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SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016 Benchmark Slide 2 SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016 Benchmark Slide 3 SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016 Benchmark Slide 4 SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016 Benchmark Slide 5 SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016 Benchmark Slide 6 SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016 Benchmark Slide 7 SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016 Benchmark Slide 8 SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016 Benchmark Slide 9 SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016 Benchmark Slide 10 SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016 Benchmark Slide 11 SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016 Benchmark Slide 12 SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016 Benchmark Slide 13 SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016 Benchmark Slide 14 SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016 Benchmark Slide 15 SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016 Benchmark Slide 16 SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016 Benchmark Slide 17 SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016 Benchmark Slide 18 SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016 Benchmark Slide 19 SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016 Benchmark Slide 20 SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016 Benchmark Slide 21 SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016 Benchmark Slide 22 SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016 Benchmark Slide 23 SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016 Benchmark Slide 24

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SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016 Benchmark

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This presentation gives an overview of SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016, the first industry standard benchmark that measures the performance of infrastructure as a service clouds. More details on benchmark at https://www.spec.org/cloud_iaas2016/ .

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SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016 Benchmark

  1. 1. SPEC Cloud™ IaaS 2016 Benchmark Salman Baset, IBM - @salman_baset https://www.spec.org/benchmarks.html#cloud
  2. 2. Topics • Standard Performance Corporation (SPEC) • What are cloud characteristics? • What is a cloud benchmark? • SPEC Cloud IaaS 2016 benchmark, the first industry standard benchmark – Workloads – Setup – Metrics – Compliant run – Stopping conditions – Published results • What’s next in SPEC Cloud* benchmarks? 2
  3. 3. SPEC Background • Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation (SPEC) is a non-profit corporation formed to establish, maintain and endorse a standardized set of relevant benchmarks that can be applied to the newest generation of high-performance computers. – http://www.spec.org/ • Well-known benchmarks such as SPEC CPU 2006, SPEC Virt, SPEC Power… • Cloud Subcommittee released the first industry standard benchmark (SPEC Cloud IaaS 2016) for infrastructure-as-a-service cloud in May 2016. – http://spec.org/benchmarks.html#cloud 3
  4. 4. SPEC Cloud IaaS Benchmark and OpenStack • Measuring cloud performance in general and OpenStack performance in particular is hard. – Too many configuration options – Too many metrics – Difficult to repeat experiments and compare results • SPEC Cloud IaaS 2016 can be used to measure and publish performance (and related configuration) of each OpenStack release. – Each release can be measured by the benchmark – Such results can potentially be published before an OpenStack summit or during key note, giving credence to the release. – All results are peer-reviewed before publishing. 4
  5. 5. What is a cloud? • Public cloud • Private cloud • Hybrid cloud 5
  6. 6. What is a cloud? • SPEC OSG Cloud Subcommittee Glossary • Blackbox Cloud • A cloud-provider provides a general specification of the system under test (SUT), usually in terms of how the cloud consumer may be billed. The exact hardware details corresponding to these compute units may not be known. This will typically be the case if the entity benchmarking the cloud is different from a cloud provider, e.g., public clouds or hosted private clouds. • Whitebox Cloud • The SUT’s exact engineering specifications including all hardware and software are known and under the control of the tester. This will typically be the case for private clouds. Source: https://www.spec.org/cloud_iaas2016/docs/faq/html/glossary.html 6
  7. 7. What are cloud characteristics? 7 SPEC RESEARCH GROUP - CLOUD WORKING GROUP https://research.spec.org/working-groups/rg-cloud-working- group.html READY FOR RAIN? A VIEW FROM SPEC RESEARCH ON THE FUTURE OF CLOUD METRICS https://research.spec.org/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/ rg_cloud/endorsed_publications/SPEC-RG-2016- 01_CloudMetrics.pdf
  8. 8. Elasticity 8 - THE DEGREE TO WHICH A SYSTEM IS ABLE TO ADAPT TO WORKLOAD CHANGES BY PROVISIONING AND DE- PROVISIONING RESOURCES IN AN AUTONOMIC MANNER, SUCH THAT AT EACH POINT IN TIME THE AVAILABLE RESOURCES MATCH THE CURRENT DEMAND AS CLOSELY AS POSSIBLE Source: READY FOR RAIN? A VIEW FROM SPEC RESEARCH ON THE FUTURE OF CLOUD METRICS, SPEC RG Cloud Working Group
  9. 9. Scalability 9 - THE ABILITY OF THE SYSTEM TO SUSTAIN INCREASING WORKLOADS BY MAKING USE OF ADDITIONAL RESOURCES, AND THEREFORE, IN CONTRAST TO ELASTICITY, IT IS NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO HOW WELL THE ACTUAL RESOURCE DEMANDS ARE MATCHED BY THE PROVISIONED RESOURCES AT ANY POINT IN TIME. Source: READY FOR RAIN? A VIEW FROM SPEC RESEARCH ON THE FUTURE OF CLOUD METRICS, SPEC RG Cloud Working Group
  10. 10. SPEC Cloud - Scalability and Elasticity Analogy Climbing a mountain 10 c c{ { { { { Elasticity – time for each step IDEAL Scalability • Mountain: Keep on climbing • Cloud: keep on adding load without errors Elasticity • Mountain: Each step takes identical time • Cloud: performance within limits as load increases { { {
  11. 11. Cloud Infinitely Scalable and Elastic? • "Public clouds can have ‘infinite’ scale.” – In reality • Resource limitation: Limited instances can be created within availability zone • Budget limitation: for testing • Performance variation: due to multiple tenants • “Private clouds can be fully elastic” – In reality • Performance variation: may have better performance under no load, unless configured correctly 11
  12. 12. What is a good IaaS cloud benchmark? • Measures meaningful metrics that are comparable are reproducible • Measures cloud “elasticity” and “scalability” • Benchmark IaaS clouds, not the workloads! • Measures performance of public and private infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS) clouds • Measure provisioning and run-time performance of a cloud • Uses workloads that resemble “real” workloads – No micro benchmarks • Places no restriction on how a cloud is configured. • Places no restriction on the type of instances a tester can use (e.g., no restriction on VM/baremetal, CPU, memory, disk, network) – However, once a tester selects instance types for the test, they cannot be changed – Minimum machines part of cloud: 4 (with appropriate specs for these machines) • Allows easy addition of new workloads 12
  13. 13. SPEC Cloud IaaS 2016 Benchmark • The first industry standard benchmark that measures the scalability, elasticity, mean instance provisioning time of clouds, and more • Uses real workloads in multi-instance configuration 13
  14. 14. SPEC Cloud IaaS 2016 - Workloads 14 YCSB / Cassandra Framework used by a common set of workloads for evaluating performance of different key-value and cloud serving stores. KMeans -Hadoop-based CPU intensive workload -Chose Intel HiBench implementation YCSB Application Instance comprising 7 instances KMeans Application Instance comprising 6 instances No restriction on instance configuration, i.e., cpu, mem, disk, net
  15. 15. How does SPEC Cloud IaaS 2016 measure Scalability and Elasticity? • Run each application YCSB and Kmeans instance once (baseline phase) • Create multiple YCSB and Kmeans application instances over time (elasticity + scalability phase) with statistically similar work – The more application instances are created and perform work, the higher the scalability – The low variability in performance during elasticity + scalability phase relative to baseline phase, the higher the elasticity 15
  16. 16. Benchmark phases • Baseline phase – Determine the performance of a single application instance for determining QoS criteria. – The assumption is that only a single application instance is run in the cloud (white-box) or in the user account (black-box) • Elasticity + Scalability phase – Determine cloud elasticity and scalability results when multiple workloads are run – Stops when QoS criteria as determined from baseline is not met, or maximum AIs as set by a tester are reached – Scalability results are normalized against a “reference platform” 16
  17. 17. Elasticity + Scalability phase – pictorial representation c c Time AIindex Stopping condition (QoS / user specified limits) c c c c AI Provisioned 2nd run complete 1st run complete YCSB K-Means 17 • Each block indicates the time for a valid run within an application instance • Application instances (comprising multiple instances are provisioning on the left)
  18. 18. SPEC Cloud™ IaaS 2016 Benchmark - Setup CloudBench Baseline driver Elasticity + Scalability driver Report generator Cloud SUT Group of boxes represents an application instance. Different color within a group indicates workload generators/ different VM sizes. Benchmark harness Benchmark harness. It comprises of Cloud Bench (cbtool) and baseline/elasticity drivers, and report generators. cbtool creates application instances in a cloud and collects metrics. cbtool is driven by baseline and scalability driver to execute the baseline and elasticity + scalability phases of the benchmark, respectively. For white-box clouds the benchmark harness is outside the SUT. For black-box clouds, it can be in the same location or campus. 18
  19. 19. Metrics Definitions for SPEC Cloud™ IaaS 2016 Benchmark (1/2) – Primary Metrics • Scalability – measures the total amount of work performed by application instances running in a cloud. Scalability is reported as a unit-less number. – Example: Support through of two application instances is 5000 ops/s, then normalized to reference platform, scalability is 2.0 • Elasticity – measures whether the work performed by application instances scales linearly in a cloud. It is expressed as a percentage (out of 100). – Example: self-referential. How bad a cloud performs when the offered load by the benchmark increases 19
  20. 20. Metrics Definitions for SPEC Cloud™ IaaS 2016 Benchmark (2/2) – Secondary Metrics • Mean Instance Provisioning Time – measures the interval between instance creation request sent by the benchmark harness and the moment when the instance is reachable on port 22 (SSH port). • AI Run Success – measures the percentage of runs across all application instances that successfully completed. • AI provisioning success – Measures the percentage of application instances that provisioning successfully. • Phase start and end date/time and region (not a metric but reported as part of fair usage) – Date/time when the elasticity phase was started, and the region in which the test was performed. 20
  21. 21. Stopping Conditions • 20% of the AIs fail to provision • 10% of the AIs have any errors reported in any of the AI runs • 50% of the AIs have QoS condition violated across any run – QoS conditions are defined per workload and are relative to baseline – YCSB: 50% of AIs have one or more run where • Throughput is less than 33% of baseline throughput • 99% Insert or Read latency for any run is 3.33 times greater than Insert and Read latency in baseline – K-Means: 50% of AIs have one or more run where • Complete time is 3.33 times greater than completion time in baseline phase • Maximum number of AIs as set by the cloud provider has been provisioned. 21
  22. 22. Published Results • https://www.spec.org/cloud_iaas2016/results/ 22
  23. 23. SPEC Cloud IaaS 2016 Update and Future Cloud Benchmarks (get involved) • Update for SPEC Cloud IaaS 2016 coming soon – Updates for OpenStack Newton – Easy writing of adapters for new clouds (lib cloud support) – Miscellaneous bug fixes • Gen Involved: Future SPEC Cloud* benchmarks for – Object storage – Serverless systems – … 23 https://www.spec.org/benchmarks.html#cloud
  • YenKuangChuang

    Jan. 18, 2020

This presentation gives an overview of SPEC Cloud (TM) IaaS 2016, the first industry standard benchmark that measures the performance of infrastructure as a service clouds. More details on benchmark at https://www.spec.org/cloud_iaas2016/ .

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