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Total Quality Management TQM


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TQM Introduction, TQM Concepts, TQM Gurus, TQM Models

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Total Quality Management TQM

  2. 2. INSTRUCTOR’S INTRODUCTION Name:  Salman Mehmood Educational Background:  BBA (hons) from Bahria University, Islamabad  MBA from IBA, Karachi Experience:  Permanent Faculty, Indus International, GCUF, D G Khan  Area Manage Nestle, Bahawalpur  Visiting Faculty BZU, DG Khan  Teaching Assistant, IBA, Karachi  Manager HR Club, IBA, Karachi  Student Ambassador, My Biz Pakistan  Assistant Manager Org. Development, PTCL  Interned at: DGKCCL, NCHD, TheLiveJobs, Ashlamour TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 2
  3. 3. DISCLAIMER Information is extracted from book, “Total Quality Management” TQM by John S. Oakland, 3rd edition, for Educational purpose. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 3
  4. 4. STUDENTS’ INTRODUCTION Lets start with STUDENT’s Introduction, each student will introduce with:  Name  Place lives in  Majors they seek  CGPA  Interest TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 4
  5. 5. COMMUNICATION AND RESOURCE Use of Computer is essential Internet knowledge is mandatory All the assignments will be emailed to salman- Facebook will be used as a mode of communication and documents sharing TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 5
  6. 6. QUALITY Quality in business, engineering and manufacturing has a pragmatic interpretation as the non-inferiority or superiority of something; it is also defined as fitness for purpose. Quality is a perceptual, conditional, and somewhat subjective attribute and may be understood differently by different people. Quality is brought about by strict and consistent commitment to certain standards that achieve uniformity of a product in order to satisfy specific customer or user requirements. ISO 8402-1986 standard defines quality as "the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs." If an automobile company finds a defect in one of their cars and makes a product recall, customer reliability and therefore production will decrease because trust will be lost in the car's quality. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 6
  7. 7. QUALITY PERSPECTIVES Everyone defines Quality based on their own perspective of it. Typical responses about the definition of quality would include: 1. Perfection 2. Consistency 3. Eliminating waste 4. Speed of delivery 5. Compliance with policies and procedures 6. Doing it right the first time 7. Delighting or pleasing customers 8. Total customer satisfaction and service TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 7
  8. 8. STANDARDS A standard is a document that provides requirements, specifications, guidelines or characteristics that can be used consistently to ensure that materials, products, processes and services are fit for their purpose. Benefits:  ISO International Standards ensure that products and services are safe, reliable and of good quality. For business, they are strategic tools that reduce costs by minimizing waste and errors, and increasing productivity. They help companies to access new markets, level the playing field for developing countries and facilitate free and fair global trade. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 8
  9. 9. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) TQM is integration of all functions and processes within an organization in order to achieve continuous improvement of the quality of goods and services. The goal is customer satisfaction. It means thinking about quality in terms of all functions of the enterprise and is a start-to-finish process that integrates interrelated functions at all levels. The watchword for TQM is “continuous improvement”. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 9
  10. 10. WHY TQM Reasons for quality is becoming priority for most organizations: Competition – Today’s market demand high quality products at low cost. Having `high quality’ reputation is not enough! Internal cost of maintaining the reputation should be less. Changing customer – The new customer is not only commanding priority based on volume but is more demanding about the “quality system.” Changing product mix – The shift from low volume, high price to high volume, low price have resulted in a need to reduce the internal cost of poor quality. Product complexity – As systems have become more complex, the reliability requirements for suppliers of components have become more stringent. Higher levels of customer satisfaction – Higher customers expectations are getting spawned by increasing competition. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 10
  11. 11. WHY TQM Meeting Customers Requirement. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 11
  12. 12. A BRIEF REVIEW OF TQM AND HISTORY Before Industrial Revolution:  Skilled craftsmen served both as manufacturers and inspectors, building quality into their products through their considerable pride in their workmanship. Industrial Revolution  Stretched from18th Century – 19th Century Industrialization marked a shift to powered, special-purpose machinery, factories and mass production.  The iron and textile industries, along with the development of the steam engine, played central roles in the Industrial Revolution, which also saw improved systems of transportation, communication and banking.  Supremacy of technology. WW1:  Tanks,  Machine guns  Poison Gas  Sanitary napkins  Wrist Watch  Stainless steel  Zips WW2:  Penicillin  Jerrycans  The pressurized cabin  Radio navigation  RADAR  Ruber  Jet Engines  Nuclear power TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 12
  14. 14. EARLY GURUS OF TQM W. Edwards Deming: Deming had 14 points to help management as follows: 1. Create constancy of purpose towards improvement of product and service. 2. Adopt the new philosophy. We can no longer live with commonly accepted levels of delays, mistakes, defective workmanship. 3. Cease dependence on mass inspection. Require instead statistical evidence that quality is built in. 4. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag. 5. Find problems. It is management’s job to work continually on the system. 6. Institute modern methods of training on the job. 7. Institute modern methods of supervision of foremen must be changed from numbers to quality. 8. Drive out fear, so that everyone may work effectively for the company. 9. Break down barriers between departments. 10.Eliminate numerical goals, posters, and slogans for the workforce asking for new levels of productivity without providing methods. 11.Eliminate work standards that prescribe numerical quotas. 12.Remove barriers that stand between the hourly worker and his right to pride of workmanship. 13.Institute a vigorous program of education and retraining. 14.Create a structure in top management that will push every day on the above 13TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 14
  15. 15. EARLY GURUS OF TQM Joseph M. Juran’s ten steps to quality improvement were: 1. Build awareness of the need and opportunity for improvement. 2. Set goals for improvement. 3. Organize to reach the goals (establish a quality council, identify problems, select projects, appoint teams, designate facilitators). 4. Provide training. 5. Carry out projects to solve problems. 6. Report progress. 7. Give recognition. 8. Communicate results. 9. Keep score. 10.Maintain momentum by making annual improvement part of the regular systems and processes of the company. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 15
  16. 16. EARLY GURUS OF TQM Philip B. Crosby, who spent time as Quality Director of ITT, had four absolutes:  Definition – conformance to requirements.  System – prevention.  Performance standard – zero defects.  Measurement – price of non-conformance. He also offered management 14 steps to improvement: 1. Make it clear that management is committed to quality. 2. Form quality improvement teams with representatives from each department. 3. Determine where current and potential quality problems lie. 4. Evaluate the cost of quality and explain its use as a management tool. 5. Raise the quality awareness and personal concern of all employees. 6. Take actions to correct problems identified through previous steps. 7. Establish a committee for the zero defects program. 8. Train supervisors to actively carry out their part of the quality improvement program. 9. Hold a ‘zero defects day’ to let all employees realize that there has been a change. 10. Encourage individuals to establish improvement goals for themselves and their groups. 11. Encourage employees to communicate to management the obstacles they face in attaining their improvement goals. 12. Recognize and appreciate those who participate. 13. Establish quality councils to communicate on a regular basis. 14. Do it all over again to emphasize that the quality improvement program never ends. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 16
  20. 20. QUALITY AWARD MODELS Starting in Japan with the Deming Prize, companies started to get interested in quality frameworks that could be used essentially in three ways:  as the basis for awards;  as the basis for a form of ‘self-assessment’;  as a descriptive ‘what-needs-to-be-in-place’ model. The earliest approach to a total quality audit process was established in the Japanese ‘Deming Prize’, which is based on a highly demanding and intrusive process. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 20
  21. 21. DEMING PRIZE The Deming Prize ‘examination viewpoints’ now include: 1. Top management leadership and organizational vision and strategies. 2. TQM frameworks:  organizational structure and its operations;  daily management;  policy management;  relationship to ISO 9000 and ISO 14000;  relationship to other management improvement programs;  TQM promotion and operation. 3. Quality Assurance System:  QA system;  new product and new technology development;  process control;  test, quality evaluation and quality audits;  activities covering the whole life cycle;  purchasing, subcontracting, and distribution management. 4. Management systems for business elements:  cross-functional management and its operations;  quantity/delivery management;  cost management;  environmental management;  safety, hygiene and work environment management. 5. Human resources development:  positioning of people in management;  education and training;  respect for people’s dignity. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 21
  22. 22. DEMING PRIZE 6. Effective utilization of information:  positioning of information in management;  information systems;  support for analysis and decision making;  standardization and configuration management. 7. TQM concepts and values:  quality;  maintenance and improvement;  respect for humanity. 8. Scientific methods:  understanding and utilization of methods;  understanding and utilization of problem- solving methods. 9. Organizational powers:  core technology;  speed;  vitality. 10. Contribution to realization of corporate objectives:  customer relations;  employee relations;  social relations;  supplier relations;  shareholder relations;  realization of corporate mission;  continuously securing profits. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 22
  23. 23. MALCOLM BALDRIGE NATIONAL QUALITY AWARD (MBNQA) It is now widely used frameworks for Quality Management. The award is presented annually to recognize companies in the USA that have excelled in quality management and quality achievement. The award is presented each year by the President of the USA. This is the excellent framework for TQM and organizational self- assessments. It helped to build an organization-wide approach to quality, which was truly integrated into the business strategy. MBNQA Criteria for Performance excellence is based on:  help improve organizational performance practices, capabilities and results;  facilitate communication and sharing of best practices information;  serve as a working tool for understanding and managing performance and for guiding, planning and opportunities for learning. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 23
  24. 24. MALCOLM BALDRIGE NATIONAL QUALITY AWARD (MBNQA) The award criteria are built upon a set of interrelated core values and concepts: 1. Leadership:  organizational leadership;  public responsibility and citizenship. 2. Strategic planning;  strategy development;  strategy deployment. 3. Customer and market focus  customer and market knowledge;  customer relationships and satisfaction. 4. Information and analysis:  measurement and analysis of organizational performance  information management. 5. Human resource focus  work systems;  employee education training and development;  employee well-being and satisfaction. 6. Process management:  product and service processes;  business processes;  support processes. 7. Business results:  customer-focused results;  financial and market results;  human resource results;  organizational effectiveness results. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 24
  25. 25. EUROPEAN QUALITY AWARD BY THE EUROPEAN FOUNDATION FOR QUALITY MANAGEMENT (EFQM) This framework was the first one to include ‘Business Results’ and to really represent the whole business model. Like the Baldrige, the EFQM model recognized that processes are the means by which an organization harnesses and releases the talents of its people to produce results/performance. Moreover, improvement in performance can be achieved only by improving the processes by involving the people. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 25
  26. 26. EUROPEAN QUALITY AWARD BY THE EUROPEAN FOUNDATION FOR QUALITY MANAGEMENT (EFQM) 1. Set direction through leadership. 2. Establish the results they want to achieve. 3. Establish and drive policy and strategy. 4. Set up and manage appropriately their approach to processes, people, partnerships and resources. 5. Deploy the approaches to ensure achievement of the policies, strategies and thereby the results. 6. Assess the ‘business’ performance, in terms of customers, their own people and society results. 7. Assess the achievements of key performance results. 8. Review performance for strengths and areas for improvement. 9. Innovate to deliver performance improvements. 10.Learn more about the effects of the enablers on the results. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 26
  27. 27. THE EFQM EXCELLENCE MODEL Conclusion:  Processes are the key to delivering quality of products and services to customers.  Processes are a key linkage between Leadership and Workers that result in Performance. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 27
  28. 28. FOUR P’S AND THREE C’S OF TQM Four P’s:  People  Process  Planning  Performance Three C’s:  Culture  Commitment  Communication TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 28
  29. 29. FOUR P’S AND THREE C’S OF TQM Four P’s: Planning – the development and deployment of policies and strategies; setting up appropriate partnerships and resources; and designing in quality. Performance – establishing a performance measure framework – a ‘balanced scorecard’ for the organization; carrying out self-assessment, audits, reviews and benchmarking. Processes – understanding, management, design and redesign; quality management systems; continuous improvement. People – managing the human resources; culture change; teamwork; communications; innovation and learning. Three C’s To ensure successful implementation is, of course, effective leadership and commitment, and developing a culture for performance and communicating it with all the stakeholders.  Commitment  Culture  Communication TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 29
  31. 31. LEADERSHIP AND COMMITMENT Employing more inspectors, tightening up standards, developing correction, repair and rework teams do not improve quality. Quality has been regarded as the responsibility of the QA or QC department, and still it has not yet been recognized in some organizations that many quality problems originate in the commercial, service or administrative areas. Shifting mindset from “customer’s responsibility of detection” to “problem prevention”. Searching for causes of problems, and correcting the causes, not the symptoms. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 31
  32. 32. COMMITMENT AND POLICY TQM must be implemented organization-wide and must start at the top level. The most senior directors and management must all demonstrate that they are serious about quality. If the owners or directors of the organization do not recognize and accept their responsibilities for the initiation and operation of TQM, then these changes will not happen. Controls are important but having a mindset to implement TQM at all levels is critical. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 32
  33. 33. QUALITY POLICY A sound quality policy, together with the organization and facilities to put it into effect, is a fundamental requirement for TQM implementation. The content of the policy should be made known to all employees. 1. Identify the customer’s needs (including perception). 2. Assess the ability of the organization to meet these needs economically. 3. Ensure that bought-in materials and services reliably meet the required standards of performance and efficiency. 4. Concentrate on the prevention rather than detection philosophy. 5. Educate and train for quality improvement. 6. Measure customer satisfaction. 7. Review the quality management systems to maintain progress. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 33
  34. 34. CREATING OR CHANGING THE CULTURE The culture within an organization is formed by a number of components: 1. Behaviors based on people interactions. 2. Norms resulting from working groups. 3. Dominant values adopted by the organization. 4. Rules of the game for ‘getting on’. 5. The climate. Culture in any ‘business’ may be defined then as the beliefs that pervade the organization about how business should be conducted, and how employees should behave and should be treated. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 34
  35. 35. CREATING OR CHANGING THE CULTURE (VISION FRAMEWORK) Any organization needs a vision framework that includes its guiding philosophy, core values and beliefs and a purpose. These should be combined into a mission, which provides a vivid description of what things will be like when it has been TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 35
  37. 37. VISION Vision is a guiding image of success. It is pursuit of this shared image of success that inspires, motivates and guides people to work together. Some criteria to guide in developing and assessing the effectiveness of a vision statement are:  It answers the question, “What will success look like?”  It is compelling,  It challenges and inspires the group to stretch its capabilities to achieve its purpose,  It focuses first on the client to be served or impacted,  It describes what the organization will look like when functioning effectively. Vision statements begin with intuition and ideas, evolve through discussion and result in a shared sense of direction and motivation.TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 37
  38. 38. EXAMPLES OF VISION “To provide access to the world’s information in one click.”  The company’s nature of business is a direct manifestation of this vision statement.  Google’s vision statement has three variables, namely, world’s information, accessibility, and one click. Our vision is to create innovative technology that is accessible to everyone and that adapts to each person's needs. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 38
  39. 39. MISSION Mission describes the overarching purpose of the organization—the reason it exists. Mission statement answers the questions:  Who we are, as an organization?  Why do we exist?  What do we do?  Who do we serve? The mission will translate the abstractness of philosophy into tangible goals that will move the organization forward and make it perform to its optimum. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 39
  40. 40. EXAMPLES OF MISSION “To organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful.”  The mission statement has four variables, namely, world’s information, organization, universal accessibility, and usefulness. Our mission is to enable people and businesses throughout the world to realize their full potential. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 40
  41. 41. VALUES Values are beliefs that your organization’s members hold in common and endeavor to put into practice.  Values guide your organization’s members in performing their work.  They answer the question --“What are the basic beliefs that we share as an organization?”  Adherence to the organization’s values, “walking the talk”, fosters individual and organizational integrity. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 41
  42. 42. EXERCISE FOR VISION MISSION What is the problem(s) What is the purpose of (your organization)? What business are you in? What do you do to fulfill your purpose? For whom do you do this work? Who is your target population, your audience, your market? Where do you do your work? What are your geographic boundaries? TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 42
  43. 43. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN VISION AND MISSIONSR# Description Vision Mission 1 Definition • An overarching statement of the way an organization wants to be; an ideal state of being at a future point. • It defines WHERE an organization wants to be. • An organization’s purpose. • It defines what the organization DOES, WHO it does it for; and HOW it does what it does. 2 Purpose The purpose is to INSPIRE and to be the emotional driver toward the organization The purpose is to INFORM what the organization does. 3 Questions to answer when developing the statement • Where do we aim to be? • What will we be in the future? What do we do today? What business problem, human need, or desire do our products and services fulfill? For whom do we do it? How we do it? Why? What makes us different? 4 Point to In a Vision statement you have to think When developing a MissionTQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 43
  44. 44. EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP Effective leadership starts with the CEO’s vision, capitalizing on market or service opportunities, continues through a strategy that will give the organization competitive or other advantage, and leads to business or service success. Effective leadership and total quality management result in the company or organization doing the right things, right first TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 44
  45. 45. EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP The five requirements for effective leadership are the following:  Developing and publishing clear documented corporate beliefs and purpose – a mission statement.  Develop clear and effective strategies and supporting plans for achieving the mission  Identify the critical success factors and critical processes  Review the management structure  Empowerment – encouraging effective employee participation TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 45
  47. 47. SOME DEFINITIONS Policy:  “a course or principle of action adopted or proposed by an organization or individual.” Strategy:  “A plan that fits with the environment.”  “A method or plan chosen to bring about a desired future, such as achievement of a goal or solution to a problem.” TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 47
  48. 48. INTEGRATING TQM INTO THE POLICY AND STRATEGY The organization implements its mission and vision via a clear stakeholder focused strategy, supported by relevant policies, plans, objectives, targets and processes. For this to happen the vision and mission and their deployment must be based on the needs and expectations of the organization’s stakeholders – present and future. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 48
  49. 49. INTEGRATING TQM INTO THE POLICY AND STRATEGY There are six basic steps for achieving this and providing a good foundation for the implementation of TQM. 1. Develop a shared vision and mission for the business/organization 2. Develop the ‘mission’ into its critical success factors (CSFs) to drive and move it forward--goals without methods 3. Define the key performance outcomes as being the quantifiable indicators of success in terms of the mission and CSFs 4. Understand the core processes and gain process sponsorship 5. Break down the core processes into subprocesses, activities and tasks and form improvement teams around these. 6. Ensure process and people alignment through a policy deployment or goal translation process TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 49
  50. 50. CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS CSF are the building blocks of the mission. CSF are the Key factors or subgoals that the organization must have or needs and which together will achieve the mission. CSF are the whats not the hows, and are not directly manageable. The CSFs may be defined as, what the organization must accomplish to achieve the mission, by examination and categorization of the impacts.  Financial and non-financial performance;  Customer/market satisfaction;  People/internal organization satisfaction;  Environmental/societal satisfaction. There should be no more than eight CSFs, and no more than four if the mission is survival. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 50
  51. 51. CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS Each CSF should have an ‘owner’ who is a member of the management team that agreed the mission and CSFs. The task of an owner is to:  Define and agree the KPOs (Key Performance outcomes) and associated targets;  Ensure that appropriate data is collected and recorded;  Monitor and report progress towards achieving the CSF (KPOs and targets) on a regular basis;  Review and modify the KPOs and targets where appropriate. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 51
  52. 52. CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS Some examples of CSFs may clarify their understanding: We must have right-first-time suppliers. We must have motivated, skilled workers. We need new products that satisfy market needs. We need new business opportunities. We must have best-in-the-field product quality. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 52
  53. 53. KEY PERFORMANCE OUTCOMES KPO’s helps to translate the directional and sometimes ‘loose’ statements of the mission into clear targets, and in turn to simplify management’s thinking. The KPOs are used to monitor progress and as evidence of success for the organization, in every direction, internally and externally. Examples:  3 Months to fill up a position by recruitment department.  10 % growth in overall business. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 53
  55. 55. Mission Provide the consultancy, training and facilitation necessary to assist with making continuous improvement an integral part of our customers’ business strategy. Critical success factor We need a high level of awareness Core process Promote, advertise, and communicate the company’s business capability. Sub process Prepare the company’s information pack. Activity Prepare one of the subject booklets, i.e. ‘Business Excellence and Self- Assessment’. Task Write the detailed leaflet for a particular seminar, e.g. one or three day seminars on self- assessment. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 55
  56. 56. EXERCISE Build Mission CSF Core process Sub process Activity Task TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 56
  57. 57. DEVELOPMENT OF POLICIES AND STRATEGIES Definition of Stakeholder: A stakeholder is any individual, group or organization that can affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a program. Policies and strategies are developed to fulfil needs of stakeholder, keeping organization’s capabilities in consideration. Policies and strategies are based on following six parameters:  Customer/market  Shareholders/major stakeholders  People  Processes  Partners/resources  Society TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 57
  58. 58. DEVELOPMENT OF POLICIES AND STRATEGIES-CUSTOMER/MARKET Data collected, analyzed and understood in terms of where the organization will operate. Customers’ needs and expectations understood, now and in the future. Developments anticipated and understood, including those of competitors and their performance. The organization’s performance in the market place known. Benchmarking against best in class organizations. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 58
  59. 59. DEVELOPMENT OF POLICIES AND STRATEGIES- SHAREHOLDERS/MAJOR STAKEHOLDERSShareholders’/major stakeholders’ needs and ideas understood. Appropriate economic trends/indicators and their impact analyzed and understood. Policies and strategies appropriate to shareholder/stakeholder needs and expectations developed. Needs and expectations balanced. Various scenarios and plans to manage risks developed. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 59
  60. 60. DEVELOPMENT OF POLICIES AND STRATEGIES-PEOPLE The needs and expectations of the employees understood. Data collected, analyzed and understood in terms of the internal performance of the organization. Output from learning activities understood. Everyone appropriately informed about the policies and strategies. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 60
  61. 61. DEVELOPMENT OF POLICIES AND STRATEGIES-PROCESSES A key process framework to deliver the policies and strategies designed, understood and implemented. Key process owners identified. Each key process and its major stakeholders defined. Key process framework reviewed periodically in terms of its suitability to deliver to organization’s requirements. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 61
  62. 62. DEVELOPMENT OF POLICIES AND STRATEGIES- PARTNERS/RESOURCES Appropriate technology understood. Impact of new technologies analyzed. Needs and expectations of partners understood. Policies and strategies aligned with those of partners. Financial strategies developed. Appropriate buildings, equipment and materials identified/sourced. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 62
  63. 63. DEVELOPMENT OF POLICIES AND STRATEGIES-SOCIETY Society, legal and environmental issues understood. Environment and corporate responsibility policies developed. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 63
  64. 64. ASSIGNMENT Make a plan of 7 days and share what you have returned to society. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 64
  66. 66. PARTNERING In recent years business, technologies and economies have developed in such a way that organizations recognize the increasing needs to establish mutually beneficial relationships with other organizations, often called ‘partners’. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 66
  67. 67. PARTNERING When establishing partnerships, attention should be given to:  maximizing the understanding of what is to be delivered by the partnership – the needs of the customer and the capability of the supplier must match perfectly if satisfaction and loyalty are to be the result;  understanding what represents value for money – getting the commercial relationship right;  understanding the respective roles and ensuring an appropriate allocation of responsibilities – to the party best able to manage them;  working in a supportive, constructive and a team-based relationship;  having solid programs of work, comprising agreed plans, timetables, targets, key milestones and decision points;  structuring the resolution of complaints, concerns or disputes rapidly and at the lowest practical level;  enabling the incorporation of knowledge transfer and making sure this adds value;  developing a stronger and stronger working relationship geared to delivering better and better products or services to the end customer – based on continuous improvement principles. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 67
  68. 68. THE ROLE OF PURCHASING IN PARTNERSHIPS Purchasing is responsible for:  Selection,  Quality,  Specification,  Delivery,  Price, Acceptability,  Reliability The purchasing or procurement system should be documented and include:  Assigning responsibilities for and within the purchasing procurement function.  Defining the manner in which suppliers are selected, to ensure that they are continually capable of supplying the requirements.  Specifying the purchasing documentation – written orders, specifications, etc. – required in any modern procurement activity. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 68
  69. 69. JUST-IN-TIME (JIT) MANAGEMENT JIT was started in Japan and renowned as modern age concept for inventory management. JIT was practiced in Japan as early as 1950’s. It took approximately 20 years for JIT methods to reach Western hard goods industries and a further ten years before businesses realized the generality of the concepts. Basically JIT is a program directed towards ensuring that the right quantities are purchased or produced at the right time, and that there is no waste. An important outcome of JIT is a disciplined program for improving productivity and reducing waste. JIT covers:  A series of operating concepts that allows systematic identification of operational problems.  A series of technology-based tools for correcting problems following their identification. The successful operation of JIT is dependent upon a balance between the suppliers’ flexibility and the users’ stability, and of course requires total management and employee commitment and teamwork. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 69
  70. 70. AIMS OF JIT The fundamental aims of JIT are to produce or operate to meet the requirements of the customer exactly, without waste, immediately on demand. In some manufacturing companies JIT has been introduced as ‘continuous flow production’, which describes very well the objective of achieving conversion of purchased material or service receipt to delivery, i.e. from supplier to customer. The JIT concepts identify operational problems by tracking the following:  Material movements – when material stops, diverts or turns backwards, these always correlate with an aberration in the ‘process’.  Material accumulations – these are there as a buffer for problems, excessive variability, etc., like water covering up ‘rocks’.  Process flexibility – an absolute necessity for flexible operation and design.  Value-added efforts – where much of what is done does not add value, the customer will not pay for it. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 70
  71. 71. THE OPERATION OF JIT The tools to carry out the monitoring required are familiar quality and operations management methods, such as: Flowcharting. Process study and analysis. Preventive maintenance. Plant layout methods. Standardized design. Statistical process control. Value analysis and value engineering. But some techniques are more directly associated with the operation of JIT systems: Batch or lot size reduction. Flexible workforce. Kanban or cards with material visibility (MRP / ERP). Mistake-proofing. Pull-scheduling. Set-up time reduction. Standardized containers. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 71
  72. 72. DESIGN, INNOVATION, AND IMPROVEMENT Products, services and processes may be designed, both to add value to customers and to become more profitable. Design is defined as: ‘the way in which something has been planned and made, including what it looks like and how well it works’. Innovation entails both the invention and design of radically new products and services, embodying novel ideas, discoveries and advanced technologies, and the continuous development and improvement of existing products, services, and processes to enhance their performance and quality. It may also be directed at reducing costs of production or operations throughout the life cycle of the product or service system. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 72
  73. 73. THE DESIGN PROCESS The design process often concerns technological innovation in response to, or in anticipation of, changing market requirements and trends in technology. Those companies with impressive records of product- or service-led growth have demonstrated a state-of-the-art approach to innovation based on three principles: 1. Strategic balance to ensure that both old and new product service developments are important. Updating old products, services and processes, ensures continuing cash generation from which completely new products may be funded. 2. Top management approach to design to set the tone and ensure that commitment is the common objective by visibly supporting the design effort. Direct control should be concentrated on critical decision points, since overmeddling by very senior people in day-to-day project management can delay and demotivate staff. 3. Teamwork, to ensure that once projects are under way, specialist inputs, e.g. from marketing and technical experts, are fused and problems are tackled simultaneously. The teamwork should be urgent yet informal, for too much formality will stifle initiative, flair and the fun of design. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 73
  74. 74. DESIGNING If design quality is taking care of all aspects of the customer’s requirements, including cost, production, safe and easy use, and maintainability of products and services, then designing must take place in all aspects of:  Identifying the need (including need for change).  Developing that which satisfies the need.  Checking the conformance to the need.  Ensuring that the need is satisfied. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 74
  76. 76. QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT (QFD) – THE HOUSE OF QUALITY The ‘house of quality’ is the framework of the approach to design management known as quality function deployment (QFD). It originated in Japan in 1972 at Mitsubishi’s Kobe shipyard, but it has been developed in numerous ways by Toyota and its suppliers, and many other organizations. Quality function deployment (QFD) is a ‘system’ for designing a product or service, based on customer requirements, with the participation of members of all functions of the supplier organization. It translates the customer’s requirements into the appropriate technical requirements for each stage. The activities included in QFD are: 1. Market research. 2. Basic research. 3. Innovation. 4. Concept design. 5. Prototype testing. 6. Final-product or service testing. 7. After-sales service and troubleshooting. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 76
  77. 77. THE QFD TEAM IN OPERATION The first step of a QFD exercise is to form a cross-functional QFD team. Its purpose is to take the needs of the market and translate them into such a form that they can be satisfied within the operating unit and delivered to the customers. The QFD team must answer three questions – WHO, WHAT and HOW, i.e.:  WHO are the customers?  WHAT does the customer need?  HOW will the needs be satisfied? The HoQ provides an organization with the means for interdepartmental or interfunctional planning and communications, starting with the so-called customer attributes (CAs). These are phrases customers use to describe product, process, and serviceTQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 77
  78. 78. THE QFD OR HOUSE OF QUALITY TABLES QFD begins with the customer requirements, which are determined through the ‘voice of the customer’ – the marketing and market research activities.  Understanding and prioritizing the customer requirements.  The prime or broad requirements should lead to the detailed WHATs.  Rate and rank the importance.  The WHATs must now be converted into the HOWs. These are called the technical design requirements. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 78
  79. 79. THE BENEFITS OF QFD The aim of the HoQ is to co-ordinate the interfunctional activities and skills within an organization. This should lead to products and services designed, produced/operated, and marketed so that customers will want to purchase them and continue doing so. If QFD is introduced systematically, it should add structure to the information, generate a framework for sensitivity analysis, and provide documentation, which is ‘living’ and adaptable to change. The main benefit of QFD is of course the increase in customer satisfaction and loyalty, which may be measured in terms of, for example, reductions in warranty claims, and repeat business. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 79
  80. 80. SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS Standard: Universally or widely accepted, agreed upon, or established means of determining what something should be. Specification: The document that prescribes the requirements with which the product or service has to conform. There is a strong relationship between standardization and specification. To ensure that a product or a service is standardized and may be repeated a large number of times in exactly the manner required, specifications must be written so that they are open to only one interpretation. There are national and international standards which, if used, help to ensure that specifications will meet certain accepted criteria of technical or managerial performance, safety, etc. Standardization does not guarantee that the best design or specification is selected. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 80
  81. 81. SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS The specification conveys the customer requirements to the supplier to allow the product or service to be designed, engineered, produced, or operated by means of conventional or stipulated equipment, techniques, and technology. The basic requirements of a specification are that it gives the:  Performance requirements of the product or service.  Parameters – such as dimensions, concentration, turn-round time – which describe the product or service adequately (these should be quantified and include the units of measurement).  Materials to be used by stipulating properties or referring to other specifications.  Method of production or delivery of the service.  Inspection/testing/checking requirements.  References to other applicable specifications or documents. Good specifications are usually the product of much discussion, deliberation and sifting of information and data, and represent tangible output from a QFD team. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 81
  82. 82. FAILURE MODE, EFFECT AND CRITICALITY ANALYSIS (FMECA) In the design of products, services and processes it is possible to determine potential modes of failure and their effects on the performance of the product or operation of the process or service system. FMEA is the study of potential failures to determine their effects. If the results of an FMEA are ranked in order of seriousness, then the word criticality is added to give FMECA. The primary objective of an FMECA is to determine the features of product design, production or operation and distribution that are critical to the various modes of failure, in order to reduce failure. FMECA should be a major consideration at the design stage of a product or service. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 82
  83. 83. ELEMENTS OF FMECA Failure mode – the anticipated conditions of operation are used as the background to study the most probable failure mode, location and mechanism of the product or system and its components. Failure effect – the potential failures are studied to determine their probable effects on the performance of the whole product, process, or service, and the effects of the various components on each other. Failure criticality – the potential failures on the various parts of the product or service system are examined to determine the severity of each failure effect in terms of lowering of performance, safety hazard, total loss of function, etc. FMECA may be applied to any stage of design, development, production/operation or use, but since its main aim is to prevent failure, it is most suitably applied at the design stage to identify and eliminate causes. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 83
  84. 84. FEMCA PRO FORMA 1 Identify the product or system components, or process function. 2 List all possible failure modes of each component. 3 Set down the effects that each mode of failure would have on the function of the product or system. 4 List all the possible causes of each failure mode. 5 Assess numerically the failure modes on a scale from 1 to 10. Experience and reliability data should be used, together with judgement, to determine the values, on a scale 1–10, for:  P the probability of each failure mode occurring (1 = low, 10 = high).  S the seriousness or criticality of the failure (1 = low, 10 = high).  D the difficulty of detecting the failure before the product or service is used by the consumer (1 = easy, 10 = very difficult). 6 Calculate the product of the ratings, C = P × S × D, known as the criticality index or risk priority number (RPN) for each failure mode. This indicates the relative priority of each mode in the failure prevention activities. 7 Indicate briefly the corrective action required and, if possible, which department or person is responsible and the expected completion date. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 84
  87. 87. PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT AND THE IMPROVEMENT CYCLE In the cycle of never-ending improvement, measurement plays an important role in:  Tracking progress against organizational goals.  Identifying opportunities for improvement.  Comparing performance against internal standards.  Comparing performance against external standards. Traditionally, the measures used have not been linked to the processes where the value adding activities take place. What has been missing is a performance measurement framework that provides feedback to people in all areas of business operations. Of course, TQM stresses the need to start with the process for fulfilling customer needs. The critical elements of a good performance measurement framework (PMF) are:  Leadership and commitment.  Full employee involvement.  Good planning.  Sound implementation strategy.  Measurement and evaluation.  Control and improvement.  Achieving and maintaining standards of excellence. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 87
  88. 88. DEMING CYCLE OF CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT The Deming cycle of continuous improvement – Plan, Do, Check, Act – clearly requires measurement to drive it, and yet it is a useful design aid for the measurement system itself: Plan: establish performance objectives and standards. Do: measure actual performance. Check: compare actual performance with the objectives and standards – determine the gap. Act: take the necessary actions to close the gap and make the necessary improvements. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 88
  89. 89. MEASURING PERFORMANCE Effectiveness:  Effectiveness may be defined as the percentage actual output over the expected output.  Effectiveness then looks at the output side of the process and is about the implementation of the objectives – doing what you said you would do. Efficiency:  Efficiency is concerned with the percentage resource actually used over the resources that were planned to be used.  It is, of course, possible to use resources ‘efficiently’ while being ineffective, so performance efficiency improvement must be related to certain output objectives. Productivity:  Productivity measures should be designed to relate the process outputs to its inputs. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 89
  90. 90. COST OF QUALITY The cost of achieving goals must be carefully managed, so that the long-term effect on the business or organization is a desirable one. The costs is a true measure of the quality effort. A competitive product or service based on a balance between quality and cost factors is the principal goal of responsible management and may be aided by a competent analysis of the costs of quality (COQ). The analysis of quality-related costs is a significant management tool that provides:  A method of assessing the effectiveness of the management of quality.  A means of determining problem areas, opportunities, savings, and action priorities. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 90
  91. 91. COST OF QUALITY Prevention costs:  These are associated with the design, implementation and maintenance of the quality management system. Prevention costs are planned and are incurred before actual operation. E.g Training, Clerical, travel, supply, shipping, communications and other general office management activities associated with quality. Appraisal costs:  These costs are associated with the supplier’s and customer’s evaluation of purchased materials, processes, intermediates, products and services to assure conformance with the specified requirements. E.g Verification, Vendor Rating, Quality audits. Internal failure costs:  These costs occur when the results of work fail to reach designed quality standards and are detected before transfer to the customer takes place. E.g Waste, re-inspection. External failure costs:  These costs occur when products or services fail to reach design quality standards but are not detected until after transfer to the consumer. E.g complaints, claims. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 91
  92. 92. PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT FRAMEWORK (PMF) The framework has four elements related to: strategy development/goal deployment, process management, individual performance management, and review. The key to strategic planning and goal deployment is the identification of a set of critical success factors (CSFs) and associated key performance indicators (KPIs). Level 1 Strategy development and goal deployment leading to mission/vision, critical success factors and key performance outcomes (KPOs). Level 2 Process management and process performance measurement through key performance indicators (KPIs) (including input, in process and output measures, management of internal and external customer/supplier relationships and the use of management control systems). Level 3 Individual performance management and performance appraisal. Level 4 Review performance (including internal and external benchmarking, self assessment against quality award criteria and quality costing). TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 92
  93. 93. IMPLEMENTATION OF PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS It has already been established that a good measurement system will start with the customer and measure the right things. All critical parts of the process must be measured, and it is often better to start with simple measures and improve them. If all employees participate, and own the measurement processes, there will be lower resistance to the system, and a positive commitment towards future changes will be engaged. There are a number of possible reasons why measurement systems fail:  They do not define performance operationally.  They do not relate performance to the process.  The boundaries of the process are not defined.  The measures are misunderstood or misused or measure the wrong things.  There is no distinction between control and improvement.  There is a fear of exposing poor and good performance.  It is seen as an extra burden in terms of time and reporting.  There is a perception of reduced autonomy.  Too many measurements are focused internally and too few are focused externally.  There is a fear of the introduction of tighter management controls. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 93
  94. 94. BENCHMARKING Benchmarking is the practice of a business comparing key metrics of their operations to other similar companies. In the business world, companies use benchmarking as a point of reference to review their performance against competitors in a ruthless way. External Drivers:  customers continually demand better quality, lower prices, shorter lead times, etc;  competitors are constantly trying to get ahead and steal markets;  legislation – changes in our laws place ever greater demands for improvement. Internal Drivers:  targets which require improvements on our ‘best ever’ performance;  technology – a fundamental change in processes is often required to benefit fully from introducing new technologies;  self-assessment results, which provide opportunities to learn from adapting best practices. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 94
  96. 96. PURPOSE OF BENCHMARKING Customer satisfaction:  Product or service consistency.  Correct and on-time delivery.  Speed of response or new product development.  Correct billing. For internal impact the benchmarks may include:  Waste, rejects or errors.  Inventory levels/work-in-progress.  Costs of operation.  Staff turnover. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 96
  97. 97. BUSINESS PROCESS RE- ENGINEERING OR REDESIGN (BPR) The fundamental rethink and radical redesign of a business process, its structure and associated management systems, to deliver major or step improvements in performance (which may be in process, customer, or business performance terms). BPR aimed to help organizations fundamentally rethink how they do their work in order to dramatically improve customer service, cut operational costs, and become world-class competitors. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 97
  98. 98. BUSINESS PROCESS RE- ENGINEERING OR REDESIGN (BPR) Hammer and Champy suggested seven reengineering principles to streamline the work process and thereby achieve significant levels of improvement in quality, time management, speed and profitability:  1. Organize around outcomes, not tasks.  2. Identify all the processes in an organization and prioritize them in order of redesign urgency.  3. Integrate information processing work into the real work that produces the information.  4. Treat geographically dispersed resources as though they were centralized.  5. Link parallel activities in the workflow instead of just integrating their results.  6. Put the decision point where the work is performed, and build control into the process.  7. Capture information once and at the source. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 98
  99. 99. International Organization for Standardization (IOS) TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 99
  100. 100. QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM The international family of standards ISO 9000:2000 ‘Quality Management Systems’ specifies systems which can be implemented in an organization to ensure that all the product/service performance requirements and needs of the customer are fully met. A good quality management system will ensure that two important requirements are met:  The customer’s requirements – for confidence in the ability of the organization to deliver the desired product or service consistently.  The organization’s requirements – both internally and externally including regulatory, and at an optimum cost, with efficient utilization of the resources available – material, human, technological, and information. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 100
  101. 101. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION (IOS) Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promotes worldwide proprietary, industrial and commercial standards. It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and as of 2013 works in 164 countries. ISO is an independent, non-governmental international organization with a membership of 162 national standards bodies. Through its members, it brings together experts to share knowledge and develop voluntary, consensus-based, market relevant International Standards that support innovation and provide solutions to global challenges. ISO has published more than 20 500 International Standards and related documents, covering almost every industry, from technology, to food safety, to agriculture and healthcare. ISO International Standards impact everyone, everywhere. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 101
  102. 102. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION (IOS) 'International Organization for Standardization' have different acronyms in different languages, there are three official languages of the ISO.  IOS in English International Organization for Standardization,  OIN in French for Organisation internationale de normalisation),  Russian, Международная организация по стандартизации, Founders of IOS decided to give it the short form ISO and ISO is derived from the Greek isos, meaning equal. Whatever the country, whatever the language, ISO is always used. TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 102
  103. 103. LIST OF ISO STANDARDS  ISO 1:2002 Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) – Standard reference temperature for geometrical product specification and verification  ISO 2:1973 Textiles – Designation of the direction of twist in yarns and related products  ISO 4:1997 Information and documentation – Rules for the abbreviation of title words and titles of publications  ISO 8000 Data quality  ISO 9000 Quality management systems – Fundamentals and vocabulary  ISO 14000 Environmental management systems [This is a set of standards, rather than a single standard.]  ISO 19005 Document management – Electronic document file format for long-term preservation.  ISO 22000:2005 Food safety management systems – Requirements for any organization in the food chain TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD 103
  104. 104. ISO 9000: 2000 Created by International Organization for Standardization (IOS) which was created in 1946 to standardize quality requirement within the European market. IOS initially composed of representatives from 91 countries: probably most wide base for quality standards. Adopted a series of written quality standards in 1987 (first revised in 1994, and more recently (and significantly) in 2000). 104TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD
  105. 105. ISO 9000: 2000 Defines quality systems standards based on the premise that certain generic characteristics of management principles can be standardized. And that a well-designed, well-implemented and well managed quality system provides confidence that outputs will meet customer expectations and requirements. Standards are recognized by 100 countries including Japan and USA. Intended to apply to all types of businesses. (Recently, B2B firm became the first e-commerce company to get ISO certification.) 105TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD
  106. 106. ISO 9000: 2000 Created to meet five objectives: 1. Achieve, maintain, and seek to continuously improve product quality in relation to the requirements. 2. Improve the quality of operations to continually meet customers’ and stakeholders’ needs. 3. Provide confidence to internal management that quality requirements are being met. 4. Provide confidence to the customers that quality requirements are being met. 5. Provide confidence that quality system requirements are fulfilled. 106TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD
  107. 107. ISO 9000: 2000 STRUCTURE Consists of three documents 1. ISO 9000 – Fundamentals and vocabulary. 2. ISO 9001 – Requirements. Organized in four sections: Management Responsibility; Resource Management; Product Realization; and Measurement, Analysis and Improvement. 3. ISO 9004 – Guidelines for performance improvements. 107TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD
  108. 108. ISO 9000: 2000 QUALITY MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES Principle 1: Customer Focus Principle 2: Leadership Principle 3: Involvement of people Principle 4: Process approach Principle 5: Systems approach for management Principle 6: Continual improvement Principle 7: Factual approach to decision making Principle 8: Mutually beneficial supplier relationships. 108TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD
  109. 109. ISO 9000: 2000 REGISTRATION Originally intended to be a two-party process where the supplier is audited by its customers, the ISO 9000 process became a third-party accreditation process. Independent laboratory or a certification agency conducts the audit. Recertification is required every three years. Individual sites – not entire company – must achieve registration individually. All costs are to be borne by the applicant. A registration audit may cost anywhere from $10,000 to $40,000. (more information at 109TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD
  110. 110. SIX SIGMA Business improvement approach that seeks to find and eliminate causes of defects and errors in processes by focusing on outputs that are critical to customers. The term Six Sigma is based on a statistical measure that equates 3.4 or fewer errors or defects per million opportunities. Motorola pioneered the concept of Six Sigma. The late Bill Smith, a reliability engineer is credited with conceiving the idea of Six Sigma. GE (specifically CEO Jack Welch) extensively promoted it. 110TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD
  111. 111. SIX SIGMA Core philosophy based on key concepts: Think in terms of key business processes and customer requirements with focus on strategic objectives. Focus on corporate sponsors responsible for championing projects. Emphasize quantifiable measures such as defects per million opportunities (dpmo). Ensure appropriate metrics is identified to maintain accountability. Provide extensive training. Create highly qualified process improvement experts -“belts”. Set stretch objectives for improvement. 111TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD
  112. 112. SIX SIGMA Contrasts between traditional TQM and Six Sigma (SS) - TQM is based largely on worker empowerment and teams; SS is owned by business leader champions. TQM is process based; SS projects are truly cross-functional. TQM training is generally limited to simple improvements tools and concepts; SS is more rigorous with advanced statistical methods. TQM has little emphasis on financial accountability; SS requires verifiable return on investment and focus on bottom line. 112TQM PRESENTED BY SALMAN MEHMOOD