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  1. 1. Econ 344 Winter, 2008 Study sheet for first exam. Second draft. Please bring a Blue Book. The exam will be closed book, and you will have the entire class. Material covered will be those items on the syllabus up through what is covered in class on Thursday, Feb. 7, which will include several chapters of Richards and Waterbury, plus the corresponding readings. 1. The exam will include identifications and map questions –relating to Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, and Israel/Palestine. 2. You should know the three presidents of Egypt, the three kings of Jordan, and the most important leaders of Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, and the Palestinian movement. Also, Israel’s main wars with its neighbors, their impact on geographical borders, and the intifadas. 3. You should be able to discuss Mohammed Ali (Pasha), and the evolution of construction, ownership, and control of the Suez Canal. 4. Richards and Waterbury outline several strategies of economic development. Identify four strategies. Of the countries we have discussed (Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Israel) pick two and discuss which strategy they have chosen, and how successful they have been. 5. What is meant by rentier economy? Pick an economy, and discuss what is the source of its rent, and how successful the country has been in utilizing it. 6. What are the major political regimes that have been important in the Middle East? Illustrate this in terms of two countries that we have discussed. 7. Identify Hizbullah and Hamas; where do they work, what do they do, in what ways have they evolved, how do they affect the political situation of the countries where they work. On what grounds does the US (and some other countries) criticize them? 8. Compare and contrast Nasserism and the Ba’ath party, in terms of time period, countries affected, ideology, rise and fall. 9. Henry refers (his page 2) of the “diminished appeal of Arab nationalism after Nasser’s death in 1970...” Why has this appeal declined? What impact has that decline had? 10. What are the “globalizations” of which Henry speaks? 11. What are the major impediments to development in the Middle East, according to Henry? 12. Mustafa and Norton dismiss the “wooden official statements from Washington insist[ing] that democratic reform remain on the US agenda.” What examples do they give? 13. Explain Mustafa and Norton’s statement (their page 40) that “The legitimation of thoughtful, committed, liberal reformers who give voice to an attractive, secular, alternative view of politics is to be avoided at all costs.” 14. In Kiernan’s view, why is Syria moving more slowly toward economic liberalization, compared to countries such as Jordan, Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco? What is the role of petroleum in that country’s economy? 15. Lebanon is said to have had a war in summer, 2006. With whom? Why? Moreover, why is there a debate about who won and who lost? What is the importance of the answer to that question? Who does Telhami identify as the winners? Sketch briefly the division of the answer to the question of “who are Lebanon’s enemies” in terms of the religious/sectarian identity of the respondent. Does the resulting polarization of the Lebanese population benefit or hurt that country’s major enemy, according to Shelhami? How important is US aid in affecting those attitudes? 16. What is the new liberal bargain that Greenwood describes for Jordan? In his view, are political and economic liberalization independent, or do they come together? What are the economic components of that new bargain? 17. The US National Intelligence Estimate on Iraq did not like the term “civil war” for the description of the situation in Iraq in the first half of 2007. Why not? What was their preferred substitute? 18. As described by Khalidi, what are the major results for Palestinians, of what he calls the ‘colonization’ of the west Bank and Gaza by Israel after 1967?
  2. 2. 19. Sketch briefly the growth and evolution of the PLO/PLA. What stance did the PLO take with regards Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait; discuss Khalidi’s opinion on that stance? What was the context of the 1997 report by the (Palestinian) Parliamentary Committee that was analyzed by Halevi? 20. What have been the major phases of Palestinian out-migration, and where have the migrants and refugees gone? In which places did this in-migration have macroeconomic effects? 21. What impacts on the economy of Palestine does the World Bank attribute to the presence of Israeli settlements in the West Bank? How has the construction of the separation Barrier/Wall affected the economy of local Palestinians, according to the World Bank? What have been the three channels of deterioration of the economy of the West Bank and Gaza, because of the intifadas and the Wall 22. What is meant by the ‘demographic dividend?’ The ‘dependency ratio?’ 23. Identify and explain briefly three factors that determine fertility levels. In what ways can government policy affect fertility? Which countries have taken steps to discourage population growth, and which not? What was the post-Revolutionary experience of Iran in terms of population policy? Econ 344 Study Sheet for exam #2 Winter, 2008 The exam will cover the topics from “Cities in the M.E.” thru “Gender Issues” (if we get that far). This involves chapters 6-10 of the Richards/Waterbury book, and the corresponding readings. The format will be quite similar to that of the previous exam, except that there will be no map question. Bring a Blue Book. 1. What is meant by the “bi-modal pattern of land tenure” of Latin America, how does it contrast with the “peasant system” of East Asia, and which is generally more relevant for the MENA countries? How did the historical legacy of colonialism affect land holding patterns? 2. With regard to land reform, which countries attempted land reform, and why is it generally judged to have failed? Discuss one country in a paragraph or more. What factors does Hinnebusch have in mind when he speaks of the reversal of Egypt’s reform? Why is the abolition of the rental important? Which groups (socio-political-economic) were in favor of its abolition? What longer term impact on land use does that author foresee? Is this an advance towards more capitalistic rural relations, or a regression, in his view? Compare and contrast the views on Egypt’s land reform, of Hinnebusch and Beinin. 3. What are the three river systems in MENA that involve more than two countries, and what factors affect the distribution of their water? For those river systems, explain how the construction of dams and large pumping stations has underlined conflicts between the riparians. What is the distribution of the water that flows into the River Jordan? In general, what policies might help countries conserve water? Compare and contrast the history of water availability and use in Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Was the Aswan dam “worth it?” 4. What has been the experience of urbanization in the major regions (MENA, East Asia, LAC, OECD, etc.)? Distinguish between the formal and informal sectors. Why does the informal sector exist, and what policy options are available to governments with respect to it? What is the standard (internal) migration model, and how does the Harris-Todaro perspective modify its conclusions? Give three reasons why the cost of migration might have declined since WWII. One response to urban in-migration has been gentrification. Give two examples. Does Bayat think that the informal sector in Cairo has grown or declined, in relative terms, since liberalization? In Madanipour’s discussion of Tehran, what are some examples of urban bias? Relate these to the overall discussion of the reasons for the growth of that city; specifically, would elimination of urban bias significantly have reduced the growth of Tehran? R&W comment (p. 270) “One of the ironies of development is that successful educational programs in rural areas swell urban population.” Why is this true? Does it mean that countries should not attempt rural education? According to R&W, have urban shantytowns/slums been sources of political violence? Is this consistent with Bayat’s vision of quiet encroachment? Explain.
  3. 3. 5. Why have the majority of MENA countries experienced state-led growth, and what alternative policy orientations are currently available? Identify some important political figures in the early period of state- led growth. What is the World Bank’s argument about the causes of the decline in efficiency in MENA production? Why did ISI fail? What is meant by the “Turkish paradigm?” What does it have in common with, and how does it differ from, Arab Socialism? In their chapter 11 R&W provide several ‘types’ of political regimes in MENA. Was there any difference in adoption of reform policies, according to type of political regime? Why does the IMF have so much power in the adoption of reform policies? According to the data in R&W, which MENA countries have the highest and lowest fractions of population in poverty, and what are the trends in poverty in the region? 6. Identify the main postulates of the Washington Consensus. As described in R&W, how has Rodrik amended that position? Compare and contrast with the view of the Washington Consensus described by Beinin. Are Beinin’s criticisms directed at the logical underpinnings of the theory, or does he simply feel the facts will generate an outcome different from what the World Bank and its supporters predict? 7. Pick a country (from Egypt, Turkey, Tunisia, Morocco, Israel) and describe its reform experience, in terms of time frame, actions taken, goals achieved, and overall evaluation. 8. What is meant by the real exchange rate? In an inflationary environment, what should happen to the exchange rate? According to standard textbook theory, and the Washington Consensus, how should countries respond to balance of payments deficits? 9. Two important indicators of reform are privatization and the growth of local stock markets. What are the attractions and perils of these policies? Which countries have proceeded the farthest down this path? How does these policies relate to (inward) Foreign Direct Investment? 10. Why does trade liberalization contribute to economic growth-for MENA type countries, according to the Washington Consensus/standard growth theory. For which countries is a trade union a realistic possibility? For which countries is trade liberalization with Europe a possibility, and what are its attractions and perils? Which MENA countries are not members of the WTO, and why? Econ 344 Study Sheet #3 (rev.1) Winter, 2008 Professor Twomey The exam will cover material relating to Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Iran, Algeria and the Maghreb, Gender issues, Islamic Economics/Political Islam, Migration, and the economics of oil. Identifications: Zakat, riba, Dutch disease, Turgut Ozal, posted price/reference price (of oil), Seven Sisters, ARAMCO, King Faisal, King Abdul Aziz ibn Saud, Wahhabi, King Abdullah, Sheikh Yamani, Ataturk, Recip Erdogan, Post-Fordist, Young Turks, PKK, Taliban, labor hoarding, Islamic window (of a bank), Ayatollah Khomeini, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Reza Shah, wilayat al-faqih, Moqtada al-Sadr, Shirin Ebadi. 1. Clark’s article is subtitled “Islamization from below?” What does that question mean, why might that be happening, what is her basic answer, and what is her evaluation of the phenomenon? 2. According to Clark, why do NGOs (or PVOs) provide so many social services in Egypt? Is this basically religious groups (she mentions the Moslem Brotherhood), or are the majority of NGOs non-religious? Why are the medical clinics successful? 3. What is meant by Islamic banking, what economic sectors does it serve, and how does it differ from banking as typically practiced in the U.S. or the U.K.? How does venture capital differ from standard commercial bank lending?
  4. 4. 4. Siddiqi states that the fundamental aim of Islamic banking “..is to fulfill the teachings of the Holy Koran, as opposed to reaping maximum returns on financial assets.” Does the selection by Choudhury agree that there is an opposition between consistency with the Koran, and maximum returns? 5. What are the four Principal Instruments of Islamic Political Economy, according to Choudhury? 6. The migration of North Africans and Turks into Europe is similar to the migration of different peoples into the Gulf States, in that both have a common economic basis, which we might describe as differences in wages or incomes. However, beyond that, identify three differences between those two migratory flows. 7. What have been the achievements and limitations of the Gulf Coordination Council in terms of unification of its member countries? Is it possible for them to coordinate immigration policies? 8. Adelman makes several startling comments. Explain each. “At no time has crude oil been scarce.” (p. 169). “OPEC has no power of its own.” (p. 177). When speaking of US-Saudi relations (p. 177), “We have no hold or leverage over any producer nations.” They (OPEC countries) will find the task (keeping the price of oil above $25) easier because policy in the consuming nations is still ruled by the irrational fear that OPEC may no produce enough for our needs.” (p. 186) “It the world oil market, the key role will be that of the non-OPEC producers.” (p. 187). “There was no world crude oil price before World War II.” (p. 171). “A mineral industry runs out of customers before it can run out of mineral.” ( p. 172). 9. Describe the pattern of oil prices during the second half of the twentieth century. Adelman discusses several factors-historical political events, market factors, OPEC, that affected prices. With regard to the first two groups, discuss three and how they affected prices. With regard to OPEC, what seems to be Adelman’s view of OPEC’s current ability to affect prices? 10. Keddie writes (p. 26) “Secular rulers in the Middle East have often taken the lead in recognizing that increased women’s rights and labor force participation are essential to the creation of modern nations and societies.” Is this consistent with Okten’s description of increased labor force participation by women in Turkey, in a very Islamic context? 11. Keddie states (p. 27) that “A number of reasons may be adduced for the low relative status of ... women in the Muslim world, and the tendency to ascribe this to Islam does not begin to explain the phenomenon.” What are some of the other explanations suggested by that author? According to her, will the creation of democracy in places like Afghanistan and Iraq improve the status of women? Discuss. 12. Translate into plain English the following, from the summary of the chapter by Okten: “’Post Fordist’ organization of production brings about new paradigms and restructuring in the labor markets.” Discuss that author’s hypothesis that an “Islamic” female role is quite compatible with this new situation. Is this analysis specific to Turkey, or could it apply to other MENA countries, as well? Putting that another way… The paper’s hypothesis is that “the female role in an Islamic society, as modeled in accordance with political Islam, is quite compatible with the differentiated labor market structure in the post-Fordist production organization.” Would that compatibility be stronger in secular societies-such as Turkey and Egypt, or religiously oriented societies like Saudi Arabia and Iran? 13. Why is Saudi Arabia inventing a working class, and how are its options different from those of its neighbors in the Gulf, and more broadly the other MENA countries? 14. Mohamedi’s discussion of the “deal” by which oil links the ruling families of the Gulf with their citizens, claims that the old deal is being undermined. Why? What is the reason for his different analyses of oil and gas? His article is a decade old. Has subsequent experience shown him correct? Discuss. 15. The world has many oil exporting countries. Name a couple of major non-OPEC oil exporters from the non- industrial (third world) countries. Name a couple of OPEC countries that are not located in MENA. Are there any MENA OPEC countries that are not Arab? Are there any MENA, Arab, oil exporters, that are not in OPEC? 16. What might be two beneficial economic impacts of Turkey’s potential membership in the European Union, given that there already is a free trade agreement between that country and the EU, and thus tariff reduction will play a minimal role? Discuss some of the vested interests mentioned by Khan and Yavuz, which have hindered changes inside Turkey that might be needed to merit acceptance by the EU. 17. An important part of Tetreault’s position is that gender politics in Kuwait effectively serves as a proxy for other issues. What are those other issues? How convincing is her argument? 18. What is meant by a murabaha contract, and what is R&W’s explanation for its prevalence amongst Islamic banks in MENA?
  5. 5. 19. What do R&W mean by Islamism (or Islamic Activism, which they distinguish from Political Islam), and what are the major groups or social actors that compose this movement? In their view, is Islamism a individualist/free enterprise/pro-capitalist movement, or a collectivist/state ownership type of movement? 20. Baktiari describes the current situation in Iran as undergoing a ‘conservative revival.’ That term is basically used to describe the politics of the regime. What would be the economic evaluation in terms of Islamic economics, the free market orientation of the World Bank, and its results? 21. The article by Khan and Yavuz on Turkey points out that the (somewhat Islamist) regime of Erdogan’s Welfare Party ‘viewed attempts at European integration with suspicion if not outright hostility,’ (p. 4), while the current (somewhat Islamist) regime of Erbakan’s Justice and Development Party is aggressively pushing for incorporation into the EU. How do those authors explain the shift in attitudes? Additionally, they describe (p. 5) the rather prevalent attitude of EU diplomats that Turkey will be ‘a super-best friend, trusted partner, but not sitting at the top table.’ What difference would landing in this second tier position make? 22. Saad Ibrahim (p.4) states that “Part of America’s reluctance to deal with Islamists reflected concern over the reaction of autocratic regimes, some of which are long-time allies.” In his view, what would those autocratic regimes oppose? What is Ibrahim’s recommended response? 23. Consider the three countries which have their own versions of Islamic regimes: Iran, Turkey, and Saudi Arabia. How do they differ on three orientations: 1) orientation towards free markets; 2) acceptance of democracy; 3) support of US policy in the region. Econ 344 Economies of the Middle East Winter, 2007 Professor Twomey First Draft of the Study Sheet for Exam #1, to be held Thursday Feb. 16 Fair game for the exam includes the chapters from the Owen/Pamuk textbook [O/P], the required readings from the syllabus, and class lectures. Handouts distributed in class are intended to supplement those sources. Most questions will be taken from this list. This sheet may be updated and redistributed before the exam, in class and/or by email. You should bring a Blue Book to the exam. Identifications: Gamal Nasser, Anwar al-Sadat, Hosni Mubarak, Muhamad Ali, Saad Zaghul, Hassan al-Banna, Hafez al-Assad, Bashar al-Assad, Sharif Hussein, the three kings of Jordan, Michel Aflaq, Rafiq Hariri, PLO, Maronite, Falange, Sunni, Shiia, Hizbullah, Hamas, Yasir Arafat, Mahmoud Abbas, Saddam Hussein, Sykes Picot, Balfour Declaration, Ba’ath Party, Transjordan, Sinai, Gaza, Golan Heights, Oslo Accords, Intifada, Israeli Barrier Wall, There will probably be a few questions related to maps. You are expected to know the names of the capitals of the countries we have talked about in class. 1. According to O/P, what are characteristics of a “colonial economy?” Pick one of the countries we have studied, and identify one way in which it does not fulfill that description. 2. Give two parallels, and two differences, between the British and French mandates in the Middle East. Of the two countries in the French Mandate, why did Syria become statist, while Lebanon has had an open economy? 3. Compare and contrast the economic policies of the Ba’th-Assad regime in Syria, with those of Sadat and Mubarak in Egypt. 4. A major topic in an economics class about the Middle East must inevitably be the economic reforms that have taken place in the last two decades. Select two countries from those we have covered (Egypt, Turkey, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, the West Bank and Gaza), and discuss the timing, motivation, scope, and achievements of these reforms. 5. Identify (year and ‘name’) the major wars/conflicts between Israel and its neighbors. 6. How has the population of Palestinians evolved since 1940, in terms of geographical location, as well as numbers? 7. Greenwood speaks of Jordan’s “new liberal bargain.” What does this mean? Is the country becoming more dependent on the U.S.? What was the effect of the 1967 war on Jordan?
  6. 6. 8. Both Khalidi and Halevi attribute to the Palestinian Authority some degree of institution building, which will be important should an Oslo-type agreement eventually give the Palestinians control over land. What is meant by institution building? What have been its strengths and weaknesses? Explain and critique Halevi’s statement (p. 40) “It is thus not surprising that it is among the intellectuals, academics, and liberal professionals such as doctors and lawyers that one finds.. the most ardent defenders of the rule of law, the least eager to accept the “normalization” of the Palestinian state-in-the-making.” 9. Roy cites the World Bank as asserting that, “[I]t will take 20 years to return the Palestinian economy to where it was on the eve of the current Intifada.” One could speak generally and perhaps unproductively of the cause of that decline simply being the conflict with Israel. According to the World Bank, what are the proximate causes of this decline? 10. What is meant by the term demographic transition? What are its causes, and what areas of the economy are most directly affected? How convincing is Laipson’s analysis that Tunisia has successfully undergone this transition? Evaluate her statement (p. 184) that “[T]he renewal of violence in the Israel-Palestine conflict contains several demographic subplots,” [i.e. causes]? 11. Fertility is directly affected by contraceptive use, and might therefore be presumed to depend on government policy, socio-economic variables, and the strength of Islamic Law, or Sharia. In his study, what does Faour conclude is the relative weight of those three sets of factors? How does Kamran Asdar Ali’s discussion of family planning in Egypt seem to rate the relative importance of those three factors? Econ 344 Professor Twomey Study sheet for exam #2, winter 2007 (revision 1) The exam will cover the items in the syllabus identified as Agriculture, Economics Issues, and Iran. There is a small chance that it will also include the section entitled Saudi Arabia and the Gulf. As such, the readings include the appropriate parts of Owen/Pamuk (with regard to Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Palestine - on agriculture and macro), the photocopies in the coursepack of the chapters from the books by Beinin, Rivlin, Shakoori, Nomani and Behdad, as well as the articles by Hinebusch, Swain, Yousef, and Baktiari and Vaziri. Remember that the World Bank’s Chapter 4 of Unlocking Employment Potential will not be covered. 1. Identifications: Land to the tiller, green revolution, tax farming, sharecropping, property rights, absentee landlords, autogestion, Islamic Village Councils, Ministry of Jihad, Ayatollah Khomeini, Ayatollah Khameini, Mohammed Khatami, Akbar Rafanjani Qajar, Mahmud Ahdmadinejad, Mahmud Khatami, Falkenmark level, Marsh People, aquifer, tenant rights, SAVAK, Council of Guardians, Bonyads, Revolutionary Guards [If Saudi Arabia/Gulf is included]Abdul Aziz (‘Abd al-‘Aziz), Aramco, IPC, APOC, Tapline, Wahhabi, King Faisal, Gulf Coordination Council, 2. Beinin begins his chapter with the statement “Until the mid-1930s the majority of the political classes of the Middle East espoused liberal projects of cultural and social reform and political and economic development that they expected would set their countries on what they understood to be the historical trajectory of France and England.” What should we understand to be the alternative to “liberal projects” of reform and development? What would more recent examples of alternative national projects in the MENA region, either before or after 1973? 3 What is meant by “authoritarian-populist regimes,” and what are some historical examples? What types of economic policies do we identify with them? 4 The World Bank has long criticized “urban bias” in development programs. Compare that perspective with the orientation Beinin ascribes to authoritarian populist regimes in the Middle East. 5. Beinin discusses the shift in the economic policies of countries in the Middle East, from state-led growth to neo- liberal orientations in terms of the relative weights of external pressures (US or UK; IMF/World Bank), impact of military defeat and/or the impact of high oil prices, internal inefficiencies, and economic ideology evidenced by the dominance of the Washington consensus rhetoric. Pick a country in the region and discuss the relative impact of external, internal, and ideological influences in these changes. The theoretical models and points of departure of
  7. 7. Beinin and Yousef seem to be quite distant: compare the analysis of Beinin (bureaucratic authoritarian, etc.) with that of Yousef’s “interventionist-redistributive economic development model” (p. 94) 6. Beinin asserts (p. 168) that, “… poverty was not generally alleviated by Washington consensus policies.” Is that because these policies were not thoroughly applied, or that the policies inherently would not reduce poverty? Discuss 7. O&P comment that both the French and British affected the Ottoman legacy by eliminating tax farming and instituting land registration. What might have been the distributional consequences of these policies. 8. Translate into simpler English what Hinnebusch means (p. 22) by “The abolition of the tenancy law may be a first step in the replacement of small peasant production by larger scale capitalist production.” What reasons does he offer for this view? According to the descriptions of our various authors, was Egypt’s agrarian policy determined dictatorially from the center of power, or more democratically by consultation with the various interest groups? 9. Does abolishing sharecropping improve agricultural efficiency, in theory or in practice in the MENA? Pick a country from MENA region, and briefly discuss its agrarian reform experience. 10. Select two countries from among Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey, and compare and contrast their experiences with agricultural development and government directed land reform, for the period around the middle of the twentieth century. Describe the various phases of the agrarian reform in Egypt. What purpose did the agrarian relations dispute committees form? Why were they abolished? 11. We know that Israel competes for water with virtually all its neighbors. With which specific countries do Egypt and Turkey compete for water? Where is that water? Where is desalination important? Is it useful to ask if desalination is economically rational? 12. In terms of actual policies--as opposed to rhetoric or political style—are the policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran, as described by BakatiariVaziri, Shakoori, or Nomani/Behdad, similar to those of authoritarian populist regimes? Give some examples to back up your position. 13. In post-revolutionary rural Iran, what was the purpose of the Ministry of Jihad? What role did the Islamic village councils play, in theory and in fact? 14. In his discussion of post-revolutionary Iran, Shakoori speaks of conflicts between populists and liberal technocrats (e.g. p. 62). What issues are involved. Are these conflicts fundamentally different from conflicts in Egypt, Turkey, Syria and elsewhere? 15. Which MENA cities have the worst air pollution? What are its causes, and what are potential remedies? 16. Discuss briefly Swain’s vision of Israel’s “plundering the water.” Compare and contrast the conflicts over the waters of the Nile with those for the Tigris/Euphrates. 17. In MENA, what is the major demand for water – agriculture, industry, or direct human consumption? What are the major sources of Saudi Arabia’s water, and how does this impact the Kingdom’s policy of agricultural development? 18. Describe briefly Swain’s vision of the response of the various countries to increased demand for water from the Tigris and Euphrates. 19. What factors does Yousef mention in his analysis of strong MENA growth in the 1960s and 1970s. What factors led to a decline in factor productivity growth thereafter? What does he mean by the Social Contract, and what are its major characteristics? What led to its creation, and what to its erosion? Was an “authoritarian bargain” necessary? What does he mean by the “soft budget constraints on the intensity of demand for reform,” (p. 109). What is his analysis of the “political economy” of the demand for political and for economic reform? Does that analysis coincide with that of Baktiari and Vaziri for Iran?
  8. 8. 20. According to Yousef, what led to the emergence of high unemployment in the MENA region in the 1990s? To what factor(s) does he attribute the strong growth of the private sector in the small gulf economies? Does he view increased migration as a positive or a negative factor? 21. What do Nomani and Behdad mean by “structural involution?” What caused it, and is it continuing? Discuss. 22. On the basis of our readings, who was more interested in policies towards Iranian agriculture, the Shah or the Islamic Republic? What do Baktiari and Vaziri mean by clerical factionalism? How does this influence economic policy? What is meant by their title “doubting reform? Contrast the positions of Khatami and Ahmadinejad on reform. 23. What policies are open to countries that experience balance of payments difficulties? In theory, what would be the impacts of each of those policies on employment, inflation, and real wages? According to standard economic theory, what are some of the likely causes of countries having balance of payments problems? 24. What are the advantages for MENA countries of belonging to the WTO? Which countries are not members, and why? What are the costs and benefits of having a currency union among the countries of the GCC? 25. Rivlin provides a series of discussions of experiences with economic stabilization and reform among the MENA countries. Compare and contrast two of them. 26. Why is Saudi Arabia inventing a working class, and how are its options different from those of the other large MENA countries? 27. [For the section of Saudi Arabia/Gulf] Mohamedi’s discussion of the “deal” by which oil links the ruling families of the Gulf with their citizens, claims that the old deal is being undermined. Why? What is the reason for his different analyses of oil and gas? His article is a decade old. Has subsequent experience shown him correct? Discuss. Econ 344 Study Sheet #3 (revised) Winter, 2007 Professor Twomey The exam will cover material relating to Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Gender issues, Islamic Economics/Political Islam, Migration, and the economics of oil. Of the readings listed on the syllabus, you will not be held responsible for the chapter in the coursepack by Zuhur, nor the articles by: Wiktorowicz (1999), Enhaili and Adda (2003), Sayre and Olmsted (1999), Telham (2002), Saad Ibrahim, Tetreault (2005), and Malgesini (1992). Identifications: Zakat, riba, etatism, Dutch disease, Turgut Ozal, posted price/reference price (of oil), Seven Sisters, ARAMCO, King Faisal, King Abdul Aziz ibn Saud, Wahhabi, King Abdullah, Sheikh Yamani, Ataturk, Recip Erdogan, Post-Fordist, Young Turks, PKK, Taliban, labor hoarding, Shirin Ebadi 24. Clark’s article is subtitled “Islamization from below?” What does that question mean, why might that be happening, what is her basic answer, and what is her evaluation of the phenomenon? 25. According to Clark, why do NGOs (or PVOs) provide so many social services in Egypt? Is this basically religious groups (she mentions the Moslem Brotherhood), or are the majority of NGOs non-religious? 26. What is meant by Islamic banking, and how does it differ from banking as typically practiced in the U.S. or the U.K.? How does venture capital differ from standard commercial bank lending? 27. Siddiqi states that the fundamental aim of Islamic banking “..is to fulfill the teachings of the Holy Koran, as opposed to reaping maximum returns on financial assets.” Does the selection by Choudhury agree that there is an opposition between consistency with the Koran, and maximum returns? 28. What are the four Principal Instruments of Islamic Political Economy, according to Choudhury?
  9. 9. 29. The article by Birks et al. argues that the collapse of world oil prices in the mid-1980s did not lead to a large scale re-export of labor. Why would there be such a re-export of labor, and from which countries? What explanation do those authors give for it not occurring? Why is there growing mobility of expatriate labor inside Kuwait, and what is the importance of that finding? 30. The migration of North Africans and Turks into Europe is similar to the migration of different peoples into the Gulf States, in that both have a common economic basis, which we might describe as differences in wages or incomes. Beyond that, identify three differences between those two migratory flows. 31. According to Owen and Pamuk, why was there a shift of source countries for labor immigrants into the Gulf States? 32. What have been the achievements and limitations of the Gulf Coordination Council in terms of unification of its member countries? Is it possible for them to coordinate immigration policies? 33. Adelman makes several startling comments. Explain each. “At no time has crude oil been scarce.” (p. 169). “OPEC has no power of its own.” (p. 177). When speaking of US-Saudi relations (p. 177), “We have no hold or leverage over any producer nations.” They (OPEC countries) will find the task (keeping the price of oil above $25) easier because policy in the consuming nations is still ruled by the irrational fear that OPEC may no produce enough for our needs.” (p. 186) “It the world oil market, the key role will be that of the non-OPEC producers.” (p. 187). “There was no world crude oil price before World War II.” (p. 171). “A mineral industry runs out of customers before it can run out of mineral.” ( p. 172). 34. Describe the pattern of oil prices during the second half of the twentieth century. Adelman discusses several factors-historical political events, market factors, OPEC, that affected prices. With regard to the first two groups, discuss three and how they affected prices. With regard to OPEC, what seems to be Adelman’s view of OPEC’s current ability to affect prices? 35. Keddie states (p. 27) that “A number of reasons may be adduced for the low relative status of ... women in the Muslim world, and the tendency to ascribe this to Islam does not begin to explain the phenomenon.” What are some of the other explanations suggested by that author? According to her, will the creation of democracy in places like Afghanistan and Iraq improve the status of women? Discuss. 36. Discuss briefly the history of the role of foreign direct investment in the Arab Gulf countries. What options towards policy on FDI does Mohamedi foresee in the near future? 37. Translate into plain English the following, from the summary of the chapter by Okten: “’Post Fordist’ organization of production brings about new paradigms and restructuring in the labor markets.” Discuss that author’s hypothesis that an “Islamic” female role is quite compatible with this new situation. Is this analysis specific to Turkey, or could it apply to other MENA countries, as well? Putting that another way… The paper’s hypothesis is that “the female role in an Islamic society, as modeled in accordance with political Islam, is quite compatible with the differentiated labor market structure in the post-Fordist production organization.” Would that compatibility be stronger in secular societies-such as Turkey and Egypt, or religiously oriented societies like Saudi Arabia and Iran? 38. Kuran asserts (p 164) that “the beneficiaries of state sponsored zakat are not always, or even mainly, the poor.” Is this consistent with Clark’s analysis of Islamic charities in Cairo? 39. Kuran states (p. 169) “From a narrowly economic standpoint, the Islamic subeconomy is not a source of inefficiency.” What would be some aspects of the Islamic subeconomy that might be a source of inefficiency? In Kuran’s opinion, is this lack of inefficiency a result of neoclassical theory being wrong, or that the Islamic economy has not been implemented, or what? 40. Was there “urban bias” in the policies of Ataturk in Turkey? What factors led to the rise, and what factors led to the fall of ISI in Turkey? Explain O&P’s assertion (p. 119) that during the 1930s Depression, there was less need of inflationary finance in Turkey. 41. Why is Saudi Arabia inventing a working class, and how are its options different from those of its neighbors? 42. Mohamedi’s discussion of the “deal” by which oil links the ruling families of the Gulf with their citizens, claims that the old deal is being undermined. Why? What is the reason for his different analyses of oil and gas? His article is a decade old. Has subsequent experience shown him correct? Discuss. 43. The world has many oil exporting countries. Name a couple of major non-OPEC oil exporters from the non- industrial (third world) countries. Name a couple of OPEC countries that are not located in MENA. Are there
  10. 10. any MENA OPEC countries that are not Arab? Are there any MENA, Arab, oil exporters, that are not in OPEC? 44. What might be two beneficial economic impacts of Turkey’s potential membership in the European Union, given that there already is a free trade agreement between that country and the EU, and thus tariff reduction will play a minimal role? Discuss some of the vested interests mentioned by Khan and Yavuz, which have hindered changes inside Turkey that might be needed to merit acceptance by the EU. 45. Keddie writes (p. 26) “Secular rulers in the Middle East have often taken the lead in recognizing that increased women’s rights and labor force participation are essential to the creation of modern nations and societies.” Is this consistent with Okten’s description of increased labor force participation by women in Turkey, in a very Islamic context? 46. The analysis of Terry Lynn Karl argues that the exploitation of petroleum bodes “ominously.. for successful development.” Why? She further claims (p. 38) that virtually all of these (oil exporting) countries… failed to translate their soaring gross domestic product (GDP) into corresponding improvements in their people’s welfare. Discuss that prediction in terms of Iran or Iraq, and one of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and UAE. 47. Econ 390 Economies of the Middle East Winter, 2005 Professor Twomey Study sheet for Exam #1, to be held Wednesday Feb. 16 Fair game for the exam includes the chapters from the Owen/Pamuk textbook [O/P], the required readings from List A and List B. Handouts distributed in class are intended to supplement those sources. There will be several identifications, as in the old exams that were distributed in class. There will probably be a few questions related to maps. Other questions will be short answer. Most questions will be taken from this list. . This sheet may be updated and redistributed before the exam, in class and/or by email. You should bring a Blue Book. 12. According to O/P, what are characteristics of a “colonial economy?” Pick one of the countries we have studied, and identify one way in which it does not fulfill that description. 1. Give two parallels, and two differences, between the British and French mandates in the Middle East. Of the two countries in the French Mandate, why did Syria become statist, while Lebanon has had an open economy? 2. Describe Ataturk’s economic policies. How were they linked to his political agenda? According to O/P, how were they successful or failures, and why? 3. In terms of nationality/ethnicity, what were some of the major population changes in Anatolia after the start of World War I? 4. Compare and contrast the economic policies of the Ba’th-Assad regime in Syria, with those of Sadat and Mubarak in Egypt. 5. A major topic in an economics class about the Middle East must inevitably be the economic reforms that have taken place in the last two decades. Select two countries from those we have covered (Egypt, Turkey, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, the West Bank and Gaza), and discuss the timing, motivation, scope, and achievements of these reforms. 6. Identify (year and ‘name’) the major wars/conflicts between Israel and its neighbors. 7. How has the population of Palestinians evolved since 1940, in terms of geographical location, as well as numbers? 8. The article by Khan and Yavuz spoke of the “superficial westernization” of Ataturk. Discuss what they mean by westernization, and how it was superficial.
  11. 11. 9. Greenwood speaks of Jordan’s “new liberal bargain.” What does this mean? Is the country becoming more dependent on the U.S.? What was the effect of the 1967 war on Jordan? 10. Explain what is meant by Victor Perthes when he says of Lebanon, “In terms of a confessionalist group logic, there is no doubt about who the winners and losers are.” What does Perthes judge to be the rationale for “the regime’s insensitivity to increasing inequalities and to its authoritarian tendencies.” 11. Both Halidi and Halevi attribute to the Palestinian Authority some degree of institution building, which will be important should an Oslo-type agreement eventually give the Palestinians control over land. What is meant by institution building? What have been its strengths and weaknesses? Explain and critique Halevi’s statement (p. 40) “It is thus not surprising that it is among the intellectuals, academics, and liberal professionals such as doctors and lawyers that one finds.. the most ardent defenders of the rule of law, the least eager to accept the “normalization” of the Palestinian state-in-the-making.” 12. Roy cites the World Bank as asserting that, “[I]t will take 20 years to return the Palestinian economy to where it was on the eve of the current Intifada.” One could speak generally and perhaps unproductively of the cause of that decline simply being the conflict with Israel. According to the World Bank, what are the proximate causes of this decline? 13. What is meant by the term demographic transition? What are its causes, and what areas of the economy are most directly affected? How convincing is Laipson’s analysis that Tunisia has successfully undergone this transition? Evaluate her statement (p. 184) that “[T]he renewal of violence in theIsrael-Palestine conflict contains several demographic subplots,” [i.e. causes]? 14. Fertility is directly affected by contraceptive use, and might therefore be presumed to depend on government policy, socio-economic variables, and the strength of Islamic Law, or Sharia. In his study, what does Faour conclude is the relative weight of those three sets of factors? How does Kamran Asdar Ali’s discussion of family planning in Egypt seem to rate the relative importance of those three factors? 15. The discussion by Abu Lughod of Palestinian Higher Education is set in a context of praising Palestinian achievements in spite of Israeli controls. It is also the case that the educational system he describes appears to be modeled after the U.S. system. In your opinion, are the limitations of the Palestinian system possibly more due to weaknesses of its design, as the U.S. system is not transferable? Does his description of the Palestinian higher educational system seem compatible with the vision of the needs of knowledge production described by Zahlan? 16. Identify and discuss the “design principles” of the Muslim City, as described by Saoud. Bayat and Razzaz both describe processes of settlement and survival in urban areas. The cities are growing, but is the dynamic changing? 17. The Chapter on Turkey emphasizes that the country went through certain stages in its ISI program, implying that there was some inevitability in that program’s demise. Nevertheless, although Egypt had a similar policy, this is not emphasized. Is this a difference in emphasis, or a different story? 18. What reasons do O/P give for the recent expansion of Turkey’s exports? Would the country’s incorporation into the EU increase this? One last item. I recently ran across an interesting web link to a series of articles in The New Yorker on Iraq and U.S. involvement since 2002. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?041115fa_fact Econ 390 W’05 Economies of the Middle East Study Sheet for Third Exam M. Twomey 1. Clark’s article is subtitled “Islamization from below?” What does that question mean, why might that be happening, what is her basic answer, and what is her evaluation of the phenomenon? 2. According to Clark, why do NGOs (or PVOs) provide so many social services in Egypt? Is this basically religious groups (she mentions the Moslem Brotherhood), or are the majority of NGOs non-religious.
  12. 12. 3. Wiktorowicz describes cooperation between the state and certain Islamist groups (specifically the Muslim Brotherhood) in Jordan. Is this description also valid for the situation in Egypt, as seen by Clark? There is also a discussion of criticism of the Muslim Brotherhood by other Islamist groups in Jordan—on what basis? 4. In terms of actual policies--as opposed to rhetoric or political style—are the policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran, as described by Karshenas and Pesaran, similar to those of authoritarian populist regimes? Give some examples to back up your position. 5. What do Baktiari and Vaziri mean when they state (p. 36) “In the contest to define the nature of sovereignty in the Islamic Republic, the proponents of popular rights had defeated the advocates of divine rule, at least for that moment.” 6. After the 9/11 attacks in the U.S., did Iran support the Taliban in Afghanistan, or work against them? Baktiari and Vaziri speak (p. 39) of an “impasse between reformist and conservative clerics,” what are some issues that divide these groups? Does their analysis of these issues agree with that of Shakoori? 7. In post-revolutionary rural Iran, what was the purpose of the Ministry of Jihad? What role did the Islamic village councils play, in theory and in fact? 8. In his discussion of post-revolutionary Iran, Shakoori speaks of conflicts between populists and liberal technocrats (e.g. p. 62). Are these conflicts fundamentally different from similar conflicts in Egypt, Turkey, Syria and elsewhere? 9. What is meant by Islamic banking, and how does it differ from banking as typically practiced in the U.S. or the U.K.? 10. Siddiqi states that the fundamental aim of Islamic banking “..is to fulfill the teachings of the Holy Koran, as opposed to reaping maximum returns on financial assets.” Does the selection by Choudhury agree that there is an opposition between consistency with the Koran, and maximum returns? 11. What are the four major positions (referred to as “Principal Instruments”) of Islamic Political Economy, according to Choudhury? 12. Telhami states that the U.S. has serious policy disagreements with Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states. Beyond the questions relating to Israel, what are these differences? IN what ways do the policies of the US coincide with those of Saudi Arabia? 13. The article by Birks et al. argues that the collapse of world oil prices in the mid-1980s did not lead to a large scale re-export of labor. Why would there be such a re-export of labor, from where, and what do those authors believe to be the reason for it not occurring? 14. The migration of North Africans and Turks into Europe is similar to the migration of different peoples into the Gulf States, in that both have a common economic basis, which we might describe as differences in wages or incomes. Beyond that, identify three differences. 15. According to Owen and Pamuk, why was there a shift of source countries for labor immigrants into the Gulf States? 16. What have been the achievements and limitations of the Gulf Coordination Council in terms of unification of its member countries? Is it possible for them to coordinate immigration policies? 17. Adelman makes several startling comments. Explain each. “At no time has crude oil been scarce.” (p. 169). “OPEC has no power of its own.” (p. 177). When speaking of US-Saudi relations (p. 177), “We have no hold or leverage over any producer nations.” They (OPEC countries) will find the task (keeping the price of oil above $25) easier because policy in the consuming nations is still ruled by the irrational fear that OPEC may no produce
  13. 13. enough for our needs.” (p. 186) “It the world oil market, the key role will be that of the non-OPEC producers.” (p. 187). “There was no world crude oil price before World War II.” (p. 171). “A mineral industry runs out of customers before it can run out of mineral.” ( p. 172) 18. Describe the pattern of oil prices during the second half of the twentieth century. Adelman discusses several factors-historical political events, market factors, OPEC, that affected prices. With regard to the first two groups, discuss three and how they affected prices. With regard to OPEC, what seems to be Adelamn’s view of OPEC’s current ability to affect prices? 19. Is it logical for Haya al-Mughni to claim (p. 32) that women’s movements inhibit feminist movements? Kuwait is usually described as a male dominated, patriarchal society. Is that inconsistent with the growth of women’s associations? 20. Keddie states (p. 27) that “A number of reasons may be adduced for the low relative status of ... women in the Muslim world, and the tendency to ascribe this to Islam does not begin to explain the phenomenon.” What are some of the other explanations suggested by that author? According to her, will the creation of democracy in places like Afghanistan and Iraq improve the status of women? Discuss. 21. Translate into plain English the following, from the summary of the chapter by Okten: “’Post Fordist’ organization of production brings about new paradigms and restructuring in the labor markets.” Discuss that author’s hypothesis that an “Islamic” female role is quite compatible with this new situation. Econ 390 Sample Study Questions. #1 September/October, 2003 M. Twomey The mid-term and the final exams will include identifications, short answer, and perhaps something bordering on essay questions. The first exam will cover the material in chapters 1-9 in the Richards and Waterbury book, as well as the lectures on Egypt, Turkey, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine and Israel. The purpose of this sheet is to give you a sense of what kinds of questions might be asked. Identifications: People and places: Ataturk, Ozal, Young Turks, Farouk, Mohamed Ali, Nasser, Sadat, Aswan, Suez, Free Officers (several other leaders/rulers were mentioned, but their role is generally secondary) Theories/ideas: Import substitution industrialization, agrarian reform, structural adjustment, etatism, economic rent, dutch disease, terms of trade (I intend to go easy on the economic theory) Map: country names (but not capitals) Ottoman Empire background. When did it start, and when did it peak? What criticisms are made of its legacy to the MENA areas it controlled? In terms of the discussion in Salt’s article on Turkey distributed in class, what factors beyond the religious identity of Erbakan’s Welfare (Refah) party might have led the military to force him from office? Chapter 2. Development strategies. What are they? Who wins and who loses if they are adopted? Chapter 3. is pretty descriptive, and its tables are out of date. It is not fair to ask students to remember data of secondary importance (e.g., the population of Tunisia, or the rate of growth of agricultural output in Egypt after 1980) Chapter 4. Population issues. What has been the recent pattern of population growth in the MENA? What is meant by the term demographic transition? Has this proceeded far in the MENA region? What are the factors that determine fertility? Why has fertility fallen? Has government policy been important? Where? In what concrete ways?
  14. 14. Chapter 5. Education and health. What is the basis for the argument that MENA governments spend too much on higher education? Note that there are several issues relating to education and health from the perspective of differences by gender, but these will not be covered on the first exam. Chapter 6. Agriculture. Discuss the importance of land reform in Egypt and Algeria. Two different approaches to food policy are the pursuit of self sufficiency, or reliance on free trade. Discuss which approach has been pursued, and with what success, in Egypt, Turkey, Algeria, Saudi Arabia,… What is the goal of a land reform? What factors affect its success or failure? Contrast countries in terms of availability or scarcity of water. Which major rivers cut across national boundaries? Discuss the rationality of water desalination in Saudi Arabia. How important have been HYVs in MENA agriculture? Chapters 7, 8 and 9. Relate to the issue of the shift from an early phase of state-led growth under ISI, to a subsequent stage of reform and privatization. A big question looks like: Pick a country, and describe how this happened, and what the current situation is. Evidently, you could be asked to discuss this with respect to a particular country, for which the obvious candidates are Egypt and Turkey. Or compare and contrast the experience of either of Egypt and Turkey with that of Jordan, Syria, Israel, etc. Another possibility is: contrast the experience of the “liberal monarchies” (page 192) with the standard versions of Egypt and Turkey, or that of other radical regimes. What are the positive and non-positive legacies of ISI? Identify three or four distinct groups with a vested interest in discouraging privatization. You can skip in the Richards/Waterbury book: graphs on pages 15 and 16. Rent ceiling conversation on page 56. Incremental capital output ratio on page 69. __________________________________________________________________ With regard to material relating to Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Palestine and Israel: Several more names were mentioned. The evolution of events in mandate Palestine, wars between Israel and its neighbors, the Camp David and the Oslo Accords, the two intifada. The quantitative dimensions of the pre-1948 population of Palestine, where the refugees went, and how they were received. The growth of Israel’s population. How Lebanon’s post WWI history is really quite distinct from that of its neighbors. How the process of dividing up the Ottoman Empire discouraged pan-Arab efforts. Discuss the role of Jordan’s first king, Abdullah, in the evolving geo-politics of the region. Discuss the geographical definition of Jordan, the impact of the 1948 War, and Abdullah’s relation with both his own subjects and his neighbors. Discuss the position of Aharoni on how the “political economy” of Israel is changing. What causes these changes; how will they affect Israel’s neighbors. Some economic trends that were again mentioned are the different patterns of growth of per capita income in the several countries, the importance of overseas workers and foreign aid in a few countries, the success in Israel of anti- inflationary policies, the lack of success in Turkey. Econ 390 Study Questions for Final Exam Fall, 2003 Professor Twomey The final exam will be on Tuesday December 16 at 1:00 p.m. Please bring a bluebook. The format of the exam will be similar to that of the first exam: some identifications, and then a set of other questions. The identifications will account for 20-25 points, out of 100. In principle, the questions will refer to the material in the second half of our course: topics covered in Chapters 10-15 of the Richards and Waterbury (R&W) text include women’s issues, minorities, Islamic economics and Islamist movements, the world oil market, urban
  15. 15. and defense issues, as well as country specific treatment of Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco; Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States, and Iran. Several tables and articles were also distributed in class, and are fair game for the exam. Newspaper articles sent by e-mail are not themselves part of the material for the exam. It has not yet been decided if students will be given a choice of which questions to answer. The following questions are meant to remind you of the material that can be covered on the final. As was true of the study sheet for the mid-term, most of the actual questions on the exam will be based on what follows here, and, following the discussion in class, the attempt will be made to give the exam questions a more appropriate level of precision. 1. In the article about women in Iran handed out in class, Maryam Poya distinguishes between secular feminists and Muslim Iranian feminists. Explain briefly the distinction she describes. She also portrays an evolution of the Islamic Republic’s approach to women’s issues, in the period after 1979. What is that evolution? In your own opinion, is her conclusion valid, that “women’s employment, even within an Islamic framework, has undermined the Islamic state’s ideology of female seclusion and its gender relationships,” (page 17) 2. Okten’s article about women’s work in Turkey argues “that the female role in an Islamic society, as modeled in accordance with political Islam, is quite compatible with the differentiated labor market structure in the post-Fordist production organization.” (p. 269). What is meant by: post-Fordist production, political Islam, informal labor markets? Evaluate Okten’s conclusion. If you agree, do you also think this is important? If you do not agree, why not? 3. Our article from Al-Ahram on the Egyptian feminist movement comments more than once that the women who led those movements came from middle and upper classes of their society. Why might that be important? The author also notes that after 1952, feminism was silenced as an independent public discourse in Egypt. Why did that happen? What is then meant by “second-wave feminism” in the Egyptian context? 4. Zuhur, in “Revealing Reveiling” argues that “age and social class have an important effect on the receptivity of women to the Islamic message.” (p. 13). According to her, what are those effects? What specifically does she say about the importance of living in Cairo or other large urban areas, and what explanation does she give? 5. R&W comment (p. 357) that, in Syria, the Muslim Brotherhood wished to differentiate itself from the Ba’ath Party. What political and ideological reasons would there be for that decision? 6. Our readings of Choudhury, Timur Kuran, and R&W describe the principles by which a society governed by Islamic principles should operate. In theory, how does this differ from one guided by the principles of free enterprise capitalism? Discuss the theoretical design of both systems, not how either one is realized in Iran, the U.S., or other countries. Is R&W suggestion accurate, that Islamic economics is “neo- liberalism in an Islamic Guise”? Explain. 7. Following up on the question about the theory of Islamic Economics, discuss three criticisms of Islamic Economics discussed by either Kuran and R&W. In your discussion, mention if these criticisms are more of a theoretical nature, or practical. 8. Algeria’s history is different from that of any other country we have studied here, in the long presence of French colonialism. Outline briefly that history: when it started, when it ended, and what changes happened in the area as a result of the French presence. 9. Discuss Kuran’s criticisms of Islamic Economics in light of the experience of the Islamic Republic of Iran. 10. With regard to international migration, we can distinguish economic from political causes. Discuss briefly which MENA countries have sent the highest numbers (absolute and relative) of immigrants. To which countries have these immigrants gone? What have been the major causes of changes in this immigration stream since the early 1970s?
  16. 16. 11. Suppose you have a conversation with someone who does not know anything about the Middle East. Now obviously all countries are different, but what would be three things that make the situation of Saudi Arabia especially unique? 12. Identify and discuss briefly four ways that the political history, and economic policies of Ibn Saud was different from, say, Attaturk or Reza Shah Pahlavi. 13. Why did Yemen have such an extended period of internal conflict-civil war, and why did it end? 14. Who are the Berbers? In which countries are they located, and what fraction of the population of those countries do they represent? 15. In what countries are Kurds most populous? Where in the MENA are Christians most concentrated? 16. R&W describe (p. 301) Lebanon and Turkey as established and (or) would be democracies. What are some ways in which those two countries are imperfect democracies? 17. What factors do R&W mention as explanations for the lack of flourishing political parties in MENA countries? Are these explanations convincing? Explain. 18. What have been important trends in the U.S. level of production and consumption of petroleum in the second half of the twentieth century? In what year (approximately) did the following occur: oil exports from Iran, oil exports from Saudi Arabia, oil exports from the UAE? When was OPEC formed? What factors led to its success in raising the price of oil in the early 1970s, and what factors led to the collapse of the cartel? Discuss two or three reasons why Saudi Arabia’s role in OPEC is unique. Related to this, why might the OPEC members wish to keep the price of petroleum in a range ($20-$25, say)? What are arguments against it increasing continually, or against it falling? 19. What reasons can be given for Iraq’s attack on Iran? What reasons can be given for the overthrow of the Shah of Iran? What phases has the post-Shah government in Iran passed through? Compare and contrast the structural characteristics of the economy of Iran in, say, 1980, with that of Saudi Arabia and Yemen. How would you evaluate the performance of the economy of Iran since the Shah was forced to leave? 20. In his report on Iran, Siddiqi discusses recent structural reforms in that country. Give some examples of those reforms, and why that author expects them to make the economy more efficient. Why have the Majlis and/or the Guardian Council obstructed those reforms? 21. What have been the major armed conflicts between Israel and its neighbors? What have been the major conflicts in MENA not involving Israel? 22. In some readings during the first part of the course, it was argued that the growth of the informal sector in Turkey was a result of that country’s embarking on various “globalization” programs, such as reducing its trade barriers. Yet in the readings on Iran there are assertions of a growth of the informal sector in that economy, as well. Is there a contradiction here? If not, is Iran also globalizing? Or perhaps does the imposition of religious criteria in a central government also lead to a reduction in the formal sector? Or are there other aspects of Iran’s recent economic experience that also lead to a reduction of the formal sector? Discuss. 23. In reading about Iran, one encounters terms like “left-leaning Islamists” or “hard-line Islamic Marxists” (page 623 of Akbar Karbassian). Is this consistent with the vision of Choudhury, Timur Kuran, or R&W of Islamic Economics?
  17. 17. 24. In the MENA region, which is the more important cause of urban growth--general population growth, or rural-urban migration? What factors affect the rate of rural-urban migration? Does government policy affect this? Should the government encourage rural-urban migration? 25. According to the article “Islamic Revolution and the Management of the Iranian Economy,” by Akbar Karbassian, what are aspects of the current economic situation in Iran that would lead President Khatami to describe the economy as sick? What solutions to these problems does that author recommend?

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