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  2. 2. “ How is our identity shaped by culture?” A suggested explanation for something… A systematic and general attempt to explain something… “ Why do people get married?” “ Why do people commit crimes? “ How does the media affect us?” “ Why do kids play truant from school?” “ Why do some people believe in God?” Theory
  3. 3. Sociological theory is a bit like political parties. There are a range of sociologists who have differing opinions about how the world operates. Examples of some of these groups are: Functionalists Marxists Interactionists Feminists Post-Modernists These groups then fall into one of two categories and will either be known as: Positivists Interpretivists
  4. 4. YOU Think about who you are, your personality, attitude and behaviour. Consider the factors that have shaped you into who you are today
  5. 5. So, who controls who? Does Society control us? (Positivism) Do we control society? (Interpretivism)
  6. 6. <ul><li>Think about this image of a grumpy man. Consider: </li></ul><ul><li>Is he grumpy due to individual factors particular to him or is he grumpy due to the effect of society? </li></ul><ul><li>He is also shy, is he shy because society has made him shy or is that just an individual characteristic? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Do you think that this child has learnt to behave by society informing and socialising him how to behave ( Positivism ) or do you think he has learnt to behave through personal trial and error ( Interpretivism )?
  8. 8. Positivism vs Interpretivism <ul><li>Positivists believe we are influenced by social systems, that society controls who we are </li></ul>Interpretivists believe in social action, that we as individuals control society Positivists use large samples of people Interpretivists use small samples/individuals MACRO MICRO
  9. 9. Positivist or Interpretivist? To understand crime in Lewes I felt it was really important to question as many people as possible and use statistics to look at crime in the whole area. I feel people commit crime in Sussex due to society factors, often there is an element of boredom or lack of jobs in the area which drives people to crime. My feeling is that often people become criminal because of factors such as neglect, bullying or psychological problems. To understand crime I think it is really important to observe small gangs of criminals and get to know their behaviour on a really in-depth basis.
  10. 10. Socialisation Write a paragraph (5-6 lines) explaining how Positivists and Interpretivists would differ in their opinion of how the Socialisation process works
  11. 11. 24 Mark Essay <ul><li>‘ Explain what is meant by the socialisation process and the learning behaviour of humans’ </li></ul><ul><li>Aim to write around 2 sides of A4 (around 500 words) </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the difference between primary and secondary using examples </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to the examples of feral children discussed or on the DVD </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  12. 12. Positivism vs Interpretivism <ul><li>Also known as top-down/macro/social systems or structural theory </li></ul><ul><li>Believe that it is important to look at society as a whole when studying it </li></ul><ul><li>Believes sociologists should use more scientific approaches to society </li></ul><ul><li>Use methods such as Statistics and questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Examples are Functionalists, Marxists and Feminists </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as bottom up/micro or social action theory </li></ul><ul><li>Believe that it is important to analyse society by studying individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Believes sociologists should use more in-depth approaches to society </li></ul><ul><li>Use methods such as observations and in-depth interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Examples are Interactionists and Post-modernists </li></ul>