Minnesota Plant Press The Minnesota Native Plant Society Newsletter www.mnnps.orgVolume 30 Number 3 Summer 2011 Monthly meetings Thompson Park Center/Dakota Lodge Plants and Politics by Scott Milburn, MNNPS president Thompson County Park The recent state government shutdown serves as a sad chapter in the 360 Butler Ave. E., state’s history, and it will likely have continued impacts once the budget West St. Paul, MN 55118 is finalized. These include lost revenue from money typically spent during Programs this period on natural resources, including such items as fishing licenses and The Minnesota Native Plant camping permits at the state parks. Not only did these impacts affect stateSociety meets the first Thursday coffers, but they also hurt the businesses that rely on summer travelers.in October, November, December,February, March, April, May, and I am greatly disappointed with those politicians who seem to serve onlyJune. Check at www.mnnps.org out of self-interest rather than serving to represent the best interests of thefor more program information. general population. With that, I encourage our members to make a special 6 p.m. — Social period effort this year to take a trip somewhere new in the state and to visit a state 7 – 9 p.m. — Program, Society park or one of our great Scientific and Natural Areas. In doing so, each onebusiness of us can support the various local economies and, ultimately, Minnesota Oct. 6: “Delays in Nitrogen itself.Cycling and Population Another positive benefit of these trips is that each one of us can learnOscillations in Wild Rice during the process, from finding an unfamiliar plant to seeing a uniqueEcosystems,” by Dr. John Pastor,professor, Department of Biology, U landform. This also provides an opportunity for our members to contributeof M, Duluth. Plant-of-the-Month: what they are seeing on our blog or in the newsletter.Wild Rice (Zizania palustris), also Travelling around the state also makes one appreciate Minnesota andby Dr. Pastor. the fact that we still have intact natural areas, especially compared with other states in the cornbelt. ThinkKaty Chayka creates Plant XID-CD Updates about all of the diversity and greatMinnesota wildflower by Ron Huber landscapes from the North Shore to Bruce Barnes has updated thefield guide on internet Minnesota and the Great Plains the Prairie Coteau, from the Aspen Katy Chayka, who supervises plant identification XID-CDs. Parklands to the Driftless Area, andthe MNNPS blog, has created Improvements include more than the great adventures to be had.Minnesota Wildflowers, an online In this issue 1,900 new or higher resolutionfield guide with details about more images and nomenclatural changesthan 500 Minnesota wildflowers. conforming to those in Welby New members ..........................2Peter Dziuk, a former Society board Smith’s Trees and Shrubs of Society news ..........................2member, donated about 50,000 Minnesota. Prices remain the same Wetland Plants book review....3photos to the project. —$70 Minnesota, $150 Great Hastings field trip.....................3 Katy’s website (www. Plains. If you purchased an earlier Minnesota mushrooms ...........4minnesotawildflowers.info) version, e-mail Bruce at flora.id@ New board members ..............6organizes plants by color, time wtechlink.us and he will send the Landscape tour ........................6of bloom, and scientific name. newly updated CD for a $6 shipping DNR photo opportunity .........7Information includes a detailed charge. (We have provided him with Plant Lore: Goldthread ............7description, habitat, and a map. the names of all previous buyers.)
MNNPS welcomes Maddy Minn.; Papermaster, Marine, MNNPS Boardnew members Wendy Paulsen, Chisago City, of Directors The Society gives a warm Minn.;welcome to 23 new members who Ron Spinosa, St. Paul; President: Scott Milburn, scott.joined during the second quarter of Lisa Steidl, Coon Rapids, Minn.; firstname.lastname@example.org. Listed alphabetically, they Tavis Westbrook, Duluth, Minn. Vice President: Shirley Mahare: Kooyman, shirley.mah.kooyman@Barbara Asmus, St. Louis Park, Patience, please mnnps.orgMinn.;Joseph M. Beattie, Hastings, if you use PayPal Secretary, program coordinator: by Ron Huber Andrés Morantes, andres.Minn.; email@example.com If you prefer to pay your duesKristen Blann, Cushing, Minn.; using PayPal, please remember to Treasurers, membership data base:Marshal Braman, no data (PayPal); patiently wait for the pop-up of the Ron and Cathy Huber, ron.huber@Christina Crowther, Chanhassen, membership data form. Otherwise, mnnps.orgMinn.; we have no info about you except Ken Arndt, board member, fieldChristine Dolph, Minneapolis; for the e-mail shown. That may not trip chair, firstname.lastname@example.orgAnn Fallon, Afton, Minn.;Jason Garms, St. Paul; be the one that you want to use when Michael Bourdaghs, board member,Anna Gerenday, Afton, Minn.; receiving newsletters, postcards, email@example.comLeslie Gillette, Hopkins, Minn.; etc. Thank you for your patience. Elizabeth Heck, board member,Brian Goodspeed, Falcon Heights, webmaster, elizabeth.heck@mnnps.Minn.; Treasurers’ report orgHappy Dancing Turtle, Pine River, Treasurers Ron and Cathy Huber Daniel Jones, board member,Minn.; reported that in the second quarterSteve Heiskary, Lino Lakes, Minn.; of 2011, income exceeded expenses firstname.lastname@example.orgDebra Henninger, Arden Hills, by $4,964.72. Income included: Dylan Lueth, board member, dylan.Minn.; Symposium, $6,228; plant sale, email@example.comMarcel Jouseau, St. Paul; $434; membership dues, $2,831. Elizabeth Nixon, board member,Kelly Kallock, Minneapolis; Expenses included: Symposium, conservation committee chair, beth.Tom Meersman, Minneapolis; $4,216.51; printing, $878.91; firstname.lastname@example.orgMinnesota Life College, Richfield, postage, $296.92. Assets totaled Erika Rowe, board member, erika.Minn.; $22,035.61. email@example.com Field Trips: fieldtrips.mnnps@ mnnps.org Minnesota Native Plant Society’s purpose Memberships: memberships. (Abbreviated from the bylaws) firstname.lastname@example.org This organization is exclusively organized and operated for educational and scientific purposes, including the following. Historian-Archives: Roy Robison, historian-archives.mnnps@mnnps. 1. Conservation of all native plants. org 2. Continuing education of all members in the plant sciences. Technical or membership 3. Education of the public regarding environmental protection of plant inquiries: contact.mnnps@mnnps. life. org 4. Encouragement of research and publications on plants native to Minnesota. Minnesota Plant Press Editor: Gerry Drewry, 651-463-8006; 5. Study of legislation on Minnesota flora, vegetation, ecosytems. email@example.com 6. Preservation of native plants, plant communities, and scientific and natural areas. MNNPS questions? 7. Cooperation in programs concerned with the ecology of natural Go to www.mnnps.org for resources and scenic features. answers. The Society blog is there, 8. Fellowship with all persons interested in native plants through news about field trips, meetings, meetings, lectures, workshops, and field trips. and committees, and all issues of this newsletter since 1982.2
Book review Snow trillium is highlight of Wetland Plants of Minnesota:a Complete Guide to the Aquatic field trip to Hastings SNAand Wetland Plants of the North Twenty Society members spentStar State, by Steve W. Chadde, the afternoon of April 23 hiking andpublished by CreateSpace, 2011, studying early spring wildflowerspaperback, 614 pages, $39. May be during a field trip to the Hastingsdownloaded at www.amazon.com Scientific and Natural Area.Review by Michael Bourdaghs Seeing the rare snow trillium In 1998, Steve Chadde authored (Trillium nivale) in bloom (photoA Great Lakes Wetland Flora, at right) was the highlight of thewhich quickly became indispensible afternoon. The trip was led by Scottfor wetland botanists working in Milburn, MNNPS president, andthe Upper Midwest. It provided Ken Arndt, board member.nearly comprehensive coverage Future field trips are beingof the wetland and aquatic species planned. Watch the website (www.in a single compact volume. That mnnps.org) for details. Thesewas an improvement over both photos are by Ken Arndt.simpler guides that tend to lackcoverage as well as full blowntaxonomic treatments that are oftencumbersome in the field. Updates and improvements havebeen made in subsequent editions,with the second in 2002 and thethird released in February 2011. It isfrom this newest edition that SteveChadde has compiled WetlandPlants Of Minnesota. As with the previous guides,Wetland Plants of Minnesotaincludes the approximately 900species that commonly occur inwetland and aquatic habitats in thestate, but it is more specificallygeared to Minnesota. Following introductorymaterials, the book is organized by range map, habitat information, line some cases, Minnesota specificmajor taxonomic groups: Ferns and drawings, and in some cases black- habitat information has beenFern Allies, Gymnosperms, and two and-white photography. Many provided. Brief explanations ofAngiosperm (Dicots and Monocots) improvements have been made in many of the genus names havesections. The keys are technical the species descriptions, compared been provided. The white water lilyand dichotomous, where the with previous editions. The addition genus – Nymphaea: “Water goddessobserver must rely on knowledge of the photography also aids in Greek mythology” is a goodof taxonomic terminology and close identification. example.observation. Species distribution maps have Wetland Plants of Minnesota is The great advantage of the guide previously been available only from an outstanding botanical resource.is that the keys are limited to the sources separate from taxonomic Its comprehensive coverage, keys,Minnesota wetland species and are treatments. Having the physical and detailed species informationthereby simplified. Each species has characteristics, map, line drawings make it a must have for the wetlanda complete description that includes and photos for a species all in one professional and a great guide forphysical characteristics, a county place is a great convenience. In the botanical enthusiast. 3
Minnesota mushrooms:then and now by David J. McLaughlin, ecological relationships, just as a and self-digesting gills that produceDepartment of Plant Biology, and genealogical tree explains facial the “ink.” Coprinus was placed inBell Museum of Natural History, and other physical similarities, as the family Coprinaceae with someUniversity of Minnesota, St. Paul well as our susceptibility to some other black-spored mushrooms, ailments. The goal of the Tree of Life With the support of the such as Psathyrella, which lacks projects is to provide a classificationMinnesota DNR, some students, a the inky gills. The Fungal Tree of that reflects the actual relationships Life studies revealed that Coprinusvolunteer and I carried out a survey among species. was actually four groups (genera) ofof mushrooms in western Minnesotabetween May and October 2007. The Mushrooms are produced by two mushrooms that had independentlysurvey was motivated by the limited great groups (phyla) of fungi, the developed the ability to form inkydocumentation for larger fungi in Ascomycota or sac fungi and the caps. Three were related to eachthe western part of the state. This is Basidiomycota or club fungi. The other and to Psathyrella, but thea progress report on that survey. common names for these groups refer fourth was related to the button to the structures on which their sexual mushroom Agaricus, including the But first we will consider how type of Coprinus, i.e., the species to spores are formed. We will focusrecent advances in classification which the genus name is attached. here on the club fungi, specificallyof fungi, an outcome of a national Coprinus was then transferred to the gilled (agarics), non-gilledresearch program on the Tree the Agaricaceae. Thus, we ended up (boletes, polypores, coral fungi,of Life and related projects, are with the family Coprinaceae without teeth fungi, and chanterelles) andchanging our view of how different Coprinus, and a new family name the gasteroid (puffballs, earthstars,mushroom forms are related and was chosen — Psathyrellaceae for bird’s nest fungi, stinkhorns andhow these changes affect scientific the remaining three groups of inky false truffles) mushrooms. Theynames. Then we will review the caps, each with a new genus name, were classified in the 19th centurysurvey results. The “Then” in the and Psathyrella as the type of the in three large groups (orders ortitle refers to the old classification new family. These name changes class): the Aphyllophorales for non-for mushrooms, the “Now” to the are disconcerting for the scientist gilled mushrooms, the Agaricalesnew classification. The “Then” and non-scientist alike, but they lead for gilled mushrooms and thealso refers to our knowledge of to greater stability in names in the Gasteromycetes for gasteroid forms,mushroom distribution before the long run and a better understanding whose fruiting bodies remainedsurvey; the “Now” refers to the of the organisms. closed until maturity. This was ahundreds of new county records and convenient classification system forsome new state records. Mushroom survey mushrooms because it required only Documentation for MinnesotaMushroom classification the external form of the mushroom to mushrooms has accumulated The Fungal Tree of Life classify them. But, it also disguised erratically. From 1885 to 1910,project was designed to develop a who was related to whom. mushrooms were studied as partcomprehensive phylogenetic tree for The Fungal Tree of Life project of the Natural History Survey offungi, using molecular and structural has upended the earlier classification Minnesota. Between 1910 andcharacters. A phylogenetic tree with mushrooms now spread across 1960, major fungal studies werereveals relationships among species, 14 orders and with many different concerned with plant diseases. Injust as a genealogical tree reveals the mushroom forms in each order. the 1960s, a renewed interest inrelationships between members of Naturally, this has an impact on the study of mushrooms began, butour family and connections to other the scientific names of mushrooms. the documentation for mushroomspeople’s families. A phylogenetic A good example is the inky caps. within the state is far from complete.tree has predictive value, helping Formerly all inky caps were classified Computerization of the fungalto explain changes among species in a single genus, Coprinus, which collections within the Bell Museumin their form, internal structure and was distinguished by its black spores began in the 1990s and now makes it4
possible to determine the records by as part of the BOLD: Barcode are no recent reports on its presencecounty or management area, such as of Life Database project www. in Minnesota.a state park or forest. These records boldsystems.org. The ITS, or Another benefit of the survey iscan be accessed at http://ssrs.cfans. internal transcribed spacer region that we are beginning to understandumn.edu:8080/FungiWebSearch/ of nuclear ribosomal DNA, is being the distribution of some of theA check of mushroom records proposed as the first fungal barcode, species and how they relate toby county in western Minnesota i.e., a piece of DNA that can be the four biomes that make plantshowed that almost all counties used to identify a species. The ITS distributions in the state of specialwere unsurveyed except for those sequences have aided in some of the interest, but also make it vulnerablein the vicinity of Itasca State Park, recent identifications. It should be to rapid climate warming. Forwhere the University of Minnesota noted that keys to many mushroom example, we now have a second stateBiological Station is located. genera are inadequate, and primary record for Russula pulverulenta. It Eight trips to Western Minnesota literature must be used. This is is now known from Rice and Lyonswere made to survey mushroom especially true for Cortinarius, counties, a southern distributiondiversity between May and October Entoloma, Pluteus, Russula, and in the state that suggests it may be2007. We chose sites with a variety Tricholoma. A monograph for North restricted to the deciduous forestof habitats, including some that American species of Psathyrella by biome and river valley forests inwould remain moist in dry weather Smith, 1972, is comprehensive but the grassland biome. The boleteso that mushrooms might be found difficult to use. Maj Padamsee, who Paragyrodon sphaerosporus isduring drier periods. Two graduate recently completed a Ph.D. project a very distinctive species with astudents, Bryn Dentinger and Maj on the genus, is responsible for these heavy rubbery veil which protectsPadamsee, a post-baccalaureate identifications. the spore-forming layer. It is a mid-student, Tom Jenkinson, and a All collections are new county continental endemic. In Minnesotavolunteer, Esther McLaughlin, records based on the data in it is well known from the deciduousassisted with the survey. Four sites the University Herbarium. The forest biome and is recorded for thebecame the primary focus of the following appear to be new state first time from the grassland biome,survey: Kilen Woods State Park, records: Conocybe cf. siennophylla, again in river valley forests. At KilenJackson Co.; Camden State Park, Coprinellus tigrinellus, Coprinopsis Woods State Park it seems wellLyon Co.; Smoky Hills State Forest, coniophora, Cortinarius cf. adapted to the wood edge adjacentBecker Co. (MCBS site E4); Paul alnetorum, Cortinarius gutatus, to the upland prairies.Bunyon State Forest, Hubbard Co. Galerina decipiens, Laccaria Both saprotrophic and(MCBS site T6). trichodermophila, Lactarius mycorrhizal species were well Approximately 300 collections nancyae, Psathyrella lepidotoides, represented at Kilen Woods andwere obtained. Collecting was Psathyrella obtusata, Ramaria Camden State Parks, with the latterlimited until heavy rains in August. myceliosa, and Russula fontqueri. mainly appearing in late AugustFifty-five percent of the collections Some of these collections will through October. Some specieswere obtained in late August to need further study to confirm fruited abundantly in both stateearly Oct. Most are documented the identification. The number parks. In Smoky Hills State Forestwith photographs, and many include of new state records makes it MCBS site E4 is especially richdescriptions and spore prints. clear that the state is very poorly in saprotrophic species and seemsCollections are being processed for known mycologically, especially well adapted to their fruiting, asinclusion in the Fungal Collection, considering that collection new species were found regularlyUniversity Herbarium, Bell identification is continuing. throughout the survey. MycorrhizalMuseum. Specimens are essential if The following collections are species were never common,we are to successfully document the mentioned in publications but are despite the presence of a diversityfungi of Minnesota, a goal needed undocumented in the University of appropriate host tree species.to establish baseline information Herbarium: Neolecta irregularis and Psathyrella typhae. Neolecta Paul Bunyon State Foreston these species that interact in MCBS site T6 is very sandy andmany ways with plants, especially irregularis is an especially interesting find, as it fruits late in the dominated by red and jack pines. Itthe mycorrhizal species that grow produced few mushrooms until latewith tree roots and aid the plant in fall and produces brilliant yellow, club-shaped fruiting bodies. It was in the season, when a considerablemineral uptake and defense. diversity of mycorrhizal species collected near Itasca State Park, one Genetic sequences have been of the better surveyed areas in the were present. These included fiveobtained for some of the collections state. Thus, it is surprising that there Continued on page 6 5
MushroomsContinued from page 5 Introducing three new board membersof Cortinarius and the very strikingstriking Gomphus floccosus andNeolecta irregularis, but boletes, Nevada. A significant portion ofwhich would be expected withpines, were scarce. Dr. Peter Jordan my efforts was on the plant species To be honest, I must admit my being eaten by deer over their wide This report should not be viewed greatest attachment to the land elevational range.as a complete account of the and oceans and their biota lies in California, with Isle Royale the next After my prolonged Ph.D, Imushroom species present at these moved east to join studies of wolvessites. Our focus was on fleshy and closest one. After that, Minnesota certainly holds the greatest interest and moose at Isle Royale Nationalreadily decayed species, not the Park, as part of a team from Purdue for me.better known bracket and shelf fungi. University. After three years of wolfWhen collecting was good, small I grew up in central, coastal studies in winter and the browsing California, and from an early age patterns of moose year round, I tookspecies or single specimens had to was fascinated with the flora of a faculty position at Yale, while stillbe ignored, as the documentation the Santa Cruz mountains and therequired for a collection exceeded continuing studies at Isle Royale. birds of San Francisco Bay. Myour capacity to handle them. Some high-school summers were spent Our team there pioneeredspecimens had deteriorated between working for the concessionaire research on the physiology andvisits, which were approximately in Yosemite Valley, from which I ecology of sodium in moose, began exploring the surrounding having discovered that the levelmonthly to each site until the end of of this essential mineral in all theAugust, when more frequent trips wilderness, and eventually became a devout admirer of John Muir. terrestrial plants they eat was wellwere made. Some Lepiota species below their minimum requirements.were in good condition for only a I was drafted in the Army in the We found that moose compensateday or so after rains. Also, different early 1950s and ended my tour with by consuming submerged aquaticspecies are known to appear in a year at Ft. Lewis Washington – plants in shallow warm waters within sight of Mt Rainier. It was during summer. These plants,successive years at a site, so a my great fortune to have a colleague such as species of Potamogeton,complete survey requires several who was an experienced climber,years. concentrate sodium from waters leading to many weekends on the containing extremely low levels of Nevertheless, this report rocks and glaciers. That experience this mineral.provides a first approximation of in turn shifted my professional goals towards natural-resource science In 1974 I joined the wildlifemushroom diversity at these sites faculty at the University ofand a considerable increase in our and management. Minnesota and have continuedknowledge of Minnesota mushroom I returned to college and pursued here, even after retiring in 2003,diversity. a degree in wildlife conservation with my studies of moose impact at the University of California on forest vegetation at Isle Royale. Berkeley. My academic advisor was Additional work with students inFree Landscape Tour Starker Leopold, oldest son of Aldo The Ramsey-Washington Metro Minnesota has included the effects – whom up to that point, I’d never of intense forest management onWatershed District will conduct a heard of. Also, without appreciatingfree tour of four landscapes from forage for moose, deer, and hares in its academic/scientific significance, the Superior National Forest, and the5 to 9 p.m. Wednesday, Aug. 3. I had ended up studying amongEach area was designed to protect effects of deer on herbaceous plants the top researchers on vertebrate in southeastern Minnesota, the latterand improve water quality and animals within the western U.S.natural resources and has received being done jointly with Lee Frelich. Even before graduating, I had a job Also over the years, I’ve beenan ecology award. The tour begins with a research group working onat the watershed district’s office, fortunate to work abroad on wildlife range improvement for deer. with students in India, Nepal, Israel,2665 Noel Drive, Little Canada.Participants will then board a bus This soon led me into graduate Costa Rica, and Quebec plus myto visit three other sites. To register, work, which eventually led to a own minor studies in Sweden andcontact Shelly Meiser at shelly@ Ph.D on ecology and management Alaska, and recently, even somerwnwd.org or call 651-792-7965. of migratory deer in the Sierra follow-up work on my Sierra6
Nevada study area. Besides researchin Minnesota, I was involved withan unsuccessful attempt to re- Plant Lore by Thor Kommedahlestablish woodland caribou to thefar-northeastern corner of our state. What is goldthread?I am also working with students to Goldthread, also called cankerrestore more native vegetation to a root, is Coptis trifolia and a memberpatch of natural habitat, the Sarita of the buttercup family.Wetland, on the University’s St. How did it get its names?Paul campus, and I’m currently on Goldthread describes the golden-the DNR Commissioner’s advisory yellow, threadlike rhizomes. Coptiscommittee on scientific and natural comes from a Greek word kopto,areas. meaning “to cut” – referring to the dissected leaves. Trifolia refers to I must admit, however, that de- the three-parted leaves. Rhizomesspite my many years in Minnesota, were chewed to relieve canker sores,my knowledge of our native flora hence the name canker root.remains quite limited. I try, how-ever, to compensate by maintaining What does it look like?ties with young botanical experts Goldthread is a mat-formingsuch as Andrés Morantes and Otto perennial with bright yellow,Gockman. threadlike rhizomes and three-lobed, shiny, evergreen leaves resemblingOtto Gockman strawberry leaves. Five white I have been a member of the “petals” (really sepals) appear fromMinnesota Native Plant Society May through July. Petals are club-on and off since high school. I like and not conspicuous. It appearslive in St. Paul and currently work to have no stem.as a botanist at Midwest Natural Where does it grow?Resources, an environmental It is native to northeasternconsulting company based out of Minnesota in coniferous forests,St. Paul. I have been interested in swamps, bogs, and road banks –native plants, conservation, lichens, in thickets, mossy places, cedaretc. for as long as I can remember. I swamps, and in damp woods. It formsbelieve that my work as well as my endomycorrhizal associations.personal experiences with our native Photos of Goldthread (Coptisecosystems will contribute greatly Is it edible, poisonous or trifolia) are by Peter Dziuk. medicinal?towards the goals of MNNPS. It is neither edible nor poisonous.Mike Lynch DNR wants photos of The rhizome is highly astringent I am a graduate of the University Itasca State Park and contains berberine, noted for itsof Minnesota (2010) in Applied Volunteers are invited to take anti-inflammatory and antibacterialPlant Science. I became interested high quality digital pictures of properties. Thus it was widely usedin native plants after helping my Itasca State Park, including its flora, in 19th century America for mouthin-laws begin to restore their fauna and scenic outlooks. Specific sores. For a while it was listed indegraded oak savanna. I made it photos of people interacting within the U.S. Pharmacopaeia.my mission to learn the scientific the park are also needed. Volunteers Are there other uses?names of all species native to this will work with little direction and Peter Kalm in 1749 reportedarea. I have recently spent free must have experience with digital that leaves and stalks were used bytime volunteering for Great River photography and appropriate digital Indians to give a fine yellow color toGreening and exploring the various camera equipment. They will name animal skins, and the French learnedparks and natural areas in the Twin and catalogue all of the digital photos this from them to dye wool and otherCities. One of my favorite things they take. The time commitment is materials. It is considered indicativeto do is to introduce the public to variable throughout the summer and of minerotrophic water (water thatthe beauty of the natural landscape. fall. For more information, contact carries mineral nutrients into theMy favorite plant is Anise-scented Connie Cox at 218-699-7259 or peat) in peatlands. Ruffed grouse eathyssop (Agastache foeniculum). e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org foliage in limited amounts. 7
Minnesota Native Plant SocietyP.O. Box 20401Bloomington, MN 55420Summer 2011 Directions: Take MN Hwy. 52 to the Butler Ave. E. exit in West St. Paul. Go west on Butler 0.2 mile to Stassen Lane. Go south on Stassen Lane to Thompson County Park.