and conspirator and in 1940 a Stalinistagent assassinated him in Mexico City.Comparably, Snowball is an early leader in Animalism. He has animportant part in getting rid of Mr. Jones, and is a leader in theBattle of Cowshed. He is a follower of Old Major, and wants toimprove life for all animals. Snowball is chased away by Napoleonsdogs, and he is blamed for all of the problems on the farm.
• Before Snowball is expelled from the farm he is liked by the animals, they think he’s a good leader because of the commandments and because he is likeable and hard working. As soon as he is banished Napoleons propaganda turns Snowball into a hated figure ‘Whenever anything went wrong it became usual to attribute it to Snowball. If a window was broken or a drain was blocked up, someone was certain to say that Snowball had come in the night and done it, and when the key of the store-shed was lost, the whole farm was convinced that Snowball had thrown it down the well. Curiously enough, they went on believing this even after the mislaid key was found under a sack of meal.’
Who is Squealer?“ A small, fat pig" known for being a smoothtalker, who reportedly "could turn black into white.“(35) Squealer was Napoleon’spropagandist, his “spin doctor”, who justifies napoleon’s seizure of power.
What does Squealer do in the book? •Squealer is responsible for the devious changed to the seven commandments. •He confuses the animals and makes them doubtthere own memories, persuading them that he is right. •Squealer give the animals meaningless lists ofstatistics to convince them that life under Napoleon is getting better. •He uses his own eloquence and Napoleon’s brutal dogs to enforce Napoleons message •Squealer grows fatter as the story progresses, as he benefits from working for Napoleon.
Squealer’s role in the story Squealer represents the propagandanewspaper Pravda rather than a person. Thestatement that Squealer can “turn black into white” was intended to refer to Pravdas ability to turn lies into truth. Squealer also carries the messages from Napoleon to the other pigs who simply take what Squealer says. Squealer is a method of communication from the top to the bottom with the ability to put the proper spin on the information.
QuotesWe are told that he is a “brillianttalker” who can “turn black towhite” (p.23) He dishonestly defends the pigs’ actions in the brilliant pieces oh rhetoric, which is often underlined by the threat of Joness return. The animals therefore have little opinion but to agree to the pigs’ actions.
He is “unaccountably...Absent “ (p.92) fromthe fighting. The quote implies that squealer is a coward.
“No one believes more firmlythan comrade napoleon. He convinces thatThat all animals are animals thatequal...that sometimes you napoleon is actingmight make the wrongdecisions, comrades, and in there bestthen where would we be?” interests. Despite(p.56) the fact that napoleon is doing the complete opposite.
“squealer, temporarilystunned, was sprawling Squealer has been caughtbeside it, and near at altering thehand there lay a lantern, commandments on thea paint brush and over wall to fit the pigs’tanned pot of white actions-as he has donepaint.” (94-5) throughout the story. He has fallen off his ladder and or well suggests he is drunk-thus breaking the very commandment he is altering.
“ He cast a very ugly look at boxer” (p.77) This- and the attack on the gentle boxer that follows- highlights the sinister side to squealer’s character. His role is to ensure that any opposition to napoleon is eliminated.
Squealer-to other charactersThe animals all think that Squealer is one of them.They think he wants to protect them and that he isever so loyal to him. They also think that Squealerlikes them and works for them and they don’t thinkhe is bad and that he breaks the rules. Napoleonuses Squealer more like a weapon ofcommunication and propaganda. But Squealerknows that Napoleon is using him, and he makesthe best of it. He doesn’t care that Napoleon ismanipulating him because he knows that whileNapoleon is still in power he will still get the Milk,apples and the other beneficial goods.
Readers response to SquealerThe reader’s think that Squealer is intelligentbut quite twisted. For example he gives boxera really dirty look, This shows he doesnt carewho he hurts, also he is a coward as hedoesnt fight at all. He is never around. Itsshaped by the attitude and the languageOrwell creates when writing about him. Heuses certain words to crate the effect of beingsneaky.
Who is Boxer?Boxer is an enormous carthorse who has been around for afew years. He is respected by all the other animals for hisincredible strength and unbreakable work ethic: ’I will workharder’. When everyone else runs out of energy boxer stillploughs on. A prime example of this is when Boxer carrieson with the construction of the windmill , despite the factthat every other animal had stopped.In the novel Animal Farm Boxer represents the workingclasses, whose only possession is the value of their labour.He shows this throughout the novel by his commitment tothe completion of the windmill, as he ploughs on, until hecollapses.
What does he do in the book and what are his roles within the story? Boxer is a devout supporter of the revolution and has total faith in the pigs and their ability to lead the animals into “Animalism”. Throughout the book, he always works to help support the revolution, often repeating: “Napoleon is always right”; he uses his unmatchable strength to help build the windmill and to help maintain the farm. He insists on working until the job is done and no one can tell him otherwise. His devotion to the pigs is ultimately his downfall as he lacks intelligence and cannot realise when the pigs are exploiting him and the other animals. Right until his death, he still trusts the pigs and calls for them when he collapses in the quarry. The pigs end up selling him off to the knackers yard. Boxer represents the working class – the proletariat – in the allegory. He has similarities to the Soviet worker Alexander Stakhanov who was highly praised by the government for his high productivity.
How is he described? Orwell portrays Boxer as being unintelligent, hard-working, and caring. His personal motto is, "I will work harder!“.Boxer is described as being naive throughout the novel, he believes everything Napoleon says-one of his sayings being: ‘if Comrade Napoleon says it, it must be right’-all of this, inevitably ,leading to Boxer being slaughtered. The novel describes the horses as being the pigs "most faithful disciples" and that they "absorbed everything that they were told [by the pigs], and passed it on to the other animals by simple arguments". Boxer is described as being caring when he says: “I have no wish to take life, not even human life” p.45 after the battle of the cowshed. The fact that his eyes filled with tears clearly show his emotions on the killing of a living being.
How Boxer compares/contrasts with other charactersIn comparison to the other animals boxer is of relativelylow intelligence. He never doubts or opposes the pigs as hedoesn’t have the intelligence to comprise an argumentagainst them, because of this he is venerable toexploitation. He shows his devotion to the pigs: “It must bedue to some fault in ourselves” he believes that ifsomething has gone wrong it must be that animals at fault.He is a harder worker than any of the others and uses hissize and strength to aid his work-he nether gives up anduses them until they fail, like when he collapsed whilstbuilding the windmill. He, like the others, is for thedownfall of Jones and his cruel reign. He, along with theother animals, is under the authority of Napoleon andshares equal rights with them.
The readers reaction to BoxerThe reader warms to Boxer from the beginning due to his hard-working attitude, kind heart and non-complaining attitude. ‘I willwork harder’ shows willingness and devotion to work-whichinstantly makes the reader warm to him. This quote also shows thatBoxer believes that no matter how hard he is working, he canalways put more effort in.The emotional climax of the book is when Boxer collapses and getssold to the Knackers’ yard. This is emotional because the reader haswarmed to him and to see is lack of intelligence be exploited, thereader feels emotional towards this character-after all he hadn’tdone anything to deserve what he got. The evilness of Napoleonsrule is highlighted by this event, especially when the proceeds fromBoxer are spent on whiskey. We become aware that he cares for noanimal other than himself and will do anything to gain more moneyand more power.
BoxerWho is Boxer? How Boxer compares/contrasts with other charactersBoxer is an enormous carthorse who has been around for a few years. He In comparison to the other animals boxer is of relatively lowis respected by all the other animals for his incredible strength and intelligence. He never doubts or opposes the pigs as heunbreakable work ethic. When everyone else runs out of energy boxer doesn’t have the intelligence to comprise an argument againststill ploughs on. them, because of this he is venerable to exploitation. HeIn the novel Animal Farm Boxer represents the working classes, whose shows his devotion to the pigs: “It must be due to some faultonly possession is the value of their labour. in ourselves” he believes that if something has gone wrong it must be that animals at fault.What does he do in the book and what are his roles within the story? He is a harder worker than any of the others and uses his sizeBoxer is a devout supporter of the revolution and has total faith in the and strength to aid his work. He, like the others, is for thepigs and their ability to lead the animals into “Animalism”. Throughout downfall of Jones and his cruel reign.the book, he always works to help support the revolution, oftenrepeating: “Napoleon is always right”; he uses his unmatchable strength Reader’s Reaction to Boxerto help build the windmill and to help maintain the farm. He insists on The reader warms to Boxer from the beginning due to hisworking until the job is done and no one can tell him otherwise. hard-working attitude, kind heart and non-complainingHis devotion to the pigs is ultimately his downfall as he lacks intelligence attitude.and cannot realise when the pigs are exploiting him and the other The emotional climax of the book is when Boxer collapsesanimals. Right until his death, he still trusts the pigs and calls for them and gets sold to the Knackers’ yard. Boxer is one of the mostwhen he collapses in the quarry. likeable characters and when he is sent to his death theThe pigs end up selling him off to the knackers yard. reader feels very sad. The evilness of Napoleons rule is Boxer represents the working class – the proletariat – in the allegory. He highlighted by this event, especially when the proceeds fromhas similarities to the Soviet worker Alexander Stakhanov who was highly Boxer are spent on whiskey. We become aware that he carespraised by the government for his high productivity. for no animal other than himself and will do anything to gain more money and more power.How is he described?Orwell portrays Boxer as being unintelligent, hard-working, and caring. Hispersonal motto is, "I will work harder!“.The novel describes the horses as being the pigs "most faithful disciples"and that they "absorbed everything that they were told [by the pigs], andpassed it on to the other animals by simple arguments".Boxer is described as being caring when he says: “I have no wish to takelife, not even human life” p.45 after the battle of the cowshed. The factthat his eyes filled with tears clearly show his emotions on the killing of aliving being.
Mollie seems to be envious of the luxuries that she had when under We know that Mollie is selfish the commands of Mr as she leaves the farm as soon Jones and when the as life there becomes more animals enter the house demanding unlike Boxer Mollie When the bourgeois were asked to Mollie is seen looking at is incapable of making any make sacrifices many of them Mrs Jones’s ribbons. sacrifice. abandoned the cause and fled to the west. This is the same as what Mollie does when she is asked to give up her ribbons and sugar cubes she cannot apply to the rules and disappears to the neighbouring farm. Mollie ‘s character represents the white Russians who were the bourgeois class. ( the richer class). About Mollie Mollies ribbons and sugar cubes represent the luxuries that Russia had before the rebellion. Also the luxuries they had to give up for the rebellion.She has a selfish personality – only wants tolearn the first few letters of her own name.Also she doesn’t care about anyone otherthan herself as she constantly turns up towork late and also leaves 5 minutes earlierthen the other animals then she complains of Mollie is not entirely committed tomysterious pains to get out of doing any the revolution as she is perceived aswork. ‘work shy’ and lazy.
Quotes from Mollie1. Mollie is caught by clover letting one of Mr. Pilkington’s workers stroke her nose , but Mollie denies all acknowledgement of it and took to her heels and galloped away.2. (Page 49).3. “on every kind of pretext she would run away from work and go to the drinking pool, where she would stand foolishly gazing at her own reflection in the water.4. (page 49).4. “Mollie it was true, was not good at getting up in the morning, and had a way of leaving work early on the ground that there was a stone in her hoof. (Page 34).1. “She had taken a piece of blue ribbon from Mrs. Jones dressing table, and was holding it against her shoulder and admiring herself in the glass in a very foolish manor.” (Page 28). Mollie refused to learn any but the six letters which spelt her own name. She would form these very neatly out of pieces of twig, and would then decorate them with a flower or two and walk around admiring them. ( Page 37).
Tips on what to write about MollieMollie oversleeps and she complains of ‘mysterious pains’ to get herself out of helping tobring in the harvest , she then does this again when they build the windmill to get out ofworking and often oversleeps for work. Also she leaves 5 minutes before the rest of theanimals this shows us that Mollie is workshy.Mollie seems to be extremely envious of the luxuries that the humans have and cannotcommit to the revolution as she cannot give up her ribbons and is one of the main reasonsas to why she fled to the other neighbouring farm.Mollie leaves the farm as soon as life there becomes more demanding. Unlike Boxer she isincapable of making any sacrifice. She gives up her luxuries at first, but then later deceivesthe other animals by hiding her ribbons and sugar cubes under her bed.Mollie’s selfishness and the other animals selfishness is perhaps another reason as to whythe revolution failed. Orwell portrays mollies as selfish and a coward as when the animals are fighting in thebattle of the cowshed for the farm , Mollie hides in her barn as she is to afraid to fightalong with her other comrades.
The ribbons Mollie complains ofand sugar mysterious pains to getrepresent the out of work - this showsluxuries that us that Mollie isRussia had workshybefore therebellion. Represents Mollie’s Character. the White Russians (the Mollie is selfish as she richer class). This is also shown in leaves the farm as the battle of the cow soon as life there Mollie. shed, Mollie hid instead becomes more of fighting. This shows demanding unlike that she is a bit of a Boxer, Mollie is coward, by hiding it incapable of making tells us that mollies any sacrifice. personality is selfish The selfishness of both Mollie and because she it to afraid some of the other animals is a to go out and fight like reason as to why the revolution the other animals do failed, as they simply could not give up their old luxuries that they had before the revolution.
Quotes for Mollie1. Mollie is caught by Clover letting one of Mr. Pilkington’s workers stroke her nose , but Mollie denies all acknowledgement of it and took to her heels and galloped away. (Page 49).2. “On every kind of pretext she would run away from work and go to the drinking pool, where she would stand foolishly gazing at her own reflection in the water. (page 49).3. “Mollie it was true, was not good at getting up in the morning, and had a way of leaving work early on the ground that there was a stone in her hoof. (Page 34).4. “She had taken a piece of blue ribbon from Mrs. Jones dressing table, and was holding it against her shoulder and admiring herself in the glass in a very foolish manor.”(Page 28).5. Mollie refused to learn any but the six letters which spelt her own name. She would form these very neatly out of pieces of twig, and would then decorate them with a flower or two and walk around admiring them. ( Page 37).
Profile• A tame raven that is Mr Jones’s “especial pet.” He is a spy, a gossip, and a “clever talker”.• Moses disappears for several years during Napoleon’s rule. Only to come back to the laid-back lifestyle he was used to.• When he returns, he still insists on the existence of Sugarcandy Mountain. "up there, just on the other side of that dark cloud that you can see– there it lies, Sugarcandy Mountain”• Moses is tied to Mr. Jones by his love for alcohol, the same drink that later ties the pigs to Mr. Jones.
Evidence• The animals hated Moses because he told tales and did no work, but some of them believed in Sugarcandy Mountain, and the pigs had to argue very hard to persuade the Just as Squealer later deceives the animals as to the state of Animal Farm, Moses spins tales of a place too good to be true that there was no such place.• All the animals were now present except Moses, the tame raven, who slept on a perch behind the back door. When Major saw that they had all made themselves comfortable and were waiting attentively, he cleared his throat and began. From the moment he is first introduced, Moses is an outsider, separate from the other animals.
What He Represents• In Orwell’s allegory Moses represented the Russian orthodox church.• He is banished during Napoleons reign as the church was under Stalins reign.• Just like in the Russian revolution when towards the end when Stalin realised the church could be useful to him he wanted the country to embrace religion.
His role• Mr Jones’s favourite of all the animals as he was his personal spy.• Moses role was to deceive the other animals into thinking all their hard work would be rewarded as one day they will go to Sugar Candy mountain. Sugarcandy Mountain, that happy country where we poor animals shall rest for ever from our labours!"• Sugar Candy mountain represents heaven and is used as a pacifier – to get the animals to accept their situation now on the promise of something better in the next life.
What his role does• Moses role is to keep the animals compliant so that the orders of Jones’ and then at the beginning of Napoleon’s regime arent questioned (at first). They once again see a need for the raven to go on and on about Sugarcandy Mountain, and they’re all too happy to buy him off for “a gill of beer a day”• ‘Sugar Candy Mountain’ is a promise to the animals that of all their work will pay off. In actuality it is an attempt to brainwash them into believing in a capitalist society.
Contrast and Compare• Orwells allegorises the church through the character of Moses. In the beginning Mr Jones (Tsar) and Moses (the church) are closely allied. Tsar Nicolas II wanted religion to be a priority for Russia.• Whereas when Napoleon (Stalin) comes into power, Moses (the church) is banished for many years before Napoleon realised he could be of some use if he is kept onside – even give a ration of beer. The church has historically played a part in subduing the people.
The Reader’s Reaction• As Orwell writes Animal Farm in third person narrative voice it allows the reader to make their own mind up about whose view is correct or if they agree with something or not.• However when Moses starts feeding the other animals information about the existence of Sugar Candy Mountain, the reader feels an affinity with the animals as he/she is sympathetic towards their naivety.• One must consider however different reactions to Moses’ character based on a reader’s personal religious feelings. A reader who believes in the existence of heaven may find Moses’ telling of a better place a comforting action – one designed to allow the animals hope in something better than what they have. A non-religious reader may find Moses’ character divisive and underhand.
Tips for writing• Refer to Moses representing the church.• Write about Mosess alliance with Mr Jones and Napoleon.• Include how he is treated as well on his return by Napoleon who needs him to subdue the other animals with promises of something better to come.
Activity• Moses is a t _ _ _ raven and is represents the R _ _ _ _ _ _ O _ _ _ _ _ _ _ C _ _ _ _ _. He speaks of a place called s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. This place represents h _ _ _ _ _. He leaves the farm when M _. _ _ _ _ _ is kicked off the farm but returns when Napoleon offers him a G _ _ _ O_ B _ _ _ a day if he gets the other animals to not q _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ his decisions.
Answers• Moses is a tame raven that represents the Russian Orthodox Church. He speaks of a place called Sugarcandymountain. This place represents heaven. He leaves the farm when Mr. Jones is kicked off the farm but returns when Napoleon offers him a gill of beer a day if he gets the other animals to not question his decisions.
Who are they? What they do in the book? • “Mr Jones of the Manor farm” page 13 is the dictator of the farm before the animals “chased Jones and his men out onto the road” page 26 • He represents the last Tsar of Russia, Nicholas. Alexandrovich Romanov (Nicholas II).
How they contrast/compare with other characters in the book?• Mr Jones compares to the pigs as they both steal. “Nearly the whole of the produce of our labour is stolen from us by human beings” page 16. This implies that Mr Jones is stealing from the animals just like the pigs steal the apples and milk. “The mystery of where the milk went to was soon cleared up it was mixed everyday into the pigs mash” page 38. This infers that the pigs were stealing the milk for themselves which makes them just as bad as Mr Jones
•Mr Jones contrasts Boxer because Mr Jones is a cruelman who cares about nobody or nothing but himself .“Jones ties a brick around the necks and drowns them intothe nearest pond” page 17. Unlike boxer who is loyal andhard working. “Sometimes the long hours on insufficientfood were hard to bear, but Boxer never faltered” page101. This infers that he was loyal to all the animals eventhough some gave up.
What the readers’ reaction to the character is and how this is shaped?• The reader sees Mr Jones as a cruel leader of the animals on his farm. This is shown in majors speech given to the animals he states that life on the farm is one of “misery and slavery” page 13 this implies that the animals are exploited by man there only real enemy who “consumes without producing” page 16 and doesnt reward them for anything he takes. He is not someone who is caring of the animals instead he doesn’t feed his animals enough or take care of them the way they should.
How they are described and what this means?• Mr Jones was once a capable farmer but after a damaging lawsuit he turns to drinking and becomes a harsh leader of the animals that he is meant to care for. “Had locked the hen houses for the night but was to drunk to remember to shut the pop holes” page 13 This means that the animals will have enough of his ways which then leads on to the animals to take over the farm
Mr Pilkington• He is an ‘easy-going gentlemen farmer’ (page 41).• He owns Foxwood Farm, which is described as ‘overgrown and neglected’ (page 41).• He ‘spent most of his time in fishing or hunting according to the season’ (page 41).• He is shown to often argue with Mr Frederick ‘These two disliked each other so much that it was difficult for them to come to any agreement, even in defence of their own interests’. (page 41)• In Orwell’s allegory, Mr Pilkington represents the leaders of Great Britain. He doesnt represent one person in particular, but rather is a composite of all of the leaders of England. He is portrayed as a ‘gentleman’, much as England is seen by Orwell. He is gentle and yet has his part to play in the events that play out on Animal Farm.
Mr Frederick• He is a ‘tough, shrewd man, perpetually involved in lawsuits and with a name for driving hard bargains.’ (page 41).• He owns Pinchfield Farm, which is ‘smaller and better kept’ than Manor Farm and Foxwood Farm.• He started rumours about Animal Farm: ‘the animals there practiced cannibalism, tortured one another with red-hot horseshoes, and had their females in common’. (page 42).• He is cruel, underhanded and uses forged notes to pay for Napoleons timber. ‘Frederick had got the timber for nothing!’ (page 89).• Allegory – Mr Frederick stands for Germany under Hitler’s rule. It is said that Frederick had flogged an old horse to death (A reference to Hitlers euthanasia program), he had starved his cows (A reference to the Jews), he had killed a dog by throwing it into the furnace (Most likely a reference to Night of Knives), and that he amused himself in the evenings by making cocks (French /Children?) fight with splinters of razor-blade tied to their spurs.
Readers response to the farmers• All the farmers in Animal Farm are repulsive. They exploit their workers just as the Tsar did in the years before the Russian Revolution.• The pigs become versions of the farmers in the final scene of the book.• They are portrayed as dictators just like Stalin and Hitler. All of this leads the reader to respond negatively to the Farmers. When the animals revolt, the reader feels that life without men like these will be better – and for a time it is. Orwell portrays these men as selfish and ineffectual.
Mr Whymper• Mr Whymper becomes the solicitor of Animal Farm; ‘an intermediary between Animal Farm and the outside world’. (page 64)• He is described as ‘a sly-looking little man’. (page 64)• He is ‘sharp enough to have realised earlier than anyone else that Animal Farm would need a broker and that the commissions would be worth having’. (page 64) He is in it for the money.• He is the first human that the animals come in contact with after the rebellion. He is used to make contact with the outside world. He represents the capitalist who did business with the Soviet state.
Mrs Jones• Mrs Jones is the wife of Mr Jones. She is only mentioned in the first chapter of the book.• When the animals revolt against Mr Jones, Mrs Jones ‘hurriedly flung a few possessions into a carpet bag’ (page 26) and ‘ slipped out of the farm by another way.’ (page 26)• When she is mentioned in the book she is mentioned in an unfavourable light.• In Orwell’s allegory, she represents Tsar Nicholas II’s wife, Alexandra.
Tips for writing about the humans• None of the human characters are seen as attractive, appealing or trustworthy people.• Even the man that takes Boxer to his death is described as ‘a sly-looking man in a low- crowned bowlers house’. (page 104)• The fact that the humans are shown in an unfavourable light tells the reader that even though the revolution failed, the animals were right to rebel against the humans.
Who are they?They are minor characters in the book. In the beginning of the book, they vote against acceptingthe rats & rabbits as comrades. Shortly after the revolution, several pups are stolen from theirmothers. Later in the book, these pups (now fully grown - and fully trained) protect Napoleon froma second potential revolution, and help to enforce his decrees."Silent and terrified, the animals crept back into the barn. In a moment the dogs came boundingback. At first no one had been able to imagine where these creatures came from, but the problemwas soon solved: they were the puppies whom Napoleon had taken away from their mothers andreared privately. Though not yet full-grown, they were huge dogs, and as fierce-looking aswolves. They kept close to Napoleon. It was noticed that they wagged their tails to him in the sameway as the other dogs had been used to do to Mr. Jones."This quote is evidence of how Napoleon uses the dogs to create terror within the other animals alsothis helps to gain power and control over the others.Jessie, Bluebell, Pincher - The only three dogs that are mentioned by name. They do not have avery active role in the novel. All three are mentioned as being present at old majors meeting, butPincher is never mentioned again (except in the epilogue, when it is mentioned that all three dogsare dead) - Jesse and Bluebell are the mothers of the represent the military/police. They are usedto portray the KGB Stalins secret police. pups which serve as Napoleons bodyguards (andassumedly Pincher is the father). Jesse and Bluebell also participate in the Battle of the Windmill.
How are described and what this means? They are described as very aggressive but loyalanimals, this is meant to compare with the secret police as they are serious characters anddoing every order set straight away and quickly. Orwell shows this by making the charactersrip the other animals to shreds e.g. pigs, hens, sheep. Also when sent to attack Boxer, thefight turns around so while one of the puppies is in danger, Napoleon quickly orders theattack to stop and for Boxer to release.“The Dogs promptly tore there throats out, and in a terrible voice Napoleon demandedwhether any of the other animal had anything to confess.” (78) This shows the audience how violent the dogs are towards the other animals whencommanded by Napoleon.How they contrast/compare with other characters inthe book? The dogs contrast withinthemselves; the puppies are aggressive and the farm dogs (Jessie and Bluebell) are describedby Orwell to be peasants who were oppressed and whose children were indoctrinated andbecame part of and upholders of the regime.What the readers ‘reaction to the character is and how this is shaped?The readers reaction to the dogs changes throughout the book; they start of being seen asvery cute puppies but they turn into very cruel animals this shocks the reader as they don’texpect it. This is shown when Napoleon first sent them to run Snowball out of the farm asthey were taken from Jessie to be taught to be linguistic like the other animals on the farmthen suddenly they re-appear from being kept safe to be angry characters.Who their comparable historical figure/group is?There historical comparison is Stalin’s secret police.
Who are they?The sheep are the lower class characters representing the masses at large.What they do in the book? The sheep are portrayed as the workers doing lower class jobs and chanting "Fourlegs good, two legs bad! Four legs good, two legs ba-a-a-a-d!“ This shows that thesheep are made to be lazy and do the dirty work comparing to those jobs of that asoldier would carry out.How are they described and what this means?They are described as the most simple, dumb element of the farm. This means thatthey are easily persuaded by others such as Napoleon. They did not “understand” thelong version of the 7 commandments so they “would all start bleating “four legsgood, two legs bad.”How they contrast/compare with other characters in the book? They are loyalanimals, they have a comparison with Boxer on that. They have a contrast tosnowball as he is a very intelligent animal and they are dim.
What the readers reaction to the character is and how this is shaped?The readers reaction isnt drastic towards the character as they knowsheep aren’t the sharpest of animals. Also they don’t play a huge roletowards the book but they do chant their version of the 7 commandmentscreating irony in itself.Who there comparable historical figure/group is? The sheep charactersare shown to be the soldiers of the revolution that are told to do tasks andmissions when set and are lead easily.
The dogs play a small part in the story of Animal Farm or the Russian Revolution. Their main role in the story for them was to drive snowball out of the farm as Napoleon had been training them to do everything and anything he says to do. The dogs are described to be very aggressive , they are the animal farm version of the KGB (Stalin s secret police).The dogs are very loyal animals, they are closely linked the pigs. They start to wagthere tails at napoleon in the same way they waved there tails at Mr Jones.During majors first speech, the dogs chase the rats – Old majors stops them fromharming them as it is against the new Animalism rules.The dogs murder objectors and opposition to napoleon, they are rewarded bynapoleon for this
They produce a simple version of the seven commandments just for the sheep to remember and chant to. Which napoleon later changed. The sheep represent the most dumb/stupid elements, they are generally referred to as an anonymous group – there is no named sheep.The sheep are portrayed to have very little knowledge of the aims of revolutionThey stifle only moment of protest when napoleon is seen walking along with a whipin his totter (p.113)The sheep are also known for being very loyal, they often chant during snowballs speeches“at that moment, as though at a signal, all the sheep burst out into a tremendous bleating of –four legs good two legs BETTER.” (113)
Dogs"Silent and terrified, the animals crept back into the barn. In a moment the dogs came bounding back. At firstno one had been able to imagine where these creatures came from, but the problem was soon solved: theywere the puppies whom Napoleon had taken away from their mothers and reared privately. Though not yetfull-grown, they were huge dogs, and as fierce-looking as wolves. They kept close to Napoleon. It was noticedthat they wagged their tails to him in the same way as the other dogs had been used to do to Mr. Jones."“The Dogs promptly tore there throats out, and in a terrible voice Napoleon demanded whether any of theother animal had anything to confess.” (78)KEY POINTSAlong with the pigs, the dogs are rewarded for dealing ruthlessly with any objectors and murdering napoleonsoppositionDuring majors speech the dogs chase the rats and are prevented by major from harming them as he says it iscontrary to the rules of animalismFrom the start they are loyal animals. They are closely linked to the pigs, and later wag their tails at Napoleon inthe same way that they did at Mr Jones.The dogs are the counterpart of Stalins secret police.Sheep"Two legs bad, four legs good.”“at that moment, as though at a signal, all the sheep burst out into a tremendous bleating of – four legs goodtwo legs BETTER.” (113)KEY POINTSThe sheep represent the most stupid elements of society, the mob. They are generally referred to as ananonymous group - there is no named individual who stands out.
The Cat – Her Role in the Novel• Voted both sides of rat comrade question.• Represents shadier characters in Russian Society such as the con men, gypsies and circus folk.• The cat disappears before the ‘purges’.• Talks to the sparrows on the roof and tells them all animals are allies.
The Hens – Their Role in the Novel• The hens are used in Animal Farm to represent the peasant farmers in Russia who revolt. (Kulaks)• In Major’s speech he criticises taking of the Hens eggs.• Under Napoleon the eggs are taken.• The Hens retaliate by smashing their eggs just as the farmers did to their crops.• The only group that tried to rebel against Napoleon.• Napoleon has the hens executed.
Quiz1. Who does the Cat represent?2. What do the Hens represent?3. What do the Hens do to revolt against Napoleon’s orders to produce more eggs to sell to the humans?4. When does the Cat disappear?5. What happens to the Hens because of their actions?
What are the important objects in the novel• Animalism – This is the idea of communism.• “Beasts of England” – It is a metaphor for the ideology of communism. It is a song the animals repetitively sing throughout the novel to inspire them after they became independent from the humans.• Windmill – This represents Stalin’s “5 year plan”. Which was introduced to improve the quality of life for the proletariats.• Drinking of alcohol – This is a metaphor for the intoxicating effects of power.• Milk and apples – This was the first time in the novel the animals were not treated equally, by the pigs taking the milk and apples for themselves.
What are the important settings in the novel • Animal farm/Manor farm – This is the setting of the novel. • Foxwood – This is the neighbouring farm in the novel, it represents Britain • Pinchfield – This is the other neighbouring farm and it represents The Soviet Union • England – The farms represent countries, England represents the entire of the world. • The farmhouse – Mr. Jones’ house, in the end of the novel the pigs sleep and live there, Stalin lived in the Tsars home after the revolution also. • Sugar candy mountain – Is a reference to heaven, which Moses who represents the church preaches to the animals and its also encourages the hardworking animals to maintain their enthusiasm for working on the farm.
Objects and SettingObject Places• Animalism – This is the idea of communism. • Animal farm/Manor farm – This is the setting of• “Beasts of England” – It is a metaphor for the the novel. ideology of communism. It is a song the animals • Foxwood – This is the neighbouring farm in the repetitively sing throughout the novel to inspire novel, it represents Britain them after they became independent from the • Pinchfield – This is the other neighbouring farm humans. and it represents The Soviet Union• Windmill – This represents Stalin’s “5 year plan”. • England – The farms represent countries, Which was introduced to improve the quality of England represents the entire of the world. life for the proletariats. • The farmhouse – Mr. Jones’ house, in the end of• Drinking of alcohol – This is a metaphor for the the novel the pigs sleep and live there, Stalin intoxicating effects of power. lived in the Tsars home after the revolution also.• Milk and apples – This was the first time in the • Sugar candy mountain – Is a reference to novel the animals were not treated equally, by heaven, which Moses who represents the the pigs taking the milk and apples for church preaches to the animals and its also themselves. encourages the hardworking animals to maintain their enthusiasm for working on the farm.
TASK: Put Animal Farm’s themes, symbols and motifs in order of importance. Write a 3 PEARL response to the question: How do Orwell’s themes and motifs enhance Animal Farm? HINT: YOU MAY CONSIDER HOW THEY STRENGTHEN ORWELL’S INTENDED MESSAGE OR MORAL
Themes, Motifs and Symbols ThemesThemes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work.
Themes in Animal FarmThe Corruption of Socialist Ideals in the Soviet UnionRetelling the story of the emergence and development of Sovietcommunism in the form of an animal fable, Animal Farm allegorizesthe rise to power of the dictator Joseph Stalin.Orwell’s novel creates its most powerful ironies in the moments inwhich Orwell depicts the corruption of Animalist ideals by those inpower. For Animal Farm serves not so much to condemn tyranny ordespotism as to indict the horrifying hypocrisy of tyrannies thatbase themselves on, and owe their initial power to, ideologies ofliberation and equality. The gradual disintegration and perversion ofthe Seven Commandments illustrates this hypocrisy with vivid force,as do Squealer’s elaborate philosophical justifications for the pigs’blatantly unprincipled actions.
Themes in Animal FarmThe Danger of a Naïve Working ClassOne of the novel’s most impressive accomplishments is its portrayalnot just of the figures in power but also of the oppressed peoplethemselves. Animal Farm is not told from the perspective of anyparticular character, though occasionally it does slip into Clover’sconsciousness. Rather, the story is told from the perspective of thecommon animals as a whole.Gullible, loyal, and hardworking, these animals give Orwell a chanceto sketch how situations of oppression arise not only from themotives and tactics of the oppressors but also from the naïveté ofthe oppressed, who are not necessarily in a position to be bettereducated or informed.When presented with a dilemma, Boxer prefers not to puzzle outthe implications of various possible actions but instead to repeat tohimself, “Napoleon is always right.” Animal Farm demonstrates howthe inability or unwillingness to question authority condemns theworking class to suffer the full extent of the ruling class’soppression.
Themes in Animal FarmThe Abuse of Language as Instrumental to the Abuse of PowerOne of Orwell’s central concerns is the way in which language canbe manipulated as an instrument of control.In Animal Farm, the pigs gradually twist and distort a rhetoric ofsocialist revolution to justify their behaviour and to keep the otheranimals in the dark.The animals heartily embrace Major’s visionary ideal of socialism,but after Major dies, the pigs gradually twist the meaning of hiswords. As a result, the other animals seem unable to oppose thepigs without also opposing the ideals of the Rebellion.By the end of the novel, after Squealer’s repeated reconfigurationsof the Seven Commandments in order to decriminalize the pigs’treacheries, the main principle of the farm can be openly stated as“all animals are equal, but some animals are more equal thanothers.” This outrageous abuse of the word “equal” and of the idealof equality in general typifies the pigs’ method, which becomesincreasingly audacious as the novel progresses.
Themes in Animal FarmIntelligence and Education as Tools of OppressionFrom the very beginning of the novel, we become aware of education’s role in stratifying AnimalFarm’s population. Following Major’s death, the pigs are the ones that take on the task oforganising and mobilizing the other animals because they are “generally recognized as being thecleverest of the animals” (35). At first, the pigs are loyal to their fellow animals and to therevolutionary cause. They translate Major’s vision of the future faithfully into the SevenCommandments of Animalism. However, it is not long before the pigs’ intelligence and educationturn from tools of enlightenment to implements of oppression. The moment the pigs are facedwith something material that they want—the fresh milk—they abandon their morals and use theirsuperior intellect and knowledge to deceive the other animals.The pigs also limit the other animals’ opportunities to gain intelligence and education early on.They teach themselves to read and write from a children’s book but destroy it before the otheranimals can have the same chance. Indeed, most of the animals never learn more than a fewletters of the alphabet. Once the pigs cement their status as the educated elite, they use theirmental advantage to manipulate the other animals. For example, knowing that the other animalscannot read the Seven Commandments, they revise them whenever they like. The pigs also usetheir literacy to learn trades from manuals, giving them an opportunity for economic specializationand advancement. Content in the role of the intelligentsia, the pigs forgo manual labour in favourof bookkeeping and organizing. This shows that the pigs have not only the advantage ofopportunity, but also the opportunity to reject whatever opportunities they like. The pigs’intelligence and education allow them to bring the other animals into submission through the useof propaganda and revisionism. At the book’s end, we witness Napoleon’s preparations to educatea new generation of pigs and indoctrinate them into the code of oppression.