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  1. 2. <ul><li>Systems Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage and control computer hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Operating System </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to perform a specific task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Word processing, Web Browser, Accounting software </li></ul></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Provides user interface for computer system </li></ul><ul><li>Handles Input and Output </li></ul><ul><li>System Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Handles ‘multitasking’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Running anti-virus scan while Web Browsing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allocates Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Protection / Security </li></ul><ul><li>Shares resources (file, printers, etc.) </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Operating system has final control over allocation of resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What programs and data are in main memory (RAM), virtual memory, cache, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages hard disks, printers and other devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing files and other networking issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinates users and processing tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracks connections to printers and the Internet </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>XP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vista </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 7 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macintosh OS (based on Unix) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tiger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leopard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Snow Leopard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developed at AT&T’s Bell Labs, powerful </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free, Open-Source </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Determines how user interacts with computer. Today, mostly graphical. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WIMP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>W indows </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I cons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>M enus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P ointers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Do I have the proper hardware ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory, processor speed, graphic, storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If not, may have purchase upgrades for machine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bugs in the new operating system? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes, most software is released with bugs -- so best wait until service packs (updates) are ready </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does it support my drivers ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Updates for newer hardware may not be immediately available </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does it support/run all of my applications ? </li></ul><ul><li>How much does operating system cost ? </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Performs tasks that the user wishes to perform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word processing, spreadsheets, media players, Web browsers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed sequence of instructions that tells a computer how to perform a task </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of applications bundled together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Microsoft Office </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Enterprise/Business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial, project management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic art, Web site development, digital animation, image editor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Engineering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CAD (computer aided design), CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Educational Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educate, testing and progress reports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research, training or entertainment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Finance, Tax prep, Home design </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Software Licensing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal document governing distribution of software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use one or more copies of software under certain circumstances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietary Software (Commercial) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Owned by publisher but is licensed for use by the end user (Examples: MS Word, Adobe Photoshop) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>End User License Agreement (EULA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open-Source software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Development of source code for software that is made available for public collaboration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-exclusive ownership to individual who obtains software legally (example: NVU) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Purchase at retail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brick and mortar stores or online </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Site Licensing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase copies for an entire organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shareware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free, but try out software under limited circumstances. At end of trial - delete or pay. “Try before you buy.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freeware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually, no obligation to pay for software (private use versus commercial use) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C++ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Java </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JavaScript </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PHP </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Depends on hardware and software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traveling salesman example (3 clients) 3! = 3*2*1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HABCH, HACBH, HBACH, HBCAH, HCABH, HCBAH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computational complexity of the study of the complexity of algorithms. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exponential and factorial complexity problems do not scale up. That is these algorithms cannot be used in a practical sense on a computer to solve problems if the size of the data is large. The time needed will take too long (example: years) . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Tests used to compare the performance of computers with different hardware or software combinations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. For product reviews – which one is better? Base opinion on a benchmark test </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>In a computer system unit, the power supply converts AC to DC for use by the components </li></ul><ul><li>Computers that run single programs and are used in consumer and industrial devices are called Embedded Computer Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Automobiles, microwave ovens, electric toothbrushes, DVD players </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>8 bit Number </li></ul><ul><li>---------------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 </li></ul><ul><li>---------------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>2 7 2 6 2 5 2 4 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 0 </li></ul><ul><li>128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 </li></ul><ul><li>64 + 2 + 1 = 67 </li></ul><ul><li>decimal </li></ul><ul><li>“ C” </li></ul>