Coastal eco system

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AGRICULTURAL ADAPTATIONS TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS OF BANGLADESH

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Coastal eco system

  1. 1. AGRICULTURAL ADAPTATIONS TOAGRICULTURAL ADAPTATIONS TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN COASTALCLIMATE CHANGE IN COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS OF BANGLADESHECOSYSTEMS OF BANGLADESH Dr. Md. Abdus Salam Post Doctoral Fellow, Kansas State University and Principal Scientific Officer Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council, Dhaka 1
  2. 2. Bangladesh 2
  3. 3. Bangladesh predominantly is an agricultural country with a population of over 160 million Around 60% of the population engaged in agriculture The total area is 14.85 million ha of which 62% are arable (8.2 million ha) Irrigated area covers 55% of the total cultivated land Background 3
  4. 4. Agriculture contributes about 20% to the national economy, which includes - Crops(12.3%),Fisheries(3.7%)& Livestock (4%) Long history of Agricultural Research - started in 1908 Background 4
  5. 5. Major crops are rice, wheat, jute, maize, potato, fruits, vegetables, pulses, oilseed, and spices Fisheries (inland and marine) and livestock are also productive sector Background 5
  6. 6. Cultivated Area Under Different Crops 6 Rice 73% Wheat 6% Pulses 4% Oil Seeds 3% Spices 2% Fibers 4% Sugar Cane 1%Tea 1% Tobacco 1% Vegetables 2% Potato 1% Fruits 2% Others 1%
  7. 7. Coastal Area 7 Source: GoB (2012), Master Plan for Agricultural Development in Southern Bangladesh
  8. 8. 8 2214CR% 22387,362Bangladesh 4912,213Coastal Urban Centre VillageRegion Source: GoB (2012) Distribution of Village & Urban Centre Background
  9. 9. Background 9 The coastal area: 44,932 km2 or 30% of the country 27% of the total population live in coastal area The coastal areas cover more than 35% of the cultivable lands
  10. 10. Background 10 Around 53% of the coastal areas are affected by salinity The organic matter content of the soils is also pretty low (1.0-1.5%). Deficiencies of N and P are quite dominant in saline soils Excluding Sundarbans, the remaining coastal region is used for agriculture
  11. 11. 11 4% 54% 42% Flood Erosion Storm surges CycloneCyclone Coastal Tidal SurgeCoastal Tidal Surge Salinity IntrusionSalinity Intrusion River Bank ErosionRiver Bank Erosion Unsettled Char LandsUnsettled Char Lands High incidence of poverty and malnutritionHigh incidence of poverty and malnutrition Climate Change Hazards
  12. 12. 12 Climate Change Hazards
  13. 13. 14 Climate Change Impact
  14. 14. 15 How climate change induced hazards and affects agriculture
  15. 15. 16 Climate Change reduces rice production an average 3.9 % each year 4°C temperature increase would have a sever impact on food production, resulting 28% reduction for rice and a 68 % reduction for wheat Bangladesh losses about 0.5 million tones of rice annually as a result of floods Climate Change Impact on Coastal Area
  16. 16. Bangladesh Forest Research InstituteBangladesh Forest Research Institute Bangladesh Tea Research InstituteBangladesh Tea Research Institute Bangladesh Fisheries Research InstituteBangladesh Fisheries Research Institute Bangladesh Livestock Research InstituteBangladesh Livestock Research Institute Bangladesh Sugarcane Research Institute Bangladesh Sugarcane Research Institute Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture Bangladesh Jute Research InstituteBangladesh Jute Research Institute Bangladesh Rice Research InstituteBangladesh Rice Research Institute Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute Standing Committee: Budget & Audit Research Program Standing Committee: Budget & Audit Research Program Schedule ASchedule ASchedule A Executive Council BARC Executive CouncilExecutive Council BARCBARC Schedule BSchedule BSchedule B Soil Resources Development InstituteSoil Resources Development Institute Bangladesh Sericulture Research & Training Institute Bangladesh Sericulture Research & Training Institute Cotton Development BoardCotton Development Board
  17. 17. 18 Flow Chart of Technology Development & Adoption Identification of Climate ImpactsIdentification of Climate Impacts Research & Development of TechnologiesResearch & Development of Technologies Adaptive TrialAdaptive Trial Adoption by FarmersAdoption by Farmers Dissemination of TechnologiesDissemination of Technologies
  18. 18. 19 AdjustmentAdjustment in natural or humanin natural or human systems in response tosystems in response to actualactual oror expected climate stimuli or theirexpected climate stimuli or their effectseffects, which moderates harm or, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities (IPCC,exploits beneficial opportunities (IPCC, 2001)2001) Many types of adaptation,Many types of adaptation, egeg.,., autonomous adaptation andautonomous adaptation and plannedplanned adaptationadaptation Adaptation
  19. 19. 20 StressStress (salinity and flood) tolerant(salinity and flood) tolerant varietiesvarieties Short durationShort duration cropscrops Innovative farmingInnovative farming practices (floatingpractices (floating gardens, irrigation efficiency)gardens, irrigation efficiency) CropCrop diversificationdiversification Changing/shiftingChanging/shifting cropping patterncropping pattern WaterWater ManagementManagement Key Adaptation Technologies in Agriculture at Coastal Bangladesh
  20. 20. 21 BRRI Saline Tolerant Rice Varieties 8-10June-DecAmanBR- 55 8-10June-DecAmanBR- 54 8-10June-DecAmanBR- 53 8-10Dec-MayBoroBR- 47 8-10June-DecAmanBR- 23 8-10June-DecAmanBR- 41 8-10June-DecAmanBR- 40 Salinity tolerant level (ds/m) MonthsSeasonVarieties
  21. 21. 22 T. Aman varieties with salt tolerance (8 dS/m at reproductive stage) and Boro (BRRI dhan55)
  22. 22. 23 Saline Tolerant Rice Varieties BR-40
  23. 23. 24 Saline Tolerant Rice Varieties BR-40 BR-53 Salinity Tolerant: 8-10ds/m Yield: 4-5 t/ha
  24. 24. Crops Number Rice 4 Mustard 1 Soybean 2 Seasame 2 Groundnut 3 Mungbean 4 BINA Saline Tolerant Varieties
  25. 25. Released: 2007, Duration: 115-120 days, Yield: Average 5.0 t/ha, Total cost: 61,976/ha, Total income: 117525/ha, Benefit Cost Ratio: 1.89 Saline Tolerant Rice Varieties
  26. 26. Released: 2010, Duration: 130-135 days, Salinity tolerance : Seedling stage: 10-12 ds/m, Mature stage: 8-10 ds/m, Yield: Boro: 4.5 t/ha in saline condition, 6.5 t/ha in normal condition, Aman: 4.0 t/ha in saline condition, 4.5 t/ha in normal condition, Total cost: 62450/ha, Total income: 82500/ha, Benefit Cost Ratio: 1.32 Saline Tolerant Rice Varieties
  27. 27. Salt field at Bashkhali, Chittagong Binadhan-8
  28. 28. Released: 2012, Duration: 125-130 days, Salinity tolerance : Seedling stage: 12-14 ds/m, Mature stage: 10-12 ds/m, Yield: Boro: 5.0-5.5 t/ha in saline condition, 6.5 t/ha in normal condition, Aman: 4.0 t/ha in saline condition, 5.0 t/ha in normal condition, Total cost: 62450/ha, Total income: 82500/ha, Benefit Cost Ratio: 1.32 Saline Tolerant Rice Varieties
  29. 29. Jan Feb Mar April May June Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec BR47 BR23 1. BRRI dhan47-Fallow-BR23 2. BRRI dhan47-Fallow-BRRI dhan40, 3. BRRI dhan47-Fallow-BRRI dhan41 4. BRRI dhan47-Fallow-BRRI dhan44. 5. Fallow-Fallow-Local Cultivar Pattern yield 7.5 -8 t/ha Existing pattern yield 2.7 t/ha Soil Salinity 8.4 dS/m in Feb. Cropping patterns for saline ecosystem
  30. 30. 31 Use of mini pond for supplemental irrigation Sweet water preservation in canal Use of PBC Pipe to reduce irrigation loss Water Management Technologies
  31. 31. Water Management Improved Salinity Management Techniques Using drip irrigation or manual pump irrigation methods in raised bed with mulch, farmers can grow horticultural crops like tomato, chili, watermelon etc. It can reduce soil salinity substantially (10 dS/m to only 4.5 dS/m)Drip Irrigation layout Tomato Watermelon Chilli
  32. 32. 33 Components Net income (Tk.ha-1) BR23+mixed fish 62,470/$791 BR23+Tilapia 71,685/$907 Morichsail+Tilapia 50,573/$640 BR23 only 23,500/$297 Morichsail only 20,015/$253 Farm level agro-economic performance of rice-fish culture at Dacope
  33. 33. 34 Rice-Fish culture in costal area
  34. 34. 35 Swarna BR-51 Tolerate 14-16 days of natural flash flood Yield 4.0 t/ha Flash Flood Tolerant Rice Variety
  35. 35. 36 Saline Tolerant Wheat Varieties BARI GOM 27 Resistant to LR and tolerant to BpLB diseases High yield potential (4.0-5.4 t/ha) Resistant to stem rust race UG 99 BARI GOM 28 High yielding(4.0–5.5 t/ha) Resistant to leaf rust & tolerant to Leaf Blight diseases Very early in maturity (102- 108 days) Tolerant to terminal heat stress & salinity(6-8 ds/m) BARI Gom 27 BARI Gom 28
  36. 36. Heat tolerant, High yielding Resistant to stem rust Heat tolerant, High yielding Tolerant to salinity BARI gom 25 BARI gom 26
  37. 37. Performance of new wheat variety (BARI Gom 23) in southern parts of Bangladesh
  38. 38. BARI GOM 25 Yield: 3.1 mt/ha Farmers’ Field at Amtali, Borguna Salinity range: 6-8 dS/m BARI GOM 26 Yield: 3.6 mt/ha Wheat Cultivation in Coastal Region
  39. 39. 22 ’ed - -T. ) 21 - T. ) BARI Hybrid Maize 7 BARI Mungbean 6 BARI Potato BARI Hybrid Maize 3 BARI varieties Performance in saline area
  40. 40. • Suitable for cultivation in the coastal region (salinity level : 3.72-5.05 dS/m) • Moderately resistant to Alternaria disease • High yielding(2.0-2.2 t/ha) BARI Sarisha 16 MUSTARD BARI Sarisha 15 Oil Seed Variety for Coastal Area
  41. 41. Duration: 80 days, Yield: Average 1.9 t/ha, Total cost: 28105/ha, Total income: 77050/ha, Benefit Cost Ratio: 2.75
  42. 42. BARI Chinabadam 8/Peanut Yield: 2.5 – 2.7 t/ha Duration – Rabi: 140-150 days Kharif: 125 –140 days BARI Chinabadam 9 Yield: 2.5 – 2.8 t/ha Duration – Rabi: 140-150 days Kharif: 120 –130 days Oil Seed Variety for Coastal Area
  43. 43. BINA Chinabadam 1 Salinity Tolerant: 8ds/m Yield: 2.0 – 2.3 t/ha Duration – Rabi: 140-150 days Kharif: 120 –130 days Oil Seed Variety for Coastal Area Salinity Tolerant: 8ds/m Yield: 2.0 – 2.4 t/ha Duration – Rabi: 140-150 days Kharif: 120 –140 days BINA Chinabadam 1 BINA Chinabadam 2
  44. 44. Oil Seed Variety for Coastal Area Duration: 85 days, Yield: 1.3 t/ha, BCR: 2.09 Duration: 91-98 days, Yield: 1.4 t/ha, BCR:2.25 Binatil 1 Binatil 2
  45. 45. BARI Til 4BARI Gom 26 BARI Soybean 1 Different varieties Performance at Sathkhira BINA Soybean 1
  46. 46. BARI Cowpea-1 Pulse Varieties Performance in Saline Area BARI Mung 6 Duration:55-58days Yield: 1.2-1.4 t/ha Duration:60-65days Yield: 1.8 t/ha Yield: 1.3-1.4 t/ha Duration: 110-115days Yield: 1.6-1.9 t/ha Binamung 8 Binakheshari 1
  47. 47. BARI developed IPM technology at Tista Char Area of Gongachora, Rangpur
  48. 48. After 7 days continuous irrigationMaize in irrigated condition Out of 15 crosses 3 promising water logged tolerant materials were found. Yield range: 7.9 - 8.9 t/ha waterlogged condition & 10.7-11.7 t/ha in control condition. Waterlogged Tolerant Maize
  49. 49. Ovoid shaped & shiny light green fruit 35 - 40 fruits/plant Plants moderately resistant to bacterial wilt, resistant to foot rot. Yield 55 - 60 t/ha Long cylindrical deep purple fruits Tolerant to bacterial wilt 40 - 50 fruits/plant Fruits can be harvested in 55-65 days Yield 55 - 60 t/ha BARI Hybrid Begun 4 BARI Hybrid Begun 3 Moderately Saline Tolerant Vegetable
  50. 50. Tomato in raised bed with mulchBARI Derosh 1 BARI Puishak 1 Moderately Saline Tolerant Vegetable BARI Puishak 2
  51. 51. BARI Puishak 1 Moderately Saline Tolerant Vegetable
  52. 52. 53 Floating Vegetables Garden in Coastal Area
  53. 53. 54 Floating Vegetables Garden in Coastal Area
  54. 54. 55 Floating Vegetables Garden in Coastal
  55. 55. 56 Homestead Vegetables Garden in Coastal Area
  56. 56. BARI Aam-4 (Hybrid) Fruit wt. 600g • Regular bearer • Fruiting season: Late variety • Skin colour: Slightly Yellow • Pulp colour: Yellow • Very sweet (TSS 24%) • Yield:15-20 t/ha Homestead Fruit in Coastal Area
  57. 57. BARI Bilati Gaab 1 • High yield (372 fruits, 121 kg/plant) • Large fruit (325g) • Tasty & sweet (TSS 15%) • High edible portion (72.15%) Homestead Fruits in Coastal Area BAU Kotbel 1 • High yield (10-12 t/ha)
  58. 58. 59 Saline Tolerant Coconut Varieties High yielding(75-95/yr.) Tolerant to Salinity High yielding(65-75/yr.), Tolerant to Salinity BARI Narikel-2 BARI Narikel-1
  59. 59. 60 Saline Tolerant Fruits Varieties High yielding(30-35t/ha) Tolerant to Salinity High yielding(15-17t/ha) Tolerant to Salinity BARI Amra-2 BARI Sapota-3
  60. 60. 61 Saline Tolerant Fruits Varieties BARI Peyara-2 BARI Peyara-3
  61. 61. 62 Saline Tolerant Betel leaf Varieties BARI Paan-1 BARI Paan-2 Yield: 18 t/ha Yield: 14 t/ha
  62. 62. High yielding(110-160t/ha), Tolerant to Salinity 4-18ds/m High yielding(90-120t/ha), Tolerant to Salinity 4-18 ds/m Ishordi-37 Saline Tolerant Sugarcane Varieties Ishordi-41
  63. 63. High yielding(5.5t/ha), Tolerant to Salinity High yielding(5t/ha) Tolerant to Salinity Saline Tolerant Jute Varieties CVL-1 HC-95
  64. 64. 65 Yield: 2-2.5 t/ha Salinity Tolerant: 8- 11ds/m Saline Tolerant Cotton Variety Cotton Cultivation on the Gher Boundary in Coastal Area
  65. 65. 66 Saline Tolerant Fish Duration: 4 Months Yield: 8-9 t/ha Monosex Telapia Paangas Fish Duration: 8-10 Months Yield: 25-30 t/ha
  66. 66. 67 Saline Tolerant Fish Duration: 6 Months Yield: 3-4 t/ha Duration: 4-5 Months Yield: 320 kg/ha & 1.6t/ha Nona Tengra Coastal Shrimp
  67. 67. 68 Saline Tolerant Fish Duration: 3-4 Months Yield: 2000 kg/ha Bagda Shrimp Tilapia Cage Culture
  68. 68. 69 Potential Areas for Cage Culture Source: GoB (2012)
  69. 69. 70 IGA Cattle/Beef Fattening Sheep Rearing Fodder Production Goat Rearing
  70. 70. 71 Problems of Adaptation Differential adaptation rates due to cost involvement Salinity level fluctuation Migration Polder missmanagement Lack of training (Floating Gardening) Lack of marketing channel
  71. 71. 72 Future Research Needs to develop wide range salinity tolerant varieties Needs to develop submerged salt tolerant varieties Strengthen research on cropping pattern & water management Thrust should be given on integrated farming system Socio-economic studies on factors and challenges of adaptation in agriculture
  72. 72. This is our dream for the coastal zoneThis is our dream for the coastal zone to have good cropsto have good crops 73 Thank You Very Much........Thank You Very Much........

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