Minnesota Plant Press The Minnesota Native Plant Society Newsletter www.mnnps.orgVolume 31 Number 2 Spring 2012 Monthly meetings Carmen Converse receives Thompson Park Center/Dakota Lodge Thompson County Park lifetime membership award Carmen Converse is the 2012 recipient of a lifetime membership in 360 Butler Ave. E., the Minnesota Native Plant Society. She received the award during the West St. Paul, MN 55118 March Symposium. Following are the comments of award presenters Lee Programs Pfannmuller, state planning coordinator, Audubon Minnesota; and Barbara The Minnesota Native Plant Coffin, associate director of adult education programs, Bell Museum ofSociety meets the first Thursday Natural History.in October, November, December, Carmen’s accomplishments in the field of natural history over theFebruary, March, April, May, and past few decades have been nothing short of astounding. Although herJune. Check at www.mnnps.org for contributions precede her engagement and leadership with the Minnesotamore program information. County Biological Survey, it is for the latter that she is best known. In 6 p.m. — Social period 1987, this fledgling program started with a little over $100,000 and a 7 – 9 p.m. — Program, Society couple of ecologists documenting native prairie communities in the Redbusiness River Valley. May 3: “Wild Orchids ofMinnesota,” by Welby Smith, But under her leadership, beginning in the early 1990s, the program hasbotanist, Minnesota DNR. Plant- grown tremendously to include a staff of some of the best plant communityof-the-Month: Least moonwort ecologists, plant taxonomists and zoologists in the Upper Midwest. From(Botrychium tenebrosum). a budget of just over $200,000 in the early 1990s, the annual budget is now nearly $1.5 million, supporting a diversity of field work, conservation June 7: “Minnesota’s State efforts and educational products.Prairie Plan: The Conservation ofMinnesota’s Most Threatened Major During her tenure:Habitat Type,” by Steve Chaplin, • More than 19,000 records of rare species and native plant communitiesThe Nature Conservancy. Plant- have been collected and entered in the Natural Heritage Informationof-the-Month: Whorled milkweed System;(Asclepias verticillata). Spring • Map polygons for over 10,000 MCBS sites of Biodiversity SignificancePlant Sale: See article on page 2. are publicly available; • Species never previously known to occur in the state have been found; Oct. 4: To be announced. • Maps depicting MCBS results are available to resource managers throughout the state; In this issue • Numerous quality publications Society news ...........................2 have and continue to be produced, New members .........................2 including a Guide to the Native Native plant sale ....................2 Habitats of the St Croix River Nomenclature changes ...........3 Valley and Anoka Sand Plain, and Maple syrup’s natural history ...4 the collection of three Field Guides President’s column .................5 Asarum canadense (wild ginger) to the Native Communities of Field trips ...............................6 that Ken Arndt is potting for the Minnesota. Plant Lore - wild geranium ....7 June 7 native plant sale. Continued on page 3 Conservation Corner ..............7
Welcome, new Jon Peterson, North Mankato; Tony Randazzo, Minneapolis; MNNPS Boardmembers Tony Reznicek, Ann Arbor, Mich. Nancy M. Rose, Minneapolis; of Directors The Society gives a warm President: Scott Milburn, scott.welcome to 39 new members who Jessica and Eric Schultz, Plymouth; email@example.com during the first quarter of Terry Serres, St. Paul;2012. Greg Silverman, Minneapolis; Vice President: Shirley Mah Listed alphabetically, they are: Geri Sjoquist, Rosemount; Kooyman, shirley.mah.kooyman@Kathy Ahlers, Minneapolis; Katy Smith, Crookston; mnnps.orgMarilyn Andersen, Maplewood; Richard Stich, Remer; Secretary, program coordinator:Barbara Coffin, Minneapolis; Kim Thomas, Apple Valley; Andrés Morantes, andres.Marcel Derosier, Arden Hills; Megan Ulrich, Renville; firstname.lastname@example.orgStephanie Erlandson, Inver Grove Anita Volkenant, Montrose; Barbara Walther, Hastings; Treasurers, membership dataHeights; Tim Whitfield, St. Paul; base: Ron and Cathy Huber, ron.Don Farrar, Ames, Iowa; Robert Wolk, Minneapolis. email@example.comKelly Feyler, Hastings;Tiffany Forner, Columbia Heights; Ken Arndt: board member, fieldRon Gamble, Dexter; MNNPS has nine trip chair, firstname.lastname@example.orgBryan Harvey, Aitkin;Rosanne Healy, St. Paul; lifetime members Michael Bourdaghs: board We thank our nine lifetime member, michael.bourdaghs@Margaret Hibberd, St. Paul; mnnps.orgKirsten Howe, West St. Paul; members for their support. In order,Melinda Kjarum, North Mankato; they are: Otto Gockman: board member,Andy Kranz, Winona; Jason Husveth, Scandia, 2008; email@example.comLake Harriet Montessori, Pamela Marie Deerwood and John Arthur, Hopkins, 2009; Elizabeth Heck: board member,Minneapolis; webmaster, elizabeth.heck@mnnps.Gunda Luss, Minneapolis; Daniel Jones, Northfield, 2011; Stewart Corn, St. Paul, 2011; orgMeghan Manhatton, St. Paul;Katie McCann, Plymouth; Dean Doering and Lisa Scribner, Daniel Jones: board member,Steven McKay, Burnsville; 2011; firstname.lastname@example.orgBeverly McLaughlin, Isanti; William E. Faber, Brainerd, 2012; Peter Jordan: board member, peter.Sandra Nussbaum, Minneapolis; Anna Gerenday, Afton, 2012. email@example.com Mike Lynch: board member, mike.Annual plant sale is June 7 firstname.lastname@example.org Ken Arndt, plant sale chair. The time to prepare for this year’s MNNPS annual plant sale is now. Stephen G. Saupe: board member,The sale helps raise money for the Society and is a great opportunity to email@example.com native plants. The sale is held at the June meeting and follows the Field Trips: fieldtrips.mnnps@evening speaker’s talk. It is held outside, on the patio area near the lodge mnnps.orgentrance. We ask that all donated plants be dropped off by about 6 p.m. soour volunteers will have plenty of time for setup. Memberships: memberships. firstname.lastname@example.org The sale is open to members and non-members. Those who either helpwith the sale or donate plants will get to have first pick. We ask that only Historian-Archives: Roy Robison,native plants from Minnesota be included. Do not bring any cultivars historian-archives.mnnps@mnnps.(horticultural selection) of native plants (e.g. ‘Goldstrum’ Black-Eyed orgSusan). Plants should come from your own property, or private property Technical or membershipwith that owner’s permission — not from public property. Bring your inquiries: email@example.com in typical nursery containers with adequate soil and water. Label orgthem with both common and scientific names. Pricing will be done by thevolunteers. We will have plant identification guides available prior to the Minnesota Plant Press editor:sale to assist with labeling plants correctly. Gerry Drewry, 651-463-8006; Volunteers are needed to help with setting up and taking down the sales firstname.lastname@example.org and assisting folks with their plants. To volunteer, contact Ken Arndt Questions? Go to our website:at email@example.com. www.mnnps.org2
Carmen ConverseContinued from page 1 New botanical nomenclature And this is only the tip of theiceberg of Carmen’s contributions. rules are now in effect by Shirley Mah Kooyman, plant as being “validly published.” TheStatewide, there isn’t a development taxonomist and vice president of scientific name concept (genus andinitiative or conservation action MNNPS. species) would stay intact and notthat doesn’t include some element When a new plant species be changed by the new rule. Theof information from the County is discovered and named, it is decision to make these changesBiological Survey. published with a scientific name in came about as a method to facilitate In the 1980s, integrating the binominal system of a genus a quicker way of getting newinformation on native plant and species along with a description species described. Habitats arecommunities or rare species in the of the plant written in Latin and a rapidly being destroyed, and specieseveryday work of wildlife biologists, supporting “Type” specimen of the are becoming lost before they areforesters, fisheries biologists or parkspecies described. officially acknowledged.resource managers was challengingat best. Today, it is a common This practice began in 1753 For additional information, thepractice because of the tireless with the publication of Species following references are cited.efforts of Carmen. Plantarum by Carl Linnaeus. Plant Miller, James S. 2012. “Flora, name changes are not decided at Now in English,” published in The Today, a field forester doesn’t just random by botanists with little New York Times – Jan. 22, 2012.classify a forest stand as aspen — to do, as some people presume. Palmer, Kim. 2012. “Botanicalhe or she decides if it is a Central Instead, there is an International Bombshell,” published inDry-Mesic Oak Aspen Forest or Code for Botanical Nomenclature StarTribune, Home and Gardena Central Dry Oak-Aspen Pine that outlines the rules for when a Section – March 7, 2012.Woodland, and information on the name is accepted or rejected. Walford, Charles. 2011. “Plantsspecies occurring in the subcanopy Every six or seven years the no longer to be given Latin-onlyand herbaceous layer are used to International Botanical Congress name ‘so they can be classifiedhelp make that decision. meets to make decisions regarding before they die out,’” published by Today, a park resource manager plant names. The decisions are then Mail Online (http://www.dailymail.decides if a trail that is planned published in a book for all to see. The co.uk/sciencetech/article-2077542/through the park needs to be routed earliest plant name, for a particular Plants-longer-given-Latin-around a patch of rare native orchids. species that is validly published, classified-die-out.html) – Dec. 22, is the accepted name unless other 2011. Today, a wildlife manager evidence indicates differently. Wingate, Marty. 2011. “Whydesigning a restoration effort on Since 1908, descriptions had to be Plant Names Change,” published bya shallow lake inquires about the written in Latin as required by the northwestgardennews.com – Feb.native aquatic plants that occur in International Code for Botanical 11, 2011.the lake. The County Biological Nomenclature. Now, all of that hasSurvey is at the heart of these been changed effective at the start WaterFest 2012 ischanges. of the year 2012. June 2 at Lake Phalen Nearly 25 years after she began In July 2011, members of theleadership of the County Biological International Association for Plant Waterfest 2012 is a free RamseySurvey, Carmen’s commitment to Taxonomy and the International County family festival to celebrateher staff and to the conservation of Botanical Congress met at the clean lakes. Activies on land and onMinnesota’s natural resources has nomenclature the water include hands-on learning conference in about rain gardens, shorelines,been unwavering. It is a great honor Melbourne, Australia. It was votedto bestow this award on her today. watersheds and ecosystems. The on and accepted that beginning event is sponsored by the watershed January 1, 2012, plant descriptions district, county, cities and otherFriends School plant sale no longer had to be written in partners. For more the information, The annual Friends School plant Latin. Instead, the descriptions call event manager Debbie Meistersale will be May 11 - 13 at the State could be in English or Latin. It (651-647-6816) or Louise WatsonFair Grandstand. Online catalog: was also voted and approved that (651-792-7956), or visit the websitewww.friendsschoolplantsale.com electronic publications would count at rwmwd.org. 3
Natural history of maple syrupby Stephen G. Saupe, Biology pull of water in the stem, provides blowers in the fire chamber, sap pre-Department, College of St. Benedict/ the pressure that pushes sap out of heaters, and reverse osmosis, haveSt. John’s University, and a MNNPS the taphole. evolved to conserve fuel and saveboard member. This is a summary of time.his March 1, 2012, presentation for One flaw with this physicalthe Society. explanation for sap flow is that To determine when the syrup is According to an Anishinabe sucrose in the vessel sap shouldn’t ready to bottle, producers measurelegend, the Great Spirit made life be required for sap flow — but it its density with a hydrometer,easy by providing abundant game is! Recent research suggests that or sugar concentration with aand crops, and even filling a maple fibers, which surround the vessels, refractometer. The temperaturetree with a thick sweet syrup which act like a membrane to allow of the boiling syrup can also becould be drunk by simply breaking for osmotic uptake of water and used, since finished syrup boils atoff a branch and allowing it to drip the concomitant development of 7 degrees F above the boiling pointinto your mouth. Manabohzo was pressure that further contributes to of water. If the syrup is cooked tooconcerned that the people were the stem pressures forcing sap out long, it tends to crystallize, but ifspending too much time drinking of the tree. Stay tuned for more it’s not cooked long enough, then itsyrup, so he collected some water advances in our understanding of may develop mold in storage. Thefrom the river in a birch basket and sap flow physiology. syrup must be filtered before it ispoured it into the tops of the trees to bottled, because during cooking To make syrup, a hole (7/16th-thin out the syrup. He also decreed a precipitate called sugar sand, or inch or preferably 5/16th-inch) isthat the trees would only flow for a nitre, forms. This material is the drilled about two inches into the sapshort time in the spring. result of the interaction of various wood. Maples (Acer), including A. trace components of the sap and is There are many truths in this tale. saccharum, A. nigrum, A. negundo, largely comprised of calcium salts,First, we learn that maple syrup is A. saccharinum, and A. ginnala, are including calcium malate.an ancient crop; in fact, it is one of among the few trees that producethe relatively few uniquely North sap in the spring. Apparently this As the Native Americans haveAmerican crops. The legend also is due to their perfect combination long known, maple sap is relativelyrightfully attributes the discovery of air-filled fibers and fluid-filled dilute, approximately 2 percentof syrup-making to the Native vessels. Once tapped, a spile is sugar, whereas finished syrupAmericans and emphasizes that inserted in the hole and a bucket, is 66 percent. The Rule of 86maple sap is dilute (about 2 percent bag, or vacuum tube is attached to expresses the relationship of sugarsugar) and flows in the springtime collect the sap. The dilute sap must concentration between maple syrupwhen the day and night temperatures then be concentrated into syrup. and sap. To determine how muchfluctuate above and below freezing, sap is required to make a gallon The Native Americans originallyrespectively. of syrup, divide 86 by the sugar dropped hot rocks into hollowed concentration of the sap. The mechanism by which sap logs containing sap. Allowing sapflows from a maple is not fully to freeze and then removing the ice Thus, it will take 43 gallons ofunderstood, but is related to was likely also used, since when the sap with 2 percent sugar (= 86 / 2) totemperature. During the cool night, water freezes it leaves behind a more make a gallon of syrup. Or in othergases contract in the stem. This concentrated sugar solution. These words, a producer must boil off 42reduces the pressure, sucking water techniques gave way to boiling sap gallons of water to produce onefrom the roots. The water freezes in batches in metal kettles or flat- gallon of syrup. This is the sourceinside hollow fiber cells, trapping bottom pans, and ultimately to the of the commonly cited statistic thatgases in ice bubbles. The following continuous-flow evaporators now in it takes approximately 40 gallons ofday, as the temperature warms, the use by larger operations. Because sap to make one gallon of syrup.ice melts and the gases expand, cooking sap is so energy-intensive, Although most maple sap is nowwhich along with the gravitational various improvements, including used to make syrup, the Native4
Americans and early settlerscontinued cooking the syrup to President’s the early phenology. Maybe you have a gardening log at home, orproduce maple sugar because it waseasier to transport and store. column you collect specimens for your herbarium repository of choice. I by Scott Milburn urge everyone to take the time to The syrup grading system is I decided to take a different just observe. On that note, I wouldcurrently in flux but will soon approach in delivering my like to encourage everyone to visit president’s column. I have always a Scientific and Natural Area (SNA)include four main grades available enjoyed the mainstay sports this summer and report back to usfor sale to consumers: Golden, columnist and Minnesota legendAmber, Dark, and Very Dark. Sid Hartman. I often find he lacks and share your experience or photos.They differ in color and flavor; a cohesion in his ramblings, so I Fiscally solventconsumer should taste the various figured I would follow suit. Our treasurer’s report indicatesgrades to see which he/she prefers. New board members that we are fiscally solvent. We are in a great position, and that extraThe quality of the syrup is a function We will have two new additions money allows us more flexibilityof any microbial contamination of to the board this June, Steve Eggers when it comes to symposiumthe sap before it was cooked, the and John Arthur. Steve is returning planning and other opportunities.biochemical constituents of the sap, to the board after last serving in the We have had a number of requestsand the length of time the sap was late 1980s. John Arthur is a longtime in regards to taping presentations. member and is ready to contribute. That is something we would like tocooked. The board terms for both Elizabeth explore in the future. No matter which grade of syrup Heck and Michael Bourdaghs end inyou prefer, Robert Boyle was June. We thank them for their many May meeting I would also like to promote thecertainly correct when he wrote in contributions and look forward upcoming monthly meeting in May.1663, the “juice that weeps out its to their continued involvement as Welby Smith, our state botanist,incision, if it be permitted slowly to members of our Society. will be speaking about his newlyexhale away the excess moisture, New honorary member revised Orchids of Minnesota. Wedoth congeal into a sweet and I would also like to bring up have pre-ordered 160 copies to sellsaccharine substance.” our honorary lifetime membership at the meeting, as well as having the award. Only 10 people have opportunity to have the book signed been awarded this in the 30-year by the author himself. history of the Society. The boardPrairie field trips was very pleased to bestow this Joel Dunnette, a past MNNPS honor on Carmen Converse. Her Lady Slipper Dayspresident, will lead three prairie contributions have been many, and The two-day 2012 Lady Slipperfield trips in May. The trips are the Society has much to appreciate Celebration features the arts,listed below. For more information, in regards to her efforts. It was culture, nature and history of thecontact him at jdunnette@gmail. great that Barb Coffin was able to lady’s slipper orchid and the Ladycom or call 507-269-7064. Slipper Scenic Byway, Hwy. 39 present this award to Carmen at the from east of Cass Lake north to Weaver Dunes: Saturday, May Symposium this year. Blackduck, where the orchids grow12, 10 a.m. - 2 p.m., northeast of Successful Symposium in abundance. Weaver, Wabasha County. See sand The Symposium was well Saturday, June 23, events will beprairie flowers on rolling terrain. attended. We had a great line-up, and headquartered in Blackduck, at the Iron Horse Prairie: Wednesday, I thank each speaker. I would also north end of the byway. They willMay 30, 6 p.m. until dusk, southeast like to thank everyone involved on include photo/viewing bus toursof Hayfield, Dodge County. See the logistical side, including Shirley to see orchids and/or the old CCCspring flowers, including small Mah Kooyman, Daniel Jones, Otto Camp Rabideau. Sunday, Junewhite lady’s slippers. Rough terrain. Gockman, Jeanne Schacht, Michael 24, the celebration moves south to Bourdaghs, Erika Rowe, Mike the Norway Beach Visitors Center Chester Woods, Tuesday, May Lynch, Cathy and Ron Huber, Mary near Cass Lake. For additional22, 7 p.m., an Olmsted County Nolte, and Dorothy Paddock. In all, information, contact Deborah Davispark west of Eyota. The trip is we had 157 registered, including 10 Hudak, Minnesota Departmentco-sponsored by Zumbro Valley students. of Agriculture Plant ProtectionAudubon Society. See restoration of Visit a SNA Division at 218-243-2058 orbluff prairie, oak savanna. This is a great year to document firstname.lastname@example.org 5
2012 field trips planned Iron Horse Prairie SNA: Saturday Aug. 25, Steve Eggers (senior ecologist for the St. Paulby Ken Arndt Meadows, near Regal, Minn. Join District Corps of Engineers) will 2012 will be another good year Steven Saupe (professor of biology lead participants on a hike intofor a MNNPS field trip. Attending at the College of St. Benedict and Southeast Minnesota’s largestone of the field trips is a great way St. John’s University and a MNNPS remaining contiguous mesicto see some of Minnesota’s many board member) and a regional DNR prairie. See this fantastic prairie indifferent native plant communities, plant ecologist to see the orchids in full color, and see rare plants likeas well as meeting others who share bloom. An alternate date of May Sullivant’s milkweed (Asclepiasa similar interest in native plants. 19 is scheduled if the Small White sullivantii), Indian plantain Lady’s Slipper Orchid is blooming We have confirmed several trips (Arnoglossum atriplicifolium), wild early. This trip is full, but you mayfor 2012, and they are open for quinine (Parthenium integrifolium), sign up for the waiting list.registration. Additional trips will be rattlesnake master (Eryngiumadded in the coming weeks. You can Cedar Creek Ecosystem yuccifolium), and edible valerianregister for any of the field trips by Science Reserve: Friday evening (Valeriana edulis var. ciliata). Thisvisiting our website (www.mnnps. July 27, 6 to 7:30 p.m. Join SNA is known as one of the finestorg) and going to the field trip page, field trip leader Barb Delaney mesic prairie remaining in this partor by attending one of our monthly (professional botanist and MNNPS of Minnesota.meetings where sign-up sheets are member) for an evening hike to see Cuyuna Country Stateavailable. Information for all of the Ten Sedges in Ten Meters. You will Recreation Area: Mid-June.field trips is posted on the website see more than just ten sedges as we Malcolm and Rosemary MacFarlaneregularly as each trip is finalized. hike through xeric dune crests, a will lead this trip, which will be sand prairie, wet meadow swales, a a Botrychium (Moonwort/Grape Field trips are just one of the peaty wetland, oak savanna, and drybenefits of being a Society member. Fern) hunt. Watch the website for oak forest. Microhabitat diversity details.If you haven’t already joined, now will be highlighted. There will evenis the time, before the field trip you be Cedar Creek Carex Checklists Grand Rapids region: Latewant to attend fills up. Most trips for you. A highlight will be the summer. Go with the DNR’s Johnhave a limited number of registrants opportunity to see a state endangered Almendinger and Midwest Naturaldue to the site-sensitive areas that species in the sedge family, tall nut- Resources’ Scott Milburn. Spendare encountered, so registering rush (Scleria triglomerata), along part of a day exploring differentearly is encouraged. Following are with other rarities. native plant communities in theMNNPS field trips planned so far region. Watch for more information.for 2012. If you or anyone you know is Katharine Ordway Natural interested in leading a field trip orHistory Study Area: Friday has suggestions as to where theyevening, May 18, 6:30 p.m. to 8:30 would like to see a Society trip,p.m. Join Mark Davis (professor e-mail me at email@example.com biology) and Mike Anderson We are always looking for additional(associate director for the Ordway field trip leaders and co-leaders toField Station) and two professional take us into the many fantastic partsecologists/botanists for an evening of Minnesota and the region.of hiking and plant identification.This unique field station is located on Treasurers’ reportthe bluffs of the Mississippi River in On March 31, 2012, the SocietyInver Grove Heights. Participants had $27,483.04 in assets. Thiswill learn about the different plant included $18,462.09 in the checkingcommunities found here, observe account, $8,965.95 in CDs, and $55the many native plants of the area, cash. From Jan. 1 through March 31,and enjoy the great views of the income totaled $9,066.34; expensesMississippi River. Ken Arndt took this photo of were $6,002.73, for a net gain of a small white lady’s slipper $3,063.61. Dues totaled $2,964.20. Small White Lady’s Slipper (Cypripedium candidum) Symposium income was $5,892; itsOrchid: Saturday, June 2, at Regal while on a field trip. expenses were $5,109.18.6
Plant Lore Conservation Cornerby Thor Kommedahl by Beth Markhart (Nixon)What is wild geranium? Long-term conservation requires passionate advocates. Typically, Wild geranium is Geranium older, accomplished scientists and citizens who best articulate themaculatum in the geranium argument for conservation will tell you about their childhood sourcefamily—along with the introduced of passion for conservation. If this is to continue to be the source ofgarden and houseplant geranium inspiration later in life, then opportunities for children to deeply connect(Pelargonium sp.). their feelings with natural world experiences is an imperative now. One the most prescient strategies for this is the through the NatureWhat do its names mean? Deficit Disorder (NDD) movement. Minnesota offers exciting news Geranium means crane (Greek about NDD initiatives. The web news summarized here can inform yougeranos) and, according to and hopefully inspire action.Dioscorides, the fruit resemblesthe head of a crane after the petals The Will Steger Foundation has received the annual Environmentalfall off. This led to its other name, Initiative finalist award in environmental education for Minnesota’scranesbill. Maculatum means Changing Climate: Engaging Students in Environmental Stewardship.spotted and refers to the light This program was developed with the belief that environmentalblotches seen on older leaves. stewardship and action begins with a local connection and sense of appreciation, or environmental sensitivity, towards the naturalWhat does the plant look like? environment. It is a perennial and overwinters Don Shelby, an advocate for building environmental awareness, isas stout rhizomes covered with speaking on NDD to church communities. NDD continues to break intoscars. Leaves are deeply five-parted the mainstream education infrastructure, and NDD curriculum is beingand hairy; flowers are rose-purple to taught to teachers through the Minnesota Association for the Educationpale or violet purple with five petals of Young Children. An AARP blogger offers avenues for readers toand 10 stamens; flowers last until build bridges in nature between older and young persons. Universityabout June. The fruit is a capsule of of Minnesota initiatives include a webinar on natural places and youthfive sections, each with one seed. development by Rebecca Meyer, an Extension educator.On ripening, the capsules explodeto shoot seeds several feet. Focusing on NDD is a long-term development strategy for the MNNPS. The Society has a role to play, perhaps by initiating field trips that bringWhere does the plant grow? our own young children, as well as other children, into the field. It is native in dry to moist woodsin eastern counties of Minnesota.Plants often grow in clumps and godormant in early summer.Is it medicinal or poisonous? Plants are rich in tannins.Rhizomes are astringent and canstop bleeding. Powdered roots wereonce applied to canker sores. Entireplants were boiled to make tea fordiarrhea. Indians used it to treatvenereal and other diseases. It wasonce listed in the U.S. Pharmacopeiaand the National Formulary as afolk remedy. It is neither poisonousnor edible.Has it any other values? It is a good, woodsy-gardenplant for spring flowers. Bees visitflowers; doves, quail, and deer feedon seeds. Wild geranium (Geranium maculatum) photo by Peter Dziuk. 7
Minnesota Native Plant SocietyP.O. Box 20401Bloomington, MN 55420Spring 2012 Thompson County Park 360 Butler Ave. East, West St. Paul, MN 55118 Directions: Take Highway 52 to the Butler Ave. E. exit in West St. Paul. Go west on Butler 0.2 mile to Stassen Lane. Go south on Stassen Lane to Thompson County Park.