DISCUSS THE ISSUES CONCERNINGSTATUS OF WOMEN IN INDIAGIVEYOUR SUGGESTION TO IMPROVE THE SAME AS A PART OF WOMENEMPOWERMENT PROGRAMME<br />PG GUIDE:- DR.G.DVELHAL (Asso. Prof)<br />PGSTUDENT:- DR.Saiprasad.P BHAVSAR<br />RMO, TNMC, Mumbai<br />
INTRODUCTION<br />Empowermentrefers to ‘The process by which the powerless gains greater control over the circumstances of theirlives’<br />So womenempowermentisthatprocess in whichwomengetsequalcontroll over the situations and the resourcesthroughdeveloping Self Confidence and ability to makedecisions.<br />
The status of women in India has been subject to many great changes over the past few millennia.<br />From equal status with men in ancient times through the low points of the medieval period, to the promotion of equal rights by many reformers, the history of women in India has been eventful. <br />In modern India, women have adorned high offices in India including that of the President, Prime minister, Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Leader of Opposition, etc. <br />The current President of India is a woman.<br />
<ul><li>There are enormous problem regarding gender discrimination within an Indian society.
Traditional patriarchal norms have relegated women to secondary status within the household and workplace.
Gender disparity manifests itself in various forms most obvious being the trend of continuously declining female ratios in the population in the last few decade which is now 933 females per 1000 males; 946 in Rural whereas 900 in Urban India.
The access of the women particularly those belonging to the weaker sections of the society, particularly SC/ST/OBC and Minorities those who are in the rural areas and informal, unorganized sector- to Education, Health and productive resources is limited</li></li></ul><li>54 percent of Indian women are literate as compared to 76 percent of men. Women receive little schooling and also suffer from unfair and biased inheritance and divorce laws. <br />These laws prevent women from accumulating substantial financial assets, making it difficult for women to establish their own security and autonomy.<br />This drastically affects women’s health, financial status, education, and political involvement. <br />Moreover women are commonly married young, quickly become mothers, and are then burdened by stringent domestic and financial responsibilities.<br />Social stereotyping and violence at the domestic and societal level are other forms of manifestations<br />
Practicing “Dowry” is being highly prevalent in many parts of the country, which has resulted to many unwanted consequences like dowry death, broken marriages, causing physical and psychological agony to a women.<br />Females are exploited in the working places by unfair employment practices and exploitation of women in the labor market.<br />Prostitution is a social evil and is indicating towards poverty and disparity in distribution of the resources.<br />No women would like to indulge in prostitution unless circumstances forces her to do so.<br />
Hence GOAL is to bring about the advancement, development and empowerment of women.<br />Objectives:-<br />Creation of an environment through positive economic and social policies for full development of women to enable women to realize their full potential.<br />Enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedom by women on equal basis with men in all spheres- political, economic, social, cultural and civil.<br />Equal access to participation and decision making in social, political and economic life of the country.<br />Equal access of women to health care, quality of education at all levels, career and vocational guidance, employment, remuneration, occupational health and safety, social security.<br />Strengthening the legal system aimed at elimination all forms of the discrimination against the women<br />Mainstreaming gender perspective in development process.<br />
Within the framework of a democratic polity, our laws, development policies, Plans and programmes have aimed at women’s advancement in different spheres. <br />From the Fifth Five Year Plan (1974-78) onwards has been a marked shift in the approach to women’s issues from welfare to development. In recent years, the empowerment of women has been recognized as the central issue in determining the status of women.<br />The National Commission for Women was set up by an Act of Parliament in 1990 to safeguard the rights and legal entitlements of women. The 73rd and 74th Amendments (1993) to the Constitution of India have provided for reservation of seats in the local bodies of Panchayat and Municipalities for women, laying a strong foundation for their participation in decision making at the local levels.<br />
India has also ratified various international conventions and human rights instruments committing to secure equal rights of women. <br />Key among them is the ratification of the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1993.<br />POLICY PRESCRIPTIONS<br />Judicial Legal Systems:-<br />Legal-judicial system will be made more responsive and gender sensitive to women’s needs, especially in cases of domestic violence and personal assault. <br />The Policy would aim to encourage changes in personal laws such as those related to marriage, divorce, maintenance and guardianship so as to eliminate discrimination against women.<br />The Policy would aim to encourage changes in laws relating to ownership of property and inheritance by evolving consensus in order to make them gender just.<br />
Economic empowerment of women<br />MICRO-CREDIT- Microcredit is the extension of very small loans (microloans) to those in poverty designed to spur entrepreneurship. <br />Thus establishing of new and strengthening of the existing micro-credit mechanisms and micro-finance institutions for women particularly for those below the poverty line need to be done to enhance production and consumption.<br /> It has successfully enabled extremely impoverished people to engage in self-employment projects that allow them to generate an income and, in many cases, begin to build wealth and exit poverty.<br />Women and economy:- Women’s contribution to the socioeconomic development as a producer and worker should be recognized in the formal and informal sectors including home based works. <br />Appropriate policies relating to employment and working conditions must be drawn up. <br />
Women and agriculture:- As producers , the programmes for training in soil conservation, social forestry, dairy development and other occupation related to the agriculture like horticulture, livestock like animal husbandry, poultry, fisheries must be expanded to benefit them.<br />Women and industry:- Women in various fields like IT, electronics, textiles, agro based food processing industries should be given comprehensive support in terms of legislation, security, support services like transportation, child care facilities, crèches at the work places, educational institutions homes for aged and disabled so as to enhance the participation of the women in their development.<br />Poverty eradication programes:- Offering a range of economic and social options for women particularly poor should be initiated.<br />
Social empowerment of women<br />Education:- Special measures should be taken to eliminate discrimination and universalize education, eradicate illiteracy, create a gender sensitive educational curricula, increase enrolment and retention rates of the girls, improve quality of education for lifelong learning as well as development of occupation/ vocational/technical skills of women.<br />Special focus on the girls and women particularly of the weaker section of the society should be given.<br />Health:- National demographic goals for IMR and MMR are set out in NPP 2000. They should have equal access to comprehensive affordable and quality healthcare.<br />Reproductive rights of the women should be ensured to enable them to exercise informed choices, their vulnerability to sexual and other health problems including endemic, infectious, communicable and non communicable diseases.<br />Have safe, effective, and affordable method of family planning of their choices.<br />
The needs to address the issues of early marriages and spacing in the children, compulsory registration of marriage and elimination of child marriages should be the main agenda.<br />Nutrition:- Special efforts to tackle the problems of macro and micro nutrient deficiencies specially amongst the pregnant and lactating women should be undertaken to avoid the diseases and disabilities in them.<br />Appropriate strategy like nutritional education should be sought to end intra household discrimination in nutritional matters.<br />Drinking water and sanitation:- Women's participation should be ensured in the planning, delivering and maintenance of the services like safe drinking water, sewage disposal, toilet facilities and sanitation in the accessible reach of the household, specially in rural areas and urban slums.<br />Housing and shelter:- Special attention should be given for providing safe and adequate housing and accommodation for women including single woman, head of household, working women, students, apprentices and trainees.<br />
Environment:- Vast majority of rural women still depend on locally available noncommercial source of energy such as animal dung, crop waste and fuel wood.<br />To ensure the use of the resources in the environment friendly manner women can be involved in spreading the use of solar energy, biogas, smokeless chulhas and other rural applications.<br />Science and technology:- Providing girls for higher education and training them in IT and Comm., ensuring their involvement in the developmental projects would help them to ameliorate the present condition.<br />Women in difficult circumstances:- Like that in extreme poverty, destitute women, natural calamities, widows, elderly women, single women in difficult situation, migrants, violence affected, deserted women, CSWs should be special attention.<br />
Violence against the women:- All forms of violence against a women either physical or mental at domestic or societal level including those arising from customs, traditions or accepted practices should be strongly dealt with through effective measures so as to eliminate its incidences.<br />Rights of a girl child:- Strict enforcement of laws against prenatal sex determination and selection, practice of female feticide, female infanticide, child marriage, child abuse and child prostitution etc…. removal of discrimination in the treatment of the girl child within the family and outside.<br />Projection of a positive image of the girl child should be actively fostered.<br />Mass media;- should be used to portray image consistent with human dignity of girls and women.<br />The policy should be specifically strived to remove demeaning, degrading, and negative conventional stereotypical image of women and violence against women in media.<br />
Institutional mechanisms<br />National and state councils will be formed to ensure implementation of the policy on regular basis. The national council will be headed by PM and state council by CM.<br />Board will be in composition with representatives from concerned departments/ministries, National and State commission for women, Social Welfare Boards, rep. from NGOs, women organizations, corporate sectors, trade unions, social activists.<br />These body will review the progress made in implementing the policies twice a year.<br />National and State Resource Centers on Women will be established with mandates for collection and dissemination of information, undertaking research work, conducting surveys, implementing training and awareness generation programme, etc.<br />SHG such as Anganwadi/village/town level will be registered as societies<br />
In order to protect the constitutional rights of the women, the government has enacted many women specific and women related legislation…. Few of them are described below.<br />MTP Act, 1971 and rules and regulations 2003:- This law has liberalized women to seek abortion and doctors to do it.<br />The women can opt for abortion in conditions of therapeutic importance, when continuation of the pregnancy endangers the life of a women; social importance when social and economic environment is not favorable to the continuation of the pregnancy; humanitarian reasons like a case of rape; eugenic reasons or the condition when the pregnant women is not mentally sound.<br />2) The Maternity Benefit:- This act is to protect and empower women as a worker. Acc to this act every women is entitled to the maternity benefit at the rate of average daily wage for the period of six weeks including the day of her delivery and six weeks following that day<br />
In case of miscarriage or MTP if produced proof, a women is entitled to the leave with wage for a period of six weeks. Other provisions are leave with wages for tubectomy for a period of 2 weeks.<br />The Family Court Act 1984 provides for establishment of family courts by the state government to promote reconciliation and secure speedy settlement of the disputes relating to marriage and family affairs.<br />The dowry Prohibition Act 1961:- Under this act any person who gives or takes or abets the giving or taking of the dowry shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term not less than five years and fine not less than Rs. 15,000/- or the amount of value of such dowry whichever is more.<br />The Immoral Traffic Act:- Any person who keeps, or manages, or acts, or assists in keeping or management of the Bothrel (any house, room, or place used for purpose of sexual exploitation) shall be punishable at 1st conviction rigorous imprisonment 1-3 years + fine up to Rs.2000/- and second conviction rigorous imprisonment 2-5 years + fine up to Rs.2000/- .<br />Other laws are The Protection Of Women From domestic violence Act 2005.<br />
“The origin of a child is a mother, a woman. ….she shows a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman.“<br />But this is just the beginning…………<br />Thank You…..<br />