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Disaster management

  1. 1. Disaster Management Tsunami Earthquake in Japan
  2. 2. Disaster
  3. 3. Types of Disaster Natural • Geophysical – Earthquake – Tsunami • Metrological – Cyclone – Tornado • Hydrological – flood • Climatological – Extreme temperature – wildfire • Biological – Epidemic Man Made (Ex.) • War • Bhopal Gas tragedy • Nuclear disaster
  4. 4. Vulnerability is defined as the extent to which a community, structure, service and/or geographic area is likely to be damaged or disrupted (get affect) by impact of particular hazard. Vulnerability Risk is the expected losses from the impact of given hazard
  5. 5. Vulnerability + Hazard = Disaster
  6. 6. Disaster Management
  7. 7. Disaster Management 1. Preparedness 2. Response – Rehabilitation 3. Recovery – Reconstruction 4. Mitigation – Prevention
  8. 8. Preparedness • Hospital preparedness • Temporary shelter • Warning system • Public awareness • First aid
  9. 9. Response/ Rehabilitation • Perform rescue operation • Provide emergency contact no. • Organize medical camp • Provide essential services (Food, Water, Electricity) • Provide financial assistance • Provide employment • Provide home
  10. 10. Prevention / Mitigation • Mitigation:- Strategy and plan to minimizing negative impact of hazard and sustained action taken to reduce long term vulnerability of human life or property
  11. 11. Elements of a mitigation strategy • Risk assessment and Vulnerability analysis • Institutional mechanisms (Gov/ NGO) Any mitigation program must also ensure effective partnership between Government, scientific, private sector, NGOs and the community. • Planning and regulations Hazard reduction methods must take into account various hazards faced by the affected community and their desires and priorities. • Hazard resistant design and construction Structural and Constructional reinforcement of existing buildings and cultural assets
  12. 12. TWO FEATURES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT Multidisciplinary • forecasting • warning • evacuation • search and rescue • relief • reconstruction • rehabilitation Multi-sectoral • administrators, • scientists, • planners, • volunteers • communities.
  13. 13. Multidisciplinary
  14. 14. TSUNAMI The word is Japanese and means "harbor wave,”because of the effect on the low coastal areas. Tsunami is a giant, or series of big waves caused by an immediate vertical disturbance that displaces the water from its normal position. This causes the water mass to try to regain normality by pushing away the displaced water.
  15. 15. contd... "The main factor which determines the initial size of a tsunami is the amount of vertical sea floor deformation" (WACTC). Tsunamis are not created from the wind! But it is created from Earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, explosions, and even an impact from space, such as meteorites, can generate tsunamis.
  16. 16. How do EQ cause tsunami?
  17. 17. contd... • When a tsunami crosses the ocean its length (from crest to crest) can be 100 miles or more, and its trough won’t be any higher than two feet. • Tsunami travels at speeds of 600 miles per hour in the deepest ocean. But once it reaches the shoaling water of the coastline its speed decreases, and the wave becomes increasingly higher. • While tsunamis have periods that range from ten minutes to two hours and 300 mile long wavelengths.
  18. 18. Tsunami nears shore • As wave gets into shallow water bottom of wave drags along ocean floor • Top of wave still moving fast: can cause cresting of wave, and breaking onto shore
  19. 19. Energy in tsunami • Loss of energy in a wave is inversely proportional to λ(wavelength) • Since λ very long, little energy lost • Waves can travel great distances and still be very distructive
  20. 20. Tsunami nears shore
  21. 21. "shoaling" effect • As the tsunami leaves the deeper water of the open ocean and travels into the more shallow waters near the coast, the speed of the tsunami will decrease but the energy of the tsunami will stay the same and the wave grows bigger this happens because its called a "shoaling" effect.
  22. 22. How to prepare for a tsunami? • Avoid building or living in buildings within several hundred feet of thecoastline. • These areas are more likely to experience damage from tsunamis, strong winds, or coastal storms. • Make a list of items to bring inside in the event of a tsunami. A list will help you remember anything that can be swept away by tsunami waters. • Elevate coastal homes. Most tsunami waves are less than 10 feet. Elevating your house will help reduce damage to your property from most tsunamis.
  23. 23. contd... Follow flood preparedness precautions. Tsunamis are large amounts of water that crash onto the coastline, creating floods. • Have an engineer check your home and advise about ways to make it more resistant to tsunami water. There may be ways to divert waves away from your property. • Improperly built walls could make your situation worse. Consult with a professional for advice.
  24. 24. What to do during a tsunami? • Stay out of the building if waters remain around it. Tsunami waters, like flood waters, can undermine foundations, causing buildings to sink, floors to crack, or walls to collapse • Use battery-powered flashlights when examining buildings. Battery-powered lighting is the safest and easiest, preventing fire hazard for the user, occupants, and building. • Examine walls, floors, doors, staircases, and windows to make sure that the building is not in danger of collapsing. • Continue listening to a Weather Radio, Coast Guard emergency frequency station, or other reliable source for emergency information. The tsunami may have damaged roads, bridges, or other places that may be unsafe.
  25. 25. Look for any hazard • Look for fire hazards. There may be broken or leaking gas lines, flooded electrical circuits, or submerged furnaces or electrical appliances. Flammable or explosive materials may come from upstream. Fire is the most frequent hazard following floods. • Check for gas leaks. If you smell gas or hear a blowing or hissing noise, open a window and quickly leave the building. Turn off the gas using the outside main valve if you can, and call the gas company from a neighbor's home. If you turn off the gas for any reason, it must be turned back on by a professional. • Look for electrical system damage. If you see sparks or broken or frayed wires, or if you smell burning insulation, turn off the electricity at the main fuse box or circuit breaker. If you have to step in water to get to the fuse box or circuit breaker, call an electrician first for advice. Electrical equipment should be checked and dried before being returned to service.
  26. 26. Earthquake in Japan
  27. 27. • Japan is located on edge of Eurasian plate. The oceanic pacific plate sink under Eurasian plate • This is destructive as there is friction between plates • When strain build up → it cause release of pressure and energy • On March 11, 2011, an earthquake struck off the coast of Japan • It was centred (epicentre) at 130km north
  28. 28. • The earthquake caused churning up a devastating tsunami that swept over cities and farmland in the northern part of the country and set off warnings as far away the west coast of the United States and South America. • It was the most powerful quake ever to hit the country. In the days that followed death estimates soared astronomically, with officials saying that more than 10,000
  29. 29. • As the nation struggled with a rescue effort, it also faced the worst nuclear emergency since Chernobyl; explosions and leaks of radioactive gas took place in three reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi • Nuclear Power Station that suffered partial meltdowns, while spent fuel rods at another reactor overheated and caught fire, releasing radioactive material directly
  30. 30. Earthquake aftermath • Tsunami warning was issued 3min after earthquake • Tokyo’s major airport halted • All trains were halted • 32 bridges were destroyed • Rescue teams arrived from various countries for searching survivors • 2000 people were confirmed dead • Yen fell sharply and Tokyo market • Government set-up task force at PMO • 91 countries offered help
  31. 31. PV cell working
  32. 32. • Thank You

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