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Types of Disaster
– Extreme temperature
Man Made (Ex.)
• Bhopal Gas tragedy
• Nuclear disaster
Vulnerability is defined as the
extent to which a community,
structure, service and/or
geographic area is likely to be
damaged or disrupted (get
affect) by impact of particular
Risk is the expected losses from the impact of
• Hospital preparedness
• Temporary shelter
• Warning system
• Public awareness
• First aid
• Perform rescue operation
• Provide emergency contact no.
• Organize medical camp
• Provide essential services (Food, Water,
• Provide financial assistance
• Provide employment
• Provide home
Prevention / Mitigation
• Mitigation:- Strategy and plan to
minimizing negative impact of hazard
and sustained action taken to reduce
long term vulnerability of human life or
Elements of a mitigation strategy
• Risk assessment and Vulnerability analysis
• Institutional mechanisms (Gov/ NGO)
Any mitigation program must also ensure effective
partnership between Government, scientific, private
sector, NGOs and the community.
• Planning and regulations
Hazard reduction methods must take into account various
hazards faced by the affected community and their
desires and priorities.
• Hazard resistant design and construction
Structural and Constructional reinforcement of existing
buildings and cultural assets
TWO FEATURES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT
• search and rescue
The word is Japanese and means "harbor
wave,”because of the effect on the low coastal
Tsunami is a giant, or series of big waves caused
by an immediate vertical disturbance that
displaces the water from its normal position.
This causes the water mass to try to regain
normality by pushing away the displaced water.
"The main factor which determines the initial size
of a tsunami is the amount of vertical sea floor
Tsunamis are not created from the wind!
But it is created from Earthquakes, landslides,
volcanic eruptions, explosions, and even an
impact from space, such as meteorites, can
• When a tsunami crosses the ocean its length
(from crest to crest) can be 100 miles or more,
and its trough won’t be any higher than two feet.
• Tsunami travels at speeds of 600 miles per
hour in the deepest ocean. But once it reaches
the shoaling water of the coastline its speed
decreases, and the wave becomes increasingly
• While tsunamis have periods that range from ten
minutes to two hours and 300 mile long
Tsunami nears shore
• As wave gets into shallow water bottom of
wave drags along ocean floor
• Top of wave still moving fast: can cause
cresting of wave, and breaking onto shore
Energy in tsunami
• Loss of energy in a wave is inversely
proportional to λ(wavelength)
• Since λ very long, little energy lost
• Waves can travel great distances and still
be very distructive
• As the tsunami leaves the deeper water of the
open ocean and travels into the more shallow
waters near the coast, the speed of the
tsunami will decrease but the energy of the
tsunami will stay the same and the wave
grows bigger this happens because its called a
How to prepare for a tsunami?
• Avoid building or living in buildings within several hundred feet
• These areas are more likely to experience damage from
tsunamis, strong winds, or coastal storms.
• Make a list of items to bring inside in the event of a tsunami. A
list will help you remember anything that can be swept away
by tsunami waters.
• Elevate coastal homes. Most tsunami waves are less than 10
feet. Elevating your house will help reduce damage to your
property from most tsunamis.
Follow flood preparedness precautions. Tsunamis
are large amounts of water that crash onto the
coastline, creating floods.
• Have an engineer check your home and advise
about ways to make it more resistant to tsunami
water. There may be ways to divert waves away
from your property.
• Improperly built walls could make your situation
worse. Consult with a professional for advice.
What to do during a tsunami?
• Stay out of the building if waters remain around it. Tsunami
waters, like flood waters, can undermine foundations, causing
buildings to sink, floors to crack, or walls to collapse
• Use battery-powered flashlights when
examining buildings. Battery-powered lighting is the safest
and easiest, preventing fire hazard for the user, occupants,
• Examine walls, floors, doors, staircases, and windows to make
sure that the building is not in danger of collapsing.
• Continue listening to a Weather Radio, Coast Guard
emergency frequency station, or other reliable source for
emergency information. The tsunami may have damaged
roads, bridges, or other places that may be unsafe.
Look for any hazard
• Look for fire hazards. There may be broken or leaking gas
lines, flooded electrical circuits, or submerged furnaces or
electrical appliances. Flammable or explosive materials may
come from upstream. Fire is the most frequent hazard
• Check for gas leaks. If you smell gas or hear a blowing or
hissing noise, open a window and quickly leave the building.
Turn off the gas using the outside main valve if you can, and
call the gas company from a neighbor's home. If you turn off
the gas for any reason, it must be turned back on by a
• Look for electrical system damage. If you see sparks or
broken or frayed wires, or if you smell burning insulation, turn
off the electricity at the main fuse box or circuit breaker. If you
have to step in water to get to the fuse box or circuit breaker,
call an electrician first for advice. Electrical equipment should
be checked and dried before being returned to service.
• Japan is located on edge of Eurasian
plate. The oceanic pacific plate sink under
• This is destructive as there is friction
• When strain build up → it cause release of
pressure and energy
• On March 11, 2011, an earthquake struck
off the coast of Japan
• It was centred (epicentre) at 130km north
• The earthquake caused churning up a
devastating tsunami that swept over cities
and farmland in the northern part of the
country and set off warnings as far away
the west coast of the United States and
• It was the most powerful quake ever to hit
the country. In the days that followed
death estimates soared astronomically,
with officials saying that more than 10,000
• As the nation struggled with a rescue
effort, it also faced the worst nuclear
emergency since Chernobyl; explosions
and leaks of radioactive gas took place
in three reactors at the Fukushima
• Nuclear Power Station that suffered partial
meltdowns, while spent fuel rods at
another reactor overheated and caught
fire, releasing radioactive material directly
• Tsunami warning was issued 3min after earthquake
• Tokyo’s major airport halted
• All trains were halted
• 32 bridges were destroyed
• Rescue teams arrived from various countries for searching
• 2000 people were confirmed dead
• Yen fell sharply and Tokyo market
• Government set-up task force at PMO
• 91 countries offered help