Minnesota Plant Press The Minnesota Native Plant Society NewsletterVolume 29 Number 1 Winter 2010 Monthly meetings Thompson Park Center/Dakota A Rose Is a Rose Is a Rose? Lodge Thompson County Park 360 Butler Ave. E., West St. Paul, MN 55118 by Anita F. Cholewa, Ph.D., curator of the UM Herbarium, Bell Museum Programs of Natural History, University of Minnesota. In last month’s newsletter, we learned a little about what scientific names The Minnesota Native Plant mean and how to pronounce them. Now, why do “they” keep changing the Society meets the first Thursday names? in October, November, December, To answer this, we must first consider what makes a species a species. February, March, April, May, and This sounds like a simple question, but it’s not — the answer has changed June. Check at www.mnnps.org over the centuries as we have gained a better understanding of nature. for more program information. Initially, a species was defined as populations that looked identical. 6 p.m. — Social period Eventually, a breeding requirement was included, and the definition changed 7 – 9 p.m. — Program, Society to populations that contained similar looking individuals with the potential business to interbreed and produce viable offspring. Then it was recognized that, at Feb. 4: “Looking at Lichens,” least in the plant world, external morphology could change depending on theby Dr. Imke Schmitt, assistant environment (desert plants can become more hairy during droughts; flowerprofessor, University of Minnesota. color could change due to soil pH; habit could change due to elevation;Plant of the Month: One-flowered etc.). Then it was discovered that plants, unlike most animals, can survivebroom rape or cancer-root, chromosomal alterations such as extra doubling or loss of a chromosome,Orobanche uniflora, by Ken Arndt, and many species were found to self-breed, and some species (for example,Critical Connections Ecological dandelions) don’t even need pollen to produce viable seed (known asServices, Inc. agamospermy). Today, the actual genetic makeup and the ancestral history March 4: “Ash Genetic of plants are taken into account in our definition of a species.Conservation,” by Dr. Andy David,associate professor, University of As a result of these changes in our concept of the species, the speciesMinnesota. Plant of the Month: boundaries have changed, and our names for some species have to change (andBlack Ash, Fraxinus nigra. sometimes a species is moved to a different family altogether). Sometimes several different species (for example in Achillea, the yarrows) in reality April 1: “Extension forestry are only one or a few, highly variable species. Other times one speciesin the 21st Century: Capacity, turns out to be two or more (for In this issueInnovation, and Impact,” by example in Cenchrus, the sandbur,Eli Sagor, Extension educator, and Elymus, the rye grasses). AndUniversity of Minnesota Extension sometimes, a group of plants was Society news ........................ ...2Service. Plant of the Month: Black once thought to be different species, New members .........................2spruce, Picea mariana. then combined, and then split again Spruce-top harvesting damage .3 March 27: Symposium (See (for example in Pyrola, the shinleafs Proposed copper mine dangers .4page 6.) or wintergreens). President’s column ..................5MNNPS website But there are rules for how Conservation Corner ...............6 Evelyn Moyle dies ..................6 For information about Society these nomenclatural changes occur. When a species (or genus) is split Symposium .............................6field trips, meetings and events, Plant Lore: Sweet gale .........7check the website: www.mnnps.org Continued on page 7
Who Does What Milburn Logistics: Ken Arndt MNNPS Board The MNNPS is an all- volunteerorganization. Following are thepeople who were filling various Leading Trips: Varies with trip Symposium of Directors Theme, Site: Scott Milburn, Erika President: Scott Milburn,duties in December. If you would Rowe email@example.com to help, please contact theperson listed or an officer. Speakers: Scott Milburn, Angela Vice President: Shirley Mah Hanson, Erika Rowe Kooyman, shirley.mah.kooyman@Officers Registration: Shirley Mah mnnps.orgPresident: Scott Milburn Kooyman Secretary, program coordinator:Vice-President: Shirley Mah Brochures: Scott Milburn, Jeanne Andrés Morantes, andres.Kooyman Schacht firstname.lastname@example.orgSecretary: Andrés Morantes Catering: Shirley Mah Kooyman,Treasurer: Ron Huber Angela Hanson Treasurer, membership data base: Ron and Cathy Huber, ron.Committees, Responsibilities Historian email@example.comProgram, Education, Lectures Conservation/storage Roy Robison Post Office Box DerekAnderson, board member,Programs: Andrés Morantes firstname.lastname@example.org Pickup, distribution: Ron, CathyPostcards: Ron, Cathy Huber Ken Arndt, board member, field HuberRefreshments: Ken ArndtAudio-Visual: Scott Milburn, Ken MNNPS welcomes trip chair, email@example.com Michael Bourdaghs, boardMeeting site open/close:Ken Arndt new membersArndt member, michael.bourdaghs@Seed Exchange: Dave Crawford, The Society gives a warm mnnps.orgKen Arndt, Scott Milburn welcome to new members who Angela Hanson, board member,Plant Sale: Dave Crawford, Ken joined during the fourth quarter of firstname.lastname@example.orgArndt, Gerry Drewry 2009. Listed alphabetically, they are: Elizabeth Heck, board member,Membership and Outreach Christina and David Bellert, Dallas, webmaster, elizabeth.heck@mnnps.Membership roster, directory, name OR. orgtags: Ron, Cathy Huber Don Degue, Roseville Dylan Lueth, board member,Mailing labels: Ron, Cathy Huber Katie Frerker, Rochester email@example.comNew Member Packets: Cathy Elna Goodspeed, Fridley Elizabeth Nixon, board member,Huber *Chris Gronewold, Lauderdale conservation committee chair, beth.Technical assistance: David David Julson, Stillwater firstname.lastname@example.orgJohnson Mark Leipairtz, Farmington Erika Rowe, board member,Telephone contact: Linda Huhn Mary Jo Moltzen, Fairmont email@example.comBrochures and Stationery: Andrés Rebecca Montgomery, St. PaulMorantes, Elizabeth Heck Karen Nyhus, Mendota Heights Russ Schaffenberg, boardDisplay Board : Vacant Glen Olson, North St. Paul member, russ.schaffenberg@ *Rebecca Stone, Lauderdale mnnps.orgPublicationsNewsletter Editor: Gerry Drewry Denise and Robert Wolff, Lakeville Field Trips: fieldtrips.mnnps@Newsletter assistant: Vacant (*family membership) mnnps.orgNewsletter mailing: Ron, Cathy MNNPS finances Memberships: memberships.Huber by Ron, Cathy Huber, treasurers firstname.lastname@example.orgWebsite updates At the end of calendar year Historian-Archives: RoyElizabeth Heck, Scott Milburn 2009, the Society had total assets of Robison, historian-archives. $24,743.23. email@example.comFacebook, BlogMichael Bourdaghs, Angela Income for the year totaled Technical or membershipHanson $13,238.52, mostly from dues and inquiries: contact.mnnps@mnnps. the symposium. Expenses cameConservation, Education org to $13,824.77, mostly for theChair: Beth Nixon symposium, Dakota Lodge rental, Minnesota Plant Press Editor:Field Trips and a donation to the DNR for the Gerry Drewry, 651-463-8006;Identify options: Ken Arndt, Scott upcoming book by Welby Smith. firstname.lastname@example.org
Harvesting of spruce limited the depth and length of rutting allowed on trails as well astops is damaging bogs imposing restrictions on the access of harvest areas through laggs and water tracks.by Norm Aaseng, plant ecologist, (Eriophorum spissum) and Despite the regulations, someMinnesota County Biological bog wiregrass sedge (Carex impacts continued to occur, primarilySurvey. This is a summary of his oligosperma). Hummocks of through “rogue” or inexperiencedtalk at the Nov. 5, 2009, MNNPS sphagnum moss cover the ground harvesters. Because public auctionmeeting. surface. The severe conditions are requires that the sale of tree tops go Decorative tree harvesting is the responsible for the stunted size and to the highest bidder regardless ofcutting of the top two to four feet shape of black spruce trees desired competence of the harvesters, theof stunted (six- to 15-foot) black by harvesters. DNR no longer offers this optionspruce trees. These spruce tops As tree-top harvesting operations for decorative harvesting. Instead,are shipped to garden stores and increased in size, environmental private sales are negotiated withother outlets where they are sold impacts from harvesting became proven operators that possess theas decorations during the winter apparent. DNR Forestry assembled appropriate equipment, such as lowholiday season. In the mid-1990s, a field team to determine the impacts pressure-tired vehicles. Becausethe harvesting of spruce tops in of tree-top harvesting and the these private sales are much smallerMinnesota began to expand, and factors contributing to the damage. in size than public auctions, thetoday an estimated one-half million The team found that the cutting of DNR sales are now limited to ato one million tree tops are harvested the spruce tops did not appear to total of 200,000 tree tops per year.per year. Surveys indicate that there have a significant impact. Tree tops With increasing demand for spruceis a market for three times that were reported to grow back and be tops it may be that operations willnumber of spruce tops. Harvesting harvested in 10 - 20 years. be shifting to lands that are lessoccurs primarily on state and county regulated. $3.7 million inlands in northwest Aitkin, southwest However, very significantSt. Louis, northwest Carlton, and impacts occurred from rutting on all-southwest Itasca counties from mid- terrain vehicles (ATV) access trails. legacy conservation grants are awardedSeptember to mid-December. This Initial passes by ATVs create a trailactivity provides income to local by compressing the sphagnum peat,harvesters from lands that typically but repeated traversing of trails, $3,740,000 in 2010 Conservationdo not generate any revenue. especially with heavy vehicles, Partners Legacy grants have been awarded, the DNR has announced. resulted in cutting through the live Although black spruce trees are The funds are from the Outdoor root mat that occurs in the upper sixfound in a variety of peatland and Heritage Fund created by voters inches of the peat. Once this matupland native plant community who approved the constitutional is cut, the weight-bearing capacityclasses, almost all decorative tops amendment in 2008. of the peat is severely reduced,come from the Northern Spruce Bogs resulting in increasing size and depth Grants range from $5,000(APn80 in the DNR’s Field Guide of pools with every pass of an ATV. to $400,000. The 35 projectsto the Native Plant Communities of The deeper the ruts are, the longer include seven for fish, game andMinnesota). The Northern Spruce it takes the vegetation to recover. If wildlife ($874,754); eight forBog is the most nutrient poor as damage is significant, there can be forests ($789,814); 12 for prairieswell as the most acidic native plant a conversion of vegetation to marsh ($933,206); and eight for wetlandscommunity occurring in Minnesota. or even exotic plant species. Water ($1,142,226).These conditions create a very tracks and laggs (shrubby wet moats By activity, 11 are for landinhospitable environment in which occurring between the interface of acquisition ($1,860,300); 12 foronly 25 vascular plant species are peatland and upland) were found enhancement ($701,398); and 12adapted to survive. Typical species to be particularly susceptible tofor restoration ($1,178,302).found in bogs include carnivorous damage from ATVs. The creation 127 applications totaling $16.5plants, such as pitcher plant of deep pools and the elimination of million were received. “The volume(Sarracenia purpurea), ericaceous existing vegetation easily occurred of applications we received andshrubs, such as bog rosemary along the ATV trails in these areas. the energy around these efforts(Andromeda glaucophylla) andbog laurel (Kalmia polifolia), and To minimize these impacts, the has been impressive,” said DNRgraminoids such as cotton grasses DNR instituted regulations that Commissioner Mark Holsten. 3
MNNPS opposes proposed coppermine in Superior National Forest PolyMet Mining Corp. is during Closure, by applying the project area. The species of mostseeking permission to open its seeds or planting seedlings.” The concern is the aquatic floating marshproposed NorthMet open pit mine proposed species include sweet marigold (Caltha natans), a Statesouth of Babbitt and northeast clover, redtop, alsike clover, Endangered species. It is generallyof Hoyt Lakes in the Superior Canada bluegrass, Cicer milkvetch, rare throughout its range and hasNational Forest. According to their birdsfoot trefoil, perennial ryegrass, suffered recent extirpations, largelywebsite, the company “will mine smooth brome grass, and red fescue. from habitat loss or alteration, a well-and process metals used in daily These species are very aggressive documented problem for aquaticlife.” These metals include copper, and have the potential to completely species statewide (MN DNR, Rarenickel, cobalt, platinum, palladium, change the existing landscape, Species Guide, http://www.dnr.state.and gold. PolyMet is working to especially considering the amount mn.us/rsg/index.html). There arecomplete the environmental review of disturbance that will be coupled only 12 known populations of thisand permitting in 2010 and expects with the plantings. species in Minnesota. Of those 12to begin construction in 2010. Many of the these species have populations, nine populations have The MNNPS Board sent the already established themselves been reconfirmed within the lastfollowing Draft Environmental around the state, and the introduction 20 years, including the populationImpact Statement response letter on of these invasive plants to the found on the PolyMet site.Dec. 21, 2009, to Stuart Arkley, EIS project area has the potential to This would not be the first timeproject manager, Environmental extend well beyond, most notably, that Caltha natans would be affectedReview Unit, Division of Ecological the Boundary Waters Canoe Area by mining. Evidence of the effects ofResources, Minnesota DNR. Dylan Wilderness (BWCAW), an area mining practices on Caltha natansLueth and Elizabeth Heck were the that is already facing problems were first noted by Olga Lakela inprimary authors. It was signed by with invasive introductions. The 1953 when she reported that nearbyScott Milburn, Society president. draft EIS also indicates that Class mining activities had lowered theThe entire board supports the 1 and 2 invasive species currently water level, thereby stranding andresponse, and they want members to exist within three miles of the decimating the population. Anyknow the action they have taken. plant and mine sites. A diverse loss of Minnesota’s rare flora would Subject: Comments on the mix of ecologically appropriate be a major disappointment to theDraft Environmental Impact native species is recommended MNNPS, and it is recommendedStatement (DEIS) for the PolyMet for any permanent revegetation that more specific data be requiredMining Inc./NorthMet Project during mining operations and regarding impacts to current during reclamation. Any temporary populations, and that surveys forDear Mr. Arkley, additional populations of Caltha stabilization should be done with The Minnesota Native Plant natans be conducted. non-invasive, annual plant species,Society (MNNPS) has reviewed or other erosion control measures. 3. Peatland Destruction andthe draft environmental impactstatement (DEIS) for the proposed It also appears counter- Carbon SequestrationPolyMet Mining Inc./NorthMet productive to propose removing While peatlands cover onlyProject and would like to address non-native and invasive vegetation 3 percent of the Earth’s surface,potential problems that were noted through mechanical means or they store 550 gigatons of carbon,during the review process. herbicide application at the Aitkin which is equivalent to 30 percent and Hinckley mitigation sites, while of all global soil carbon. The1. The Use of Non-native, Invasive planting them in an area commonly amount of wetlands projected to beSpecies to Stabilize Disturbed referred to as the 100-mile-swamp. impacted by PolyMet at this timeAreas does not accurately represent the The MNNPS has serious 2. Endangered, Threatened total amount of wetland impactsconcerns with respect to the use of and Special Concern Species that would occur. This is due to thenon-native, and potentially, invasive The MNNPS would like to fact that no initial area of influencespecies to “temporarily vegetatively address the very likely potential (AOI) on the wetlands was made.stabilize disturbed areas during impact on Endangered, Threatened, This means that wetland impactsoperation and permanently reclaim and Special Concern species within to communities such as cedar4
swamps, northern wet ash swamps,forested rich peatlands, northern state and the USFS will ultimately be responsible. Furthermore, the President’s Column by Scott Milburnalder swamps, and poor fens have job benefits of this project arenot been accurately accounted for. unsustainable and short sighted. The At our quarterly board meetingThese communities rely on a steady natural communities in the project this past December, the boardinflux of groundwater flow for area also provide habitat for native unanimously supported a motionnutrients and soil moisture. If the plants and animals and promote to donate $2,000 to the Minnesotahydrology around them is changed, long-term economic tourism Department of Natural Resources.they too will be affected. The Army benefits, including tourism-related This money is specifically earmarkedCorps is developing a work plan to jobs. Minnesotans, as well as people for future writing efforts by Stateassess impacts to these additional from all over the country, have Botanist Welby Smith. In total, thewetlands, but this work plan has long been attracted to and enjoyed Society has now donated $5,000 tonot been finalized or implemented. the relatively unspoiled beauty ofAs the PolyMet project currently northeastern Minnesota, and they Welby, which is an excellent waystands, there would be both direct will continue to value the integrity for the Society to contribute backand indirect impacts to over 1,500 of their natural landscapes. and fulfill our educational mission.acres of wetland. The destruction Please do not compromise This donation provides importantof just 1,000 acres of peatland Minnesota’s natural heritage by funding that allows book projects tocorrelates into a 2 percent increase allowing PolyMet to circumvent move forward.in the total output of carbon dioxide their responsibility by minimizing In other Society news, ouremissions in Minnesota. the negative environmental impacts past December monthly program4. Impacts to Water Resources of this project. marked the end of Linda Huhn’s Aside from direct impacts on Sincerely, tenure as monthly program chair.native plants and plant communities, Scott Milburn, Minnesota Nativeimpacts on water resources need to Linda has served in this position for Plant Society presidentbe addressed further. Hydrologic the past seven years and has doneconditions form the basis of entire Moss launches spores a tremendous job lining up speakers throughout this time. Our secretary, in vortex ringsecosystems, and hydrologic forcesand characteristics shape entire Andrés Morantes, will be takinglandscapes. As such, impacts to Low-growing sphagnum moss over for Linda, and I look forwardwater resources have a much broader shoots its spores 10 to 20 times to his efforts.and longer-lasting environmental higher than expected by using aimpact. NorthMet Project Draft EIS vortex ring, previously known only I would also like to reminddoes not recommend commensurate from animals, Plant Ecologist Joan our members that board memberactions and/or alternatives to Edwards of Williams College in elections will take place at our Marchsuch serious impacts. The type Williamstown, Mass. said at a Jan. annual meeting. We have three openof mining proposed would leave 4 meeting of biologists. positions, so please contact Vicebehind sulfide-containing waste The spores form a mushroom- President Shirley Mah Kooyman ifrock and may result in acid mine like cloud that has a better chance you are interested.drainage. Stockpiled material also of rising into turbulent air and beingposes a significant threat to surface dispersed. For more infomation, We also have our upcomingwater and groundwater, beginning go to www.sciencenews.org/view/ symposium in late March. In thewith the Partridge River and the generic/id/52884 past few years, we have held the symposium during the first week of Series of rain-gardenentire St. Louis River Basin. Theproject would involve direct and April. However, the first weekend ofindirect impacts to about 1,522 workshops planned April is Easter weekend, and it wasacres of wetlands, most of them Four rain-garden workshops decided to push the event forwardranked as high quality. This is one are being sponsored by Ramsey- one week, to March 27. We will beof the largest wetland impacts in Washington Metro Watershed working with our friends at the BellMinnesota history. District and Maplewood City on March 24, April 15, April 29 and Museum once again. The committee5. Economic Impacts is actively lining up speakers on the This project is focused on short- May 6. The fee for each session is $5, and pre-registration is required. topic, “Sand Dunes of Minnesota.”term economic gains and does notadequately address the long-term For details, go to News and Events, More information will be providednegative impacts, for which the Workshops, at www.rwmwd.org as planning proceeds. 5
Conservation Corner Minnesotaby Beth Nixon sand dunes •Avoiding the use of nonnative will be topicReminder to Blog invasive species to stabilize The mission of the Conservation disturbed areas;Committee is promotion of the useof native plant species, preservation •Suitable mitigation to include further site investigation; of symposiumof native plant species and “Sand Dunes of Minnesota”communities, and conservation of •A plan to aid in stabilizing is the title of this year’s MNNPSrare and endangered species. We current known populations of Caltha symposium. Learn about duneare asking all members to join this natans, a rare species at the site; biology and natural history, theeffort through participation in the •More accurate accounting of plants and animals that inhabitSociety Blog posts. the presence of and impacts to dunes, and current issues and threats cedar swamps, northern wet ash to these special places. You can contribute comments to swamps, forested rich peatlands,posted issues, information which northern alder swamps, and poor The symposium will be heldcan in turn be used for preparation fens, including their contribution to Saturday, March 27, at the Bellof Society letters. You can also carbon sequestration; Museum of Natural History on thecontribute by following through University of Minnesota campus,on Blog post requests to contact •An overall approach to mitigation for water resource Minneapolis. Watch for a brochureyour legislative representatives. with details.Comments are requested for the impacts in an interconnectedfollowing posted topics: regulated manner for both ground and surfaceharvesting of black spruce tips, no water, commensurate with thechild left inside, state or federal indirect impact to over 1,500 acresenvironmental review of proposed of high quality wetlands within theactions in Minnesota, funding for Partridge River system; andthe environment managed by the •Short-term versus long-termLessard Outdoor Council, prairie economic value to the State ofgrass for biofuel, and off-road Minnesota, including long-termvehicle effects on native plants. sustainability of the near-term job Contact any board member with benefits and potential long-termyour ideas for additional postings losses to tourism-related jobs.that you would like to add to theBlog. Honorary MemberFacebook Fans Evelyn Moyle dies You can also contribute to the Lifetime MNNPS honorarySociety mission by participating member Evelyn Moyle, co-produceron Facebook. The fanclub is and photographer of the firstgrowing, with over 80 viewers and edition of Northland Wildflowers: Grey Cloud Dunes Scientificcontributors. the Comprehensive Guide to the and Natural Area, Washington Minnesota Region, died of a heart County, photo by Scott MilburnPolyMet Mining proposal For the past couple of years, attack Jan. 3 at the age of 95. Herthe Society has commented on late husband, John, supplied the text Where is the Blog?how proposed actions in the State for the best-selling book, which was The MNNPS Blog is entitledof Minnesota might affect native printed in 1977. “Conversations on Conservation.”plant populations and communities. A second, enlarged edition was To read and respond to the Blog,Most recently, comments were published in 2001, with photographs go to the Society’s website at www.submitted regarding the proposed by John Gregor and text by Evelyn mnnps.org and click on Blog in thePolyMet Mining project in northern Moyle. She was honored at a book- left-hand column. You can read theMinnesota near Hoyt Lakes. [See signing reception before the June messages and comments and reply toletter on page 4.] The Society 7, 2001, MNNPS meeting and them. All members are encouragedrequested consideration be given was presented with a certificate of to participate in this exchange ofto: appreciation for her work. ideas.6
Plant Loreby Thor Kommedahl yellow dye and have also been used to improve the flavor and foam of beer before replacement by Scientific names Continued from page 1What is sweet gale? hops. Leaves are also insecticidal into two or more, brand new names Sweet gale is Myrica gale in the (campers have placed plants in tents may be generated (again there arewax-myrtle family, growing as a for bug control). Varieties have been rules on the formation of names).native plant in northeast Minnesota. developed for gardens. But when two or more species are combined, then previous namesHow did it get its names? must be examined and the oldest Myrica comes from a Greek word validly published (and yes, there aremyrike referring to fragrance. Gale rules on valid publication) must beis derived from an old English word the one that is retained, even if it is afor bog myrtle, taken from the word more obscure name. So BotrychiumGagel, which is the German word rugulosum (ternate grape fern) wasfor sweet gale. It is sometime called confused with B. dissectum or B.bog myrtle because it often inhabits multifidum but is now recognizedpeat bogs. as a separate species. Aster azureusWhat does the plant look like? (skyblue aster) was merged into It is a shrub that grows from two Aster oolentangiensis and now is Sweet gale, Myrica gale, plant.to six feet tall with many stems and Symphyotrichum oolentangiensis.branches. The grayish leaves are Photo by Russ Schaffengerg. Vaccinium macrocarpum (largedotted with yellow glands visible cranberry) changed to Oxycoccuswith a hand lens; leaves emit a macrocarpus but is now back asfragrant odor when crushed. Sexes Vaccinium macrocarpum.are usually on separate plants, but And to make life even moresometimes on the same plant but complicated, the shocking truth isdifferent flowers. Flowers appear in not all taxonomists agree with eachcompact catkins with two wing-like other (especially true in some of thebracts, and the fruit is nutlike (small difficult genera such as Rubus), anddrupe). some plant groups simply have notWhere does the plant grow? yet received thorough examination Sweet gale, often seen in colonies (such as Potentilla or Viola).because of the layering of lower So what’s a person to do? Acceptbranches, grows on edges of streams that nature is ever-changing andand lakes or in acidic peat bogs, and live with it by consulting majorgrows best in direct sunlight. Roots reference websites such as the Floracan fix nitrogen. of North America, the AngiospermIs the plant edible? Phylogeny Group, or the Integrated Dried leaves have been used Taxonomic Information System.for making tea, and the leaves and For a current (but, yes, changing)nutlets have been added to meats for account of the nomenclature of Myrica Gale leaves, photo bysage-like seasoning. Minnesota’s vascular plants see Scott Milburn. my Comprehensively AnnotatedIs it medicinal or poisonous? Checklist of the Flora of Minnesota A branch tea has been consumedas a diuretic for gonorrhea, and Wild Ones Conference at http://www.bellmuseum.org/ “Design with Nature: Creating plants/checklist2009-1.pdfMyrigalone-B is an extract from fruit healthy communities above andexudates that is a potent antioxidant Book describes outdoor below ground” is the title of theto inhibit free radical damage in Wild Ones Feb. 27 conference at the experiences in stateliver. It is generally not regarded Our Neck of the Woods, a new Radisson Hotel, Roseville. Advanceas poisonous, although an essential book published by the University ofoil has been reported as toxic. It is registration is required. Search at Minnesota Press, contains articleslisted as an arbortifacient. www.eventbrite.com or go to http:// about Minnesota wild areas that wereHas it any economic uses? for-wild.org/chapters/twincities/ printed in Minnesota Conservation Leaves have been a source of conference.html Volunteer in the last 70 years. 7
Minnesota Native Plant SocietyP.O. Box 20401Bloomington, MN 55420Winter 2010 Directions: Take MN Hwy. 52 to the Butler Ave. E. exit in West St. Paul. Go west on Butler 0.2 mile to Stassen Lane. Go south on Stassen Lane to Thompson County Park.