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  1. 1. 1 University of Sydney EDPA 6018 THE SOCIAL POLICY PROCESS UNIT OF STUDY OUTLINE Coordinator: A/Professor Anthony Welch Faculty of Education and Social Work Contact Details: Room: 542 Tel: 9351-3175 email: a.welch@edfac.usyd.edu.au Time and Venue: Wednesday Evenings 5.00 – 7.00 pm, Building A35, Room 418 First Session: Wednesday, July 25th 6018 READINGS:
  2. 2. 2 Table of Contents: 1. Taylor S. ,et al., ‘The Policy Phenomenon’, Taylor, S., et al., Educational Policy and the Politics of Change. (London, Routledge, 1997). 2. Bowe, R., Ball, S., and Gold, A., 1992, 'The Policy Analysis and the Processes of Policy', Reforming Education and Changing Schools. London, Routledge 3. McClelland, A., A Framework for Understanding and Action, McClelland, A., and Smith, P. Social Policy in Australia. Oxford University Press. Pp. 39-70. 4. Yeatman, A., 1998 Activism and the Policy Process, Yeatman, A. (Ed.) Activism and the Policy Process. Sydney Allen and Unwin. Pp. 16-35. 5. Gale, T., 1994, 'Beyond Caricature: Exploring Theories of Educational Policy Production and Implementation', Australian Educational Researcher, 21,2 6. World Bank and UNESCO, 2000 Higher Education in Developing Countries. Peril and Promise. Washington, World Bank. 7. Welch, A., and Mok, K-H., 2003, Deep Development or Deep Division? Mok, and Welch, (Eds.) Globalization and the RE-structuring of Education in Asia and the Pacific. London, Palgrave/Macmillan. 8. Tsui, A., and Toleffson, J. 2007 Language Policy and the Construction of Identity, Language Policy, Culture and Identity in Asian Contexts. London, Lawrence Erlbaum. Pp. 1-21. 9. Whitehouse, G. 2004 Women’s Policy: Special Interests or Mainstream? Fenna, A., Australian Public Policy. Melbourne, Longman Pp. 362-387. 10. Podger, 2007 ‘What Really Happens: Department Secretary Appointments, Contracts and Performance Pay in the Australian Public Service’ The Australian Journal of Public Administration, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 131–147. 11. Sercombe, H. et al. 2002 Addressing Youth Exclusion in 2015, Youth and the Future. Effective youth services for the year 2015. A report to the National Youth Affairs Research Scheme. Pp. 97-110. 12. Jessop, B., 2004 Hollowing out the State and Multi-Level Governance, Kennett, P., (Ed.) A Handbook of Comparative Social Policy. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Pp. 11-25. 13. Gale, T., 2003, ‘Realising Policy: the Who and the How of Policy Production’, Discourse, 24,1, 2003. 14. Marlin-Bennett, R. 2006 The Commons or the Market. Information in a Global Economy, New Developments in Asia Pacific and the World. Taiwan, Tamkaing University. Pp. 171-196. 15. Berliner, D., 1996, ‘Uninvited Comments from an uninvited Guest’, Educational Researcher, 25, 8,
  3. 3. 3 16. Welch, A., 2007, ‘Making Education Policy, Connell, R., et al. Education, Change and Society. Oxford University Press. 17. Ball, S., 1998 ‘Big Policies, Small World: An Introduction to International Perspectives in Educational Policy’, Comparative Education, 34, 2, pp. 119-30. 18. Center for Global Governance, and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2003 Ranking the Rich’, Foreign Policy, May-June, Pp. 56-66. 19. Blanchard, J-M., 2003 ‘East Asia’s Slow Recovery from Financial Crisis’, Current History, April 2003, Pp. 180-185.
  4. 4. 4 Teaching Format: The unit is taught in a two-hour weekly format, comprising lecture/seminars, and presentations, by staff and students. Unit Rationale: The policy world is changing, from an often remote, centralised model to a decentralised one, in which you may well be involved, at least at institutional level. Whether you work in the public, private, or third sector, as an educator, social worker, civil servant or researcher, it is important to understand the changing world of policy. A second change that we examine is one often pointed to in the literature - the rise of neo- liberalism (in Australia, often called economic rationalism), and its effects on the policy process. It is important to assess the charge by numerous critics that policy is now framed with economic rather than social good in mind, and that the success of policies is measured by the same calculus. How is policy made, and by whom? How does Australian federalism influence the making and implementation of policy? In an ever more globalised world, what kinds of trans- national influences affect the policy process, and to what extent? Do different countries develop different policies in response to globalisation processes? How should the policy process respond to differences (class, ethnic, gender, age), in a world of increasing diversity, migration and mobility? Who are the winners and losers with respect to specific policies? Can policy make a difference? Learning Outcomes The course aims to introduce you to some of the complexities of the social policy process, by treating some of the manifold literature on the policy process, as well as scrutinising case studies of the process in action. Some mapping of styles of policy analysis will be undertaken, as well as coverage of the structures of the policy process – internationally, and in Australia, at both state and federal levels. The course aims also to critically examine the connections between research and policy, and to introduce some perspectives drawn from the disciplines of sociology, and history, as well as international comparisons where appropriate. At the end of the unit, if you maintain a steady work schedule, our combined efforts should mean you will have progressed in each of the following areas: • an understanding of the interconnected nature of policy making, and some of the issues involved in a federal system • a grasp of the politics of policy making and implementation, with different stakeholders, and competing rationales • a critical understanding of major interpretive approaches to the policy process, • a sense of the historical evolution of policies, and policy processes • an understanding of globalisation processes, and the effects of major international agencies that influence policy agendas • a grasp of the changing role of the civil service, changes to the modern state, and the effects on the policy process • application of skills and insights developed in an investigation of a specific policy arena • enhancement of independent study skills • enhancement of on-line research capacities
  5. 5. 5 • enhancement of high-level writing skills Teaching and Learning Policies Students are reminded to consult the Faculty’s Blue Book, which is freely available from the Faculty Office, or may be downloaded from the web, and which contains relevant Faculty and University teaching and learning policies. Please note that plagiarism – the failure to acknowledge another’s work, or the use of unacknowledged quotations - is a serious offence, for which the minimum penalty is the requirement to repeat the work, (with the additional consequence that the maximum mark for that unit can only be 50). Citations should be in APA or Harvard form. Unit Requirements In order to pass this unit, you will need to - satisfactorily complete all assigned essays, presentations etc. (although it is not necessary to pass each) - submit work by the due date, or by an agreed extension date. - attend 10 of the 12 weekly sessions - attain an overall mark of 50 percent Resources: A SELECTION OF USEFUL WEBSITES: Note: the internet is a rich, dynamic, swiftly-changing research field, with a great deal of useful information, such as statistics, reports, trends and debates – and a great deal of rubbish. The list below is not ordered in any particular sequence, and provides only a small taste of what is available. No guarantees can be given that the addresses of all the sites given below have not changed (tell us if they have!); equally, it is important that you use no less discrimination and judgement about information found on websites, than you do for more traditional sources. The usefulness of any specific site will always depend both on what specific information you are seeking, and the quality of the source. If you come across other sites that you find particularly useful, tell us about them! Lastly, always remember to cite the specific url (web address for the site), as well as your access date, when using these sources – and check the reliability of the data! 1. An indispensable tool, that all of us should explore is Australian Policy on-line, at http://www.apo.org.au/ .There are also some state equivalents, such as South Australian Policy Online, at www.sapo.org.au and for specific policy arenas, sites as the Australian Clearinghouse for Youth Studies (ACYS) www.acys.info , and such on-line journals as Australia and New Zealand Health Policy www.anzhealthpolicy.com , Policy Futures in Education (unfortunately only available via subscription, but articles more than one year old are freely available?). 2. Parliament of Australia www.aph.gov.au/ contains both rich information on many federal policies, as well as interesting short briefs on recent developments (see the Parliamentary Library). See also the various state parliaments such as www.parliament.nsw.gov.au etc. (you may also wish to visit your own, or another country’s parliamentary website, for information) 3. For a good source on migration issues, see the International Organisation for Migration, www.iom.int 4. University of Sydney, Faculty of Education and Social Work’s award-winning site for research and information sources in education www.library.usyd.edu.au/Guides/Education 5. New South Wales Department of Education and Training (DET) www.det.nsw.edu.au/ the New South Wales Department of Community Services (DoCS) www.community.nsw.gov.au/
  6. 6. 6 and the Department of Ageing, Disability and Home Care (DADHC) www.dadhc.nsw.gov.au See equivalents in other states as appropriate. 6. Department of Education, Science and Training (federal government department, based in Canberra, Australia) www.dest.gov.au/ and the Department of Families, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (FaCSIA) www.facsia.gov.au as well as the federal Department of Health and Ageing www.health.gov.au (NB. Youth Affairs are somewhat split between two federal government departments (DEST and FaCSIA), with different functions located in each). At the federal level, indigenous affairs are the responsibility of a range of ministries (especially since the demise of ATSIC), including FaCSIA, DoCITA www.dcita.gov.au (for indigenous arts), DEWR www.dewr.gov.au (for work, industrial relations, CDEP), DEST (for education and training). (Again, you may also wish to visit your own, or other, country’s relevant departments, for equivalent information). 7. Australian Council for Educational Research www.acer.edu.au 8. US Government sources http://dir.yahoo.com/Government/U_S__Government/Legislative_Branch/Agencies/Library_of _Congress 9. China Government policy sources, as well as some data and statistics, are to be found at http://english.gov.cn 10. AUSSTATS (National statistics agency) gopher://statistics.gov.au (Again, you may also wish to visit your own, or other, country’s equivalent, for information) 11. One or two good starting points for information on education in other contexts are the Comparative and International Education Society (USA) www.cies.ws/ and the Comparative Education Research Centre (CERC), Hong Kong University, www.hku.hk/cerc 12. Useful UK websites include The Department of Health www.dh.gov.uk/Home the Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety www.dhsspsni.gov.uk the Department of Education and Skills www.dfes.gov.uk the Learning and Skills Council (responsible for post 16 education and training) www.lsc.gov.uk Office for Standards in Education (OFSTED), who are responsible for standards in education and childcare www.ofsted.gov.uk and the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (responsible for curricula in schools, and accreditation of education and training in colleges, the workplace etc) www.qca.org.uk 13. Europa (the European Union on-line) www.europa.eu.int/index_en.htm is a good starting point for policies and related data on EU social and economic policy initiatives. As English is the major working language (albeit often argued about!) within EU commissions and committees, a good deal of data and many policies are available in that language. The Open Society Institute, founded by the billionaire financier George Soros, can be a useful source on social policies in Eastern Europe, and elsewhere, see www.soros.org 14. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) www.oecd.org/ has a wealth of reports, data and information on policies reforms and initiatives in OECD member countries, (and is beginning to take an interest in major non-member countries such as China, and India). 15. A wide variety of economic and social data, and policy papers on social, economic and educational matters are found at the World Bank www.worldbank.org/ and in this part of the world, the Asian Development Bank www.adb.org The United Nations Commission on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) www.unctad.org is also a useful source of international economic and trade data, as is the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) www.undp.org and, on children and youth, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) www.unicef.org International education data, trends are available at United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) www.unesco.org/ and statistics are available via its statistics agency http://unescostat.unesco.org
  7. 7. 7 16. Pertinent Japanese sources include MEXT (Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) www.mext.go.jp/english and MHLW (Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare) www.mhlw.go.jp/english 17. European Association for International Education (EAIE) www.csc.fi/forum/EAIE 18. International Association of Universities (IAU) www.unesco.org.iau 19. Institut Nationale de Recherche Pedagogie (INRP) French national research institute in education, (hence it helps to speak/read French) www.inrp.fr 20. Centre of Research on Education in China www.hku.hk/chinaed/ 21. For information on the changing nature of work, child labour, workers rights and trade unions, see the International Labour Organisation (ILO) www.ilo.org 22. For global information on health issues, see the World Health Organisation, www.who.int/en/ 23. In this part of the world, the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) www.asean.org can also be a useful for economic and social policies and associated data, and at times Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) www.apec.org The University subscribes to the diverse and useful Asia Studies Full-text Online, which is available at http://www.asia-studies.com 24. Non-government bodies (NGOs), sometimes referred to as the Third Sector (neither state nor private) are also significant players in policy debates and outcomes. International equivalents, of which there are also many, are called INGOs – they include such agencies as the equitable development organization OXFAM www.oxfam.org , Medicins sans Frontiers (MsF) www.msf.org , Transparency International www.transparency.org , Amnesty International (AI) www.amnesty.org and others. There is also, of course, a shifting assortment of civil society organizations in each country, to which you can refer, but again, check the status of each, carefully. In Australia, there are a wide range, including church related agencies such as the Brotherhood of St. Laurence www.bsl.org.au/main.asp , or Anglicare www.anglicare.asn.au (both nationally and at state level) the umbrella organisation Australian Council of Social Services (ACOSS) www.ncoss.org.au and their state equivalents such as New South Wales Council of Social Services (NCOSS) www.ncoss.org.au , Council on the Ageing www.cota.org.au , National Shelter www.shelter.org.au/index.htm, and state equivalents, the Isolated Children’s Parents Association (ICPA) www.icpa.com.au , voluntary associations such as the various Country Fire Authorities (CFA) at state level, www.cfa.vic.gov.au/about/ourstructure/volunteerassociations.htm , surf lifesaving associations www.slsa.asn.au , the Wilderness Society www.wilderness.org.au , charitable organizations such as the Starlight Foundation www.starlight.org.au and many more. 25. For rural-urban differences, a useful site is Rural Sociology Sociosite, which lists both Australian and International rural affairs organizations, and contains some useful links http://www.sociosite.net/topics/rural.php The Isolated Children’s Parents Association (ICPA) www.icpa.com.au site is also useful. COURSE OUTLINE Part One: Understanding Policy Week One : Introduction and Course Overview . (JULY 25th. ) (A Welch ) Select Readings:
  8. 8. 8 Course Outline, especially ‘Introduction-Some Thoughts on Policy’. McLelland, A. 2006 The Institutional Context for Decisions and Action, McClelland, A., and Smyth, P. (Eds.) Social Policy in Australia. Oxford University Press, Pp. 70-91. Olssen, M., Codd, J. O’Neill, 2004 Reading Education Policy in the Global Era, Olssen Codd and O’Neill. Education Policy. Globalization, Citizenship and Democracy. London, Sage. Taylor, S., et al., ‘The Policy Phenomenon’, Taylor S.,et al., Educational Policy and the Politics of Change. London, Routledge. Bridgman, P., and Davis, G. 2004 The Australian Policy Handbook. (3rd. Edition) Sydney, Allen and Unwin. Week Two: What is Policy? (AUGUST 1 st.) (A. Welch ) Select Readings: Course Outline, especially ‘Introduction-Some Thoughts on Policy’. Lewis, G. 2000 Introduction. Expanding the Social Policy Imaginary, Lewis, G. Gewirtz, S. and Clarke J. (Eds.) 2000 Rethinking Social Policy. London, Sage. McClelland, A., 2006 What is Social Policy? McClelland, A., and Smyth, (Eds.) P. Social Policy in Australia. Oxford University Press, Pp. 5-20. Yeatman, A. 1998 Activism and the Policy Process, Yeatman, A. (Ed.) Activism and the Policy Process. Sydney Allen and Unwin. Pp. 16-35 Taylor, S., et al.,* 1997, ’The Policy Phenomenon’, Educational Policy and the Politics of Change. London, Routledge Bowe, R., Ball, S., and Gold, A.,,* 1992, 'The Policy Analysis and the Processes of Policy', Reforming Education and Changing Schools. London, Routledge. Welch, A., 2007 Making Education Policy, Connell, R., et al. Education, Change and Society. Oxford University Press, Pp. 1-33. Considine, M. 2005 Making Public Policy. Cambridge, Polity Press. Week Three: The Globalisation of Social Policy (AUGUST 8 th.) (A. Welch) Select Readings: Globalization and Social Policy Thirlwell, (2004) Second Thoughts on Globalisation. Sydney, Lowy Institute www.lowyinstitute.org (A review of current international economic issues re. globalization) Tiffen, R. and Gittins, R. How Australia Compares. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. (Useful for a range of comparisons of key areas of policy, between Australia and other OECD countries). Encel, S. 2007 ‘The closing of Australia? The creative class in peril’, Australian Review of Public Affairs, June 2007 http://www.australianreview.net/digest/2007/06/encel.html Smyth, P. 2006 Australian Social Policy in an International Context, McClelland, A., and Smith, P. Social Policy in Australia. Oxford University Press, Pp. 95-111. Claasen, J. (Ed.) 1999 Comparative Social Policy: Concepts, Theories and Methods. Oxford, Blackwells. Jessop, B 2004 Hollowing out the State and Multi-Level Governance, Kennett, P., (Ed.) A Handbook of Comparative Social Policy. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Pp. 11-25. Goodman, R., White, G. And Kwon, H-J., 1998 The East Asian Welfare Model: Welfare Orientalism and the State. London, Routledge.
  9. 9. 9 Gough, I. 2001 ‘Globalization and Regional Welfare Regimes: The East Asian Case’, Global Social Policy, 1, 2, Pp. 163-189. Sachs, J., 2005 The End of Poverty. Economic Possibilities for our Time. New York, Penguin. Easterley, W. 2006 The White Man's Burden: why the West's efforts to aid the rest have done so much ill and so little good. New York, Penguin. Welch, A., and Mok, K-H.,* 2003 Deep Development or Deep Division? Mok, and Welch, (Eds.) Globalization and the RE-structuring of Education in Asia and the Pacific. London, Palgrave/Macmillan. (See also other chapters on China, Australia, New Zealand, Taiwan, Philippines, New Zealand, Cambodia, Hong Kong, Korea). Welch, A., 2000 Introduction, Third World Education. Quality and Equality. London, Falmer Jones, P., 1998. ‘Globalisation and Internationalism. Democratic Prospects for World Education’, Comparative Education, 34, 2, Pp. 143-55. Ball, S.,* 1998 ‘Big Policies, Small World: An Introduction to International Perspectives in Educational Policy’, Comparative Education, 34, 2, pp. 119-30. Center for Global Governance*, and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2003 ‘Ranking the Rich’, Foreign Policy, May-June, Pp. 56-66. Blanchard, J-M., 2003 ‘East Asia’s Slow Recovery from Financial Crisis’, Current History, April 2003, Pp. 180-185. Gray, J., 1998, False Dawn: the Delusions of Global Capitalism. London, Granta. Stiglitz, J., 2002 Globalization and its Discontents. New York, Norton. Habermas, J., (1996) ‘The European Nation-State - its Achievements and its Limits. On the Past and Future of Sovereignty and Citizenship’, Balakrishnan, G., (Ed.) Mapping the Nation. London, Verso, pp. 281-94. Hirst, P., and Thompson, G., (1996) Globalization in Question. Cambridge, Polity Press. Held et al. 1999 Global Transformations. Politics, Economics and Culture. Oxford, Polity Press. Appadurai, A., (Ed.) 2001 Globalization. Durham, Duke University Press. Appadurai, A, 1996 Modernity at large : cultural dimensions of globalization. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press. Sen, A. 1999 Development as Freedom. Oxford, Oxford University Press Khan, S. Aga (1998) ‘Free Market Failures’, Newsweek, October 12, p. 24C Martin, H-P., and Schumann, H., (1997) The Global Trap. Globalization and the Assault on Democracy and Prosperity. London, Zed Books Miyoshi, M. (1999a) In Place of a Conclusion , F. Jameson, and M. Miyoshi (Eds.), The Cultures of Globalization. (Durham, Duke University Press). Newsweek (International) (1998) Special Report: the Global Economy. October 12 Orgamisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 2002 Towards Asia’s Sustainable Development. The Role of Social Protection. Paris, OECD. Ohmae, K., (1996) End of the Nation State: the rise of regional economies. London: Harper Collins. Sklair, L. 1999 “Competing Conceptions of Globalization”, Jouirnal of World Systems Research, 5, 2. Sklair, L. 2001 The Transnational Capitalist Class. (London, Blackwell Publishers). Sklair, L. (1999) Social Movements and Global Capitalism , Jameson, M . and Miyoshi, M. (Eds.) The Cultures of Globalization. (Durham, Duke University Press). Castells, M., (1998) The Rise of the Network Society (Vol. II of The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture) (Oxford, Blackwells).
  10. 10. 10 Marlin-Bennett, R,. (2006) The Commons or the Market? Information in a Global Market Economy, New Developments in Asia Pacific and the World. Taipei, Taiwan Elite Press. Pp. 171-196. Soros, G., (1998) The Crisis of Global Capitalism. Penguin. Tan, N-T, and Vasoo, S. (Eds.) The Challenge of social care in Asia. Singapore, Marshall Cavendish. Weiss, L. States in the Global Economy. Bringing Domestic Institutions Back In. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Weiss, L. 1998 The Myth of the Powerless State. Ithaca, NY : Cornell University Press, 1998. Week Four : Sociological Accounts of Policy - and a case study (AUGUST 15 th. ) (A Welch) Select Readings: Dean, H., 1998 Doing Projects in Social Policy, Alcock, P. Erskine, A. and May, M. (Eds.) The Student’s Companion to Social Policy. Oxford, Blackwell. OR Erskine, A., The Approach and Methods of Social Policy, Alcock, P. Erskine, A. and May, M. (Eds.) The Student’s Companion to Social Policy. Oxford, Blackwell. Baldock, J., et al 2007 Social Policy. Oxford, Oxford University Press. Claasen, J. (Ed. ) 1999 Comparative Social Policy: Concepts, Theories and Methods. Oxford, Blackwells. Shaw, I. and Gould, N. (Eds.) 2001 Qualitative Research in Social Work. London, Sage. Whitty, G. (2004) Sociology and Education Policy, Making Sense of Education Policy. London. Paul Chapman Publishing, Pp. 1-26. Bulmer, M., 1986, 'The Use and Abuse of Social Science', Bulmer, M., et al, Social Science and Social Policy. London, Allen and Unwin. Majchrzak, A. Methods for Policy Research. London: Sage, 1984. Coffey, A. 2004 Sociological Theory and Thinking, Coffey, A. Reconceptualising Social Policy. Maidenhead, Open University Press. Pp., 77-94. Lewis, G. 2000 Introduction. Expanding the Social Policy Imaginary, Lewis, G. Gewirtz, S. and Clarke J. (Eds.) 2000 Rethinking Social Policy. London, Sage. Critical & Marxist Agger, B., 1991, A Critical Theory of Public Life. London Falmer. Ball, S., 1994, 'Poststructuralism, Ethnography and the Critical Analysis of Educational Reform', Education Reform. A Critical and Post-Structural Approach. Buckingham, Open University Press Bulmer, M., 1986, 'The Role of Theory in Applied Social Science Research', Bulmer, M., et al, Social Science and Social Policy. London, Allen and Unwin Foucault, M. Power/Knowledge, London: Verso, 1984. Giroux, H., 1992 Border Crossings. Cultural Workers and the Politics of Education. London, Routledge. Hinkson, J., 1991 Postmodernity, State and Education. Deakin, Deakin University Press. Lingard, R., 1996, ‘Educational Policy Making in a Postmodern State: on Stephen Ball’s Education Reform: A Critical and post-structural Approach’, Australian Education Researcher, 23, 1, McKenzie, J., 1993, ‘Introduction’, Education as a Political Issue. Aldershot, Avebury Norris, C., The Truth About Postmodernism. Oxford, Blackwells Post modernist / Poststructuralist
  11. 11. 11 Prunty, J., 1984, A Critical Reformulation of Educational Policy Analysis. Deakin University Press Welch, A., 1996*, Australian Education: Reform or Crisis? Sydney, Allen and Unwin (Ch. 1) Cherryholmes, C., 1988. Power and Criticism. Poststructural Investigations in Education. Teachers College Press Functionalist/Systems Theory Howell, D., and Brown, R., 1983, Educational Policy Making. An Analysis. Heinemann Education. Harman, G., 1984, ’Conceptual and Theoretical Issues’, Hough, J., (Ed.) Educational Policy. London, Croom Helm (Stages of the Policy Process, Actors, Context etc.) Feminist Baker, S., and Doorne-Huiskes, A., (Eds.) Women and public policy: the shifting boundaries between the public and private spheres. Aldershot : Ashgate, 1999. Delamont, S., 2003 Feminist Sociology. London, Sage. Lingard, R. and Douglas P. 1999 Men Engaging Feminisms. Maidenhead, Open University Press. Coffey, A. 2004 Social Policy and the Body, Coffey, A. Reconceptualising Social Policy. Maidenhead, Open University Press. Pp., 77-94 Kenway J., and Willis, S., 1986 'Feminist Single Sex Education Strategies ; Some Theoretical Flaws and Practical Fallacies', Discourse, 7, 1, Kenway, J. 1990 Gender & education policy: A call for new directions, Deakin University Press, Geelong. Coffey, A. 2004 Social Policy, Feminism and Post-modern Times, Coffey, A. Reconceptualising Social Policy. Maidenhead, Open University Press. Pp., 25-42. Olesen, V. 2000 Feminisms and Qualitative Research at and into the Millenium, Denzin, N., and Lincoln, Y. (Eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. (2nd. Edition) Thousand Oaks, Sage. Qualitative Approaches Bulmer, M., 'The Value of Qualitative Methods', Bulmer, M., et al., 1986, Social Science and Social Policy. London, Allen and Unwin. Crossley, M., and Vuillamy, R., 1997 Qualitative Research in Developing Countries. New York, Garland. Plummer, K. 2001 Documents of Life. London, Sage. May, T. (Ed.) 2002 Qualitative Research in Action. London, Sage. Denzin, N., and Lincoln, Y. (Eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. (2nd. Edition) Thousand Oaks, Sage. Sherman, E. and Reid, W. (Eds.) 1994 Qualitative research in social work. New York, Columbia University Press. Quantitative Approaches May, T. 2001. Social Research. Buckingham, Open University Press. (See chapter on Social Surveys). De Vaus, D. 2001 Research Design in Social Research. London, Sage. Research in Developing Countries
  12. 12. 12 Crossley, M., and Vuillamy, R., 1997 Qualitative Research in Developing Countries. New York, Garland. Bulmer, M., and Warwick, D. (Eds.) 1993 Social Research in Developing Countries. Surveys and Censuses in the Third World. London, UCL Press. Week Five : The structure of Social Policy Making in Australia (AUGUST 22 nd. ) (A Welch) Select Readings: Cerny, P., (1990), The Changing Architecture of Politics. London, Sage. Yeatman, A. 199 Cerny, P., (1997), ‘Paradoxes of the Competition State. The Dynamics of Political Globalization’, Government and Opposition, 32,2, pp 251-74. Fenna, A. 2004 Federalism and Public Policy in Australia, Fenna, A., (Ed.) Australian Public Policy. Pp. 164-189. Healey, K., (2006/?? Australia’s Changing Social Policy Context: Implications for community services for vulnerable families., Goodwin, S. and Phillips, R., (Eds) Changing welfare states, Changing social services: Recent International Developments. Pusey, M., 1991. Economic Rationalism in Australia. A Nation-Building State Changes its Mind. Cambridge University Press. Yeatman, A., 1990 Bureaucrats, Technocrats and Femocrats Essays on the Australian State. Sydney, Allen and Unwin. Yeatman, A., 1993 Corporate Managers and the Shift from the Welfare to the Competition State, Discourse, 13,2, pp. 3-9. Taylor S. ,et al., ‘The Policy Phenomenon’, Taylor, S., et al., Educational Policy and the Politics of Change. (London, Routledge, 1997). Welch, A., 2003 Globalization and the Re-structuring of Australian Education. The Politics of Reform, or the Reform of Politics, Mok, and Welch, (Eds.) Globalization and the RE- structuring of Education in Asia and the Pacific. London, Palgrave/Macmillan. Bartlett, L., John Knight, Bob Lingard and Paige Porter. ‘Redefining National Agenda in Australia: The States Fight Back’ in Australian Educational Researcher , Vol.21, No.2, 1994, pp.29-44. Birch, I., and D. Smart, The Commonwealth Government and Education 1964-76 Political Initiatives and Developments. Drummond, 1977 Boyd, W., and Smart, D., Educational Policy in Australia and America, Comparative Perspectives. Falmer Press, Brighton, 1987. Connell, W., Shaping Australian Education 1960-1985. ACER, Melbourne, 1993. DEET Programs Dudley, J., and Vidovich, L., 1995, The Politics of Education. Commonwealth Schools Policy 1973-1993. Melbourne ACER, 1995. Harman, G., and Smart, D., (Eds) Federal Intervention in Australian Education. Past Present and Future. Georgian House, 1982 S. Marginson, Education and Public Policy in Australia. Cambridge University Press, 1992. Welch, A., 1996, ‘Reform or Crisis in Australian Education’, Australian Education: Reform or Crisis? Sydney, Allen and Unwin (Chapter 1) Week Six : Policy and Policy Structures in New South Wales. (AUGUST 29th.) (A. Welch)
  13. 13. 13 Select Readings: Byrne, J., and Davis, G., 1998 ‘Participation and the NSW Policy Process’. NSW Cabinet Office Fenna, A. 2004 Federalism and Public Policy in Australia, Fenna, A., (Ed.) Australian Public Policy. Pp. 164-189. G. Sherington ‘Reform and Reversal’, Laffin, M., and Painter, M., Politics and Markets in the Premier State. Sydney, Hale and Iremonger, 1995 Kyle, N., and King, R., 1994, 'Education Policy In New South Wales: A Bibliographic and Historiographic Guide', Melbourne Studies in Education, P. West, ‘Politics and Education in New South Wales 1988-91: Management or Human Values’. Australian Educational Researcher, Vol.18, No,.3, 1991, pp.53-67. S. Macpherson 'Creating Administrative Policy: Philosophy in Action’, Australian Educational Researcher, Vol.17, No.2. September 1990, pp.1-16. Painter, M. 1998 Collaborative Federalism. Economic Reform in the 1990s. Cambridge University Press. Parliament of Victoria, 1998 Australian Federalism. The Role of the States. Parliament of Victoria, 1999 Australian Federalism and the Role of the States. Wescombe, G., and Sherington, G., 1993, Education in New South Wales. A Guide to State and Commonwealth Sources. Hale and Iremonger. Week Seven : A Policy Practitioner Reflects (SEPTEMBER 5th.) (Visitor) Select Readings: (To be announced) CURRENT POLICY PROBLEMS & DEBATES Staff/Student Presentations and round-table Discussion Week Eight : Equity Policies - Gender. (SEPTEMBER 12 th.) (Students/A.Welch) Select Readings: A useful introductory reading for this section of the unit, is Coffey, A. 2004 Social Policy, Equality and Difference, Coffey, A. Reconceptualising Social Policy. Maidenhead, Open University Press. Pp., 59-76. Australian Education Council, 'The Review of the National Policy of the Education of Girls in Australian Schools, 1993. NSW Ministry of Education, 1994, Inquiry into Boys Education Welch, A., 1996, ‘Ourselves and the Other’, Australian Education: Reform or Crisis? Sydney, Allen and Unwin (ch. 7) Yates, L ., 1993 'Feminism and Australian State Policy: Some Questions for the 1990's', Arnot, M., and Weiler, K., Feminism and Social Justice in Education: International Perspectives. London, Falmer Press 1993. Yates, L. "A taste of sound and fury - signifying what? Feminism and curriculum policy in Australia." M. O'Loughlin & V. Foster (eds) Through girls' eyes: Australian research, policy and curriculum in the 1990s. Forum of education monograph, Faculty of Education, Sydney University, 1992. Yates, L. 'Does all students" include girls? Some reflections on recent policy, practice and theory." Australian Educational Researcher. Vol. 15, No 1, 1988. Yates, L. The Education of Girls, Melbourne: ACER, 1993.
  14. 14. 14 Week Nine : Equity Policies – Culture/Ethnicity, Language and Identity (including Migration and Mobility). (SEPTEMBER 19th.) (Students/A.Welch) Select Readings: Clyne, M., 2005 Australia's Language Potential. Sydney : UNSW Press. Cohen, R. 1998 Global Diasporas. An Introduction. London, Routledge. Hugo, G., 2003 Australia's diaspora: its size, nature and policy implications. Melbourne: Committee for Economic Development of Australia. Hugo, (2005) G. ‘Australia’s international migration transformed’, Australian Mosaic, issue 9 no. 1. Iredale, R., 2003 China's Minorities on the Move: selected case studies. Armonk, N.Y. : M.E. Sharpe. Iredale, R. 2001 Contemporary minority migration, education and ethnicity in China. Cheltenham : Edward Elgar, c2001. Jupp, J. (Ed.) 2001. 141 41414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414 14141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141 414141414141414 The Australian People. 14141414141414141414141414 An encyclopedia of the nation, its people and their origins. Cambridge University Press. 141 41414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414 14141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141 414141414 Lopez, M., (2000) The Origins of Multiculturalism in Australian Politics. Melbourne, MUP. Castles, S., and Miller, M. 2003 The Age of Migration. Basingstoke, Macmillan 141 41414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414 14141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141 414141414141414 141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414 141 41414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414 14141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141 41414141414141414141414141414141414141414 141 41414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414 14141414141414141414 141 41414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414 14141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141 4 1 41414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414 141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414 141 41414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414 14141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141 414141414141414 14141414141414141414141414 Dudgeon , P., et al 1990, 'Aboriginal Girls. Self Esteem or Self Determination'? Kenway J., and Willis, S., Hearts and Minds. Deakin University Press.
  15. 15. 15 Eagly, A., ‘The Science and Politics of Comparing Women and Men’, American Psychologist, March 1995, pp. 145-158. Fischer, C., (et al) 1996 Inequality by Design: Cracking the Bell Curve Myth Princeton, Princeton UP. Fraser, S., 1995 The Bell Curve Wars: Race, Intelligence and the Future of America. New York, Basic Books. Giroux, H., 1992, Border Crossings. Cultural Workers and the Politics of Education. London, Routledge Gould, S., 1984, The Mismeasure of Man. Pelican Jacoby, R., and Glauberman, N., (Ed.), 1995, The Bell Curve Debate. Times Books/Random House, 1995. Kamin, L., 1995, ‘Behind the Curve’, Scientific American, pp. 82-6, a review of Herrnstein, R., and Murray, C., The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. Free Press 1994. Jamal, N. and Chandab, T. 2005 The Glory Garage : growing up Lebanese Muslim in Australia. Sydney, Allen and Unwin. Omar, W., and Allen, K. 1996 The Muslims in Australia. Canberra: AGPS. Saaed, A., and Akbarzadeh, S., (2002) Muslim Communities in Australia. Sydney, UNSW Press. Tavan, G., (2005) The Long Slow Death of While Australia. Scribe Publications. Tsolidis, G., (2002) Schooling , Diaspora and Gender. Buckingham, Open University Press. Tsui, A., and Toleffson, J. 2007 Language Policy and the Construction of Identity, Language Policy, Culture and Identity in Asian Contexts. London, Lawrence Erlbaum. Pp. 1-21. Welch, A., 2007 Cultural Difference and Identity, Connell, R., et al. Education, Change and Society. Oxford University Press. Pp. 155-187. Welch, A.1996, Australian Education: Reform or Crisis? Sydney, Allen and Unwin (Ch. 6) MID SEMESTER BREAK/AVCC COMMON WEEK Week Ten : Youth Policies – an Evolution (OCTOBER 3rd.) (Students/G. Sherington) Select Readings: If you’ve not already done so, good preparation for this week is to read one of the following four sources, each of which chart policy changes over time: - Smyth, P. 2006 The Historical Context for Action, McClelland, A., and Smith, P. (Eds.) Social Policy in Australia. Oxford University Press, Pp. 95-111. - Smyth, P. 2006 Changes and Challenges, McClelland, A., and Smith, P. (Eds.) Social Policy in Australia. Oxford University Press, Pp. 129-142. - Dickey, B., 1980 No Charity There. A short History of Social Welfare in Australia. Melbourne, Nelson. - Mendes, P. 2003 The Historical, Political and Ideological Context of the Welfare State, Australia’s Welfare Wars. The Players, The Politics and the Ideologies. Sydney, UNSW Press Pp. 11-30. A Report into Youth Violence in NSW. 1995 Standing Committee on Social Issues. (See esp. Chapters 3,5,8,10) Gale, F., et al. Juvenile Justice debating the issues. Allen and Unwin, 1993.
  16. 16. 16 Irving, T., Maunders, D., and Sherington, G. 1995 Youth in Australia. Macmillan. Sherington, G., and Irving, T. 1989, 'Youth Policies in Twentieth Century Australia', The Bulletin of the Clearinghouse for Youth Studies, 8, 3. Kelly, P., Australia’s Young People. National Youth Affairs Research Scheme, 1993. New Directions for Juvenile Justice in NSW. 1994, Office of Juvenile Justice, New South Wales Government Juvenile Justice White Paper, 1994. Office of Juvenile Justice, (NSW), 1994, New Directions for Juvenile Justice in NSW. Standing Committee on Social Issues (NSW), 1995, A Report on Youth Violence in NSW. (See esp. Chapters 3,5,8,9,10) Sticks and Stones - Violence in Australian Schools. 1994. Federal Parliament Van de Ven, P., ‘ Talking with Young Juvenile Offenders about Gay Males and Lesbians: Implications for Combating Homophobia’, Adolescence , 30, 1995 Van de Ven, P., Comparisons among Homophobic Reactions of undergraduates, high school students, and Young Offenders’, The Journal of Sex Research , 31, 1994 White R., and C. Adler (eds). The Police and Young People in Australia. Cambridge University Press, 1994. White, R., No Space of their own Young People and Social Control in Australia, Cambridge University Press, 1990. Commonwealth Department of Health, Dealing with Bullying and Harassment (2000) (Available at www.curriculum.edu.au/mindmatters ) NSW Department of School Education 1995 Good Discipline and Effective Learning. NSW Department of School Education 1996 Resources for Teaching Against Violence. (Revised Edition) Mc Culloch, G., 1991, ‘Usable Past or Inexcusable Present? History and Educational Policy’, Education Research and Perspectives, 18, 1 Sherington, G., ‘Reform and Reversal’, Laffin, M., and Painter, M., Politics and Markets in the Premier State. Sydney, Hale and Iremonger, 1995. Silver, H., * 1983, 'Policy as History and Theory', and 'Education Against Poverty: Interpreting British and American Policies in the 1960s and 1970s', Education as History. London, Methuen. Silver, H., 1990, ‘Policy Problems in Time’, Silver, H., Education, Change and the Policy Process. London, Falmer. Silver, H., 1990, ‘Historian in a Policy Field: A British Chef in Paris’, Silver, H., Education, Change and the Policy Process. London, Falmer . Silver, H., and Silver, P., An Educational War on Poverty. American and British Policy Making 1960-1980. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. ?? , ‘Compulsory Post-compulsory Education and the Disaffiliation of Youth’, Forum of Education, 50, 1, 1995 Bowes, J., ‘Knowledge about Work and Work Procedures: Lessons from Unpaid Work at Home and School’, Forum of Education, 50,1, 1995. Connell, R., ‘Live Fast and Die Young. Constructions of Masculinity among Young Working Class Men on the Margins of the Labour Market’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology, 27, 1991 Dwyer, P., et al, Confronting School and Work, Allen and Unwin, 1984. Dwyer, P., 1995,’Compulsory Post-compul.sory Education and the Disaffiliation of Youth’, Forum of Education, 50, 1, 1995, pp 1-11. Dwyer, P., and Wilson, B., Structured Pathways for Young People: A Comparative Study of Youth Policy in Australia, United States, and Sweden, (Working Paper No. 6, Youth Research Centre, University of Melbourne) Finn, B., (Chair) Young People’s Participation in Post-compulsory Education and Training. Canberra: AGPS, 1991.
  17. 17. 17 Kenway, J., Economising Education: Post - Fordist Directions. Geelong, Deakin University, 1994 Key Competencies. Report of the Committee to advise the Australian Education Council and Ministers of Employment, Education And Training On Employment Related Key Competencies For Post Compulsory Education And Training (The Mayer Report) Canberra, September 1992. Little, A., (1994),' The Diploma Disease: A Review of the Literature’, Clark, B.R., and Neave, G., The Encyclopaedia of Higher Education. Oxford Pergamon. Maglen, L., (1990) 'Challenging the Human Capital Orthodoxy: The Education- Productivity Link Re-examined', The Economic Record, December. Marginson, S., 1992, 'The Politics of Post-compulsory Curricula', Seddon, T., and Deere, C., (eds.) A Curriculum for the Senior Secondary Years. Melbourne, Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) Mayer, E., (Chair) Employment Related Competencies: A proposal for consultation. Melbourne, Mayer Committee, 1992. Mayer, E., 1993 Putting General Education to Work: the Key Competencies Report. AEC/MOVEET O' Connor, P., (1993) 'Workplace Basic Education in Australia: Competing Agendas', Freebody, P., and Welch, A., Knowledge, Culture and Power. International Perspectives on Literacy Policies and Practices. London, Falmer. Porter, P., et al (1992), 'Competencies for a Clever Country: Building a House of Cards?’, Unicorn, 18, 3, September. Pp. 50-58. Rowland, M., and Young, R., Key Competencies: For Education, Work and Life MCEETYA 1996 S. Marginson, Educational and Public Policy in Australia, Cambridge University Press, 1993. Welch, A., 1996, ‘Old Wine in New Bottles’, Australian Education: Reform or Crisis? Sydney, Allen and Unwin (Ch. 3) Working Nation. Policies and Programs. 1994 Canberra, AGPS Useful websites include: The Youth Research Centre at the University of Melbourne http://www.edfac.unimelb.edu.au/yrc/ The Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth (ARACY) http://www.aracy.org.au Australian Clearinghouse for Youth Studies www.acys/info/home See also the Journal, Youth Studies Australia. Week Eleven : Rural Urban Differences (OCTOBER 10 th. ) (Students/A.Welch) Select Readings: Welch, A., 2007a The City and the Bush, Connell, R., et al. Education, Change and Society. Oxford University Press. Pp. 70-93 Welch, A., Helme, S., and Lamb, S. 2007 Rurality and Inequality in Education: the Australian Experience, Teese R., Lamb., S., and Duru-Bellatt, M., International Studies in Educational Inequality, Theory and Policy. (Vol 2. Inequality in Educational Systems). Dordrecht, Springer, Pp. 271-294. Alston, M., 2004 ‘ “You don’t want to be a check-out chick all your life”. The out- migration of young people from Australia’s small rural towns’, Australian Journal of Social Issues. 39, 3, Pp. 299-313.
  18. 18. 18 Alston, M., and Kent, J., (2001) Young, Rural and Looking for Work. Centre for Rural Social Research, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga. Brady, W., 1993 The Education of Aboriginal Women and Girls in Rural New South Wales, Petersen, R., and Rodwell, G. (Eds.) Essays in the History of Rural Education in Australia and New Zealand. Darwin, William Michael Press, Pp. 129-149. Department of Education and Training (DET), NSW (2001) Vocational Education and Training for NSW Schools: Issues and Challenges for Distance and Rural Education. Sydney DET Department of Education and Training (DET), NSW (2005) Teaching in Rural and Remote Schools and the Rural School Teacher Plan. www.det.nsw.gov.au/employment/teachnsw/rural_remote.htm Gerritsen, R. 2000 The Management of Government and its Consequences for Service Delivery in Rural Australia, Pritchard, Bill & McManus, Phil. 2000, Land of Discontent. The Dynamics of Change in Rural and Regional Australia. UNSW Press, Sydney. Gray, Ian & Lawrence, Geoffrey. 2001, A Future for Regional Australia. Escaping Global Misfortune. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Higgins, M., and Vinson, T., 1998 Social disadvantage and regional youth unemployment. Jesuit Social Justice Centre Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission [HREOC] (2000) “Emerging Themes”. National Inquiry into Rural and Remote Education. Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission March. Lockie, Stewart. & Bourke, Lisa. (Eds) 2001, Rurality Bites: the social and environmental transformation of rural Australia. Pluto Press, Annandale NSW. Mortimer, O. (1993) The Tasmanian Area Schools, Petersen, R., and Rodwell, G. (Eds.) Essays in the History of Rural Education in Australia and New Zealand. Darwin, William Michael Press, Pp. 238-254. Swan, W., (2005) Postcode. The Splintering of a Nation. Melbourne Pluto Press. Vinson, A. Esson, K. Johnston, K. (2002) Inquiry into the Provision of Public Education in NSW. Report of the ‘Vinson Inquiry’. New South Wales Teachers’ Federation and the Parents and Citizens Council. Vinson, T. (2004) Community Adversity and Resilience. The Distribution of Social Disadvantage in Victoria and New South Wales and the mediating role of social cohesion. Melbourne, The Ignatius Centre for Social Policy and Research. Selected Internet sources Productivity Commission 1999 Impact of Competition Policy Reforms on Rural and Regional Australia. Report No. 8. Parliament of Australia (2004) Poverty rates by electorate. Research Note no. 49 2004–05. http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/rn/2004-05/05rn49.htm Productivity Commission 2003 Social Capital. Reviewing the Concept and its Policy Implications. www.pc.gov.au/research/comres/socialcapital/index.html Productivity Commission 1999 Impact of Competition Policy Reforms on Rural and Regional Australia. Report No. 8. www.pc.gov.au/inquiry/compol/finalreport/index.html National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) 2000 Women in VET 2000. At a Glance. www.ncver.edu.au/research/commercial.op237.pdf Department of Education and Training (DET), NSW (2005) Teaching in Rural and Remote Schools and the Rural School Teacher Plan. www.det.nsw.gov.au/employment/teachnsw/rural_remote.htm Australian Bureau of Statistics 2005 Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia. www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/b06660592430724fca2568b5007b8619/48788628e4fd7a3fca256d9700 21c495 (The ABS is an excellent source of data and analysis of many aspects of Australian society).
  19. 19. 19 Centre for Rural Social Research, Charles Sturt University www.csu.edu.au/research/crsr Rural Sociology Sociosite lists both Australian and International rural affairs organizations, with some links http://www.sociosite.net/topics/rural.php Week Twelve : Higher Education (and Course Re-Capitulation) (OCTOBER 19 th. ) (Students/A. Welch) Select Readings: Altbach, P. 2007 Empires of Knowledge and Development, Altbach and Balan, J., (Eds.) World Class Worldwide. Transforming Research Universities in Asia and Latin America. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University. Little, A., 1994,' The Diploma Disease: A Review of the Literature’, Clark, B.R., and Neave, G., The Encyclopaedia of Higher Education. Oxford Pergamon. Mackinnon, A., 1994, Nowhere to plant the Sole of the Foot?: Women, University Education and Subjectivity in the early 20th Century', Melbourne Studies in Education. Marceau, J., 1993, 'Steering from a Distance. International Trends in the Financing and Governance of Higher Education', DEET, Higher Education Division. Miyoshi, M., 1999 ‘ Globalization’ Culture and the University, F. Jameson, and M. Miyoshi (Eds.), The Cultures of Globalization. Durham, Duke University Press. Ngugi wa Thiong’o 1995, ‘On the Abolition of the English Department’, Ashcroft, B., et al., The Postcolonial Studies Reader. London:Routledge OECD, ‘Background Report', The Transition from Elite to Mass Higher Education , DEET OECD Conference, Sydney. Sheehan, B., and Welch, A., 1996 ‘Australia’ Altbach, P., (Ed.) The International Academic Profession. Portraits from Fourteen Countries. (Princeton, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching). Sheehan, B., and Welch, A., The Academic Profession in Australia. Canberra, DEET 1996 (Published electronically, see DEETYA Homepage) Shinn, C., Welch, A., and Bagnall, N., 1998, ‘Culture of Competition? International Student Policy in Australia and the USA’, Journal of Further and Higher Education, 23. West Review of Higher Education (Learning for Life. Review of Higher Education Financing and Policy), 1998 (AU), and associated papers, at www.dest.gov.au Varghese, G., 2001 Impact of the Economic Crisis on Higher Education in East Asia. Paris, UNESCO/IIEP Welch, A., 2002 ‘Going Global? Internationalising Australian Universities at a Time of Global Crisis’, Comparative Education Review, 46, 4. Welch, A., 2005. ‘From Peregrinatio Academica to the Global Academic. The internationalisation of the Academic Profession, The Professoriate. Profile of a Profession. Amsterdam, Springer. OECD 2000 Current Issues in Chinese Higher Education. Paris, OECD Welch, A., 2007 ‘Governance Issues in S E Asian Higher Education: Finance, Devolution and Transparency’, Asia Pacific Journal of Education. (Special Issue on New Governance in Asian Higher Education). [In Press]. Some useful websites: Centre for the Study of Higher Education (CSHE), University of Melbourne www.cshe.unimelb.edu.au Boston College Centre for International Higher Education www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/soe/cihe/ ASEAN University Network (AUN) http://www.aun.chula.ac.th
  20. 20. 20 UNIVERSITAS 21 www.universitas21.com Association of Pacific Rim Universities (APRU) http://www.apru.nus.edu.sg Centre for Research on Education in China, (University of Hong Kong) www.hku.hk/chinaed/ UNESCO www.unesco.org World Bank www.worldbank.org Asian Development Bank www.adb.org Programme on Private Higher Education (PROPHE), State University of New York, Albany www.albany.edu/dept/eaps/prophe/ European Association for International Education (EAIE) www.csc.fi/forum/EAIE International Association of Universities (IAU) www.unesco.org.iau Introduction - Some Thoughts on Policy What is Policy? Policy is the name we give to deliberative, 'official' statements, about social goals, which are in effect both value-realisation images, and the strategies to put these in place. Policy, then, is about means and ends, or perhaps better, about means towards ends. Put simply (perhaps too simply), policy is about what is to be done. Policies are not made unless something can be improved, something we value is threatened, or we feel that there is a problem of some kind that prevents the realisation of specified values. Very broadly, policies are a response to change, an attempt to guide or manage change. They are either an attempt to preserve (or restore) threatened (or lost) values, or an attempt to realise as yet unattained values, or both. They attempt to regulate, or (re)shape, social reality in specific ways. Nonetheless the policy problematic consists of different facets: policy, as an embodiment of a set of values, is distinct from policy in the sense of an analysis of the obstacles to value realisation, and distinct again from the strategy for realising values in the teeth of the obstacles, which is in turn distinct from the process of implementation in which strategies sometimes come adrift. Although some authors have pointed to clear stages of the policy process - formulation, adoption, implementation, (evaluation), this traditional, technicist characterisation tends to make the process remote from our intervention - policy becomes external and reified - something that is done to us. It also tends to reinforce a traditionally managerial conception of policy, in which the generation of policy is strictly separated from the implementation phase (Bowe, Ball, and Gold 1992, 7). Such a characterisation also ignores the fact that policies are not static, but often evolve even after their 'official' promulgation. Fourthly, it assumes that policies are unrelated to values, or are ‘value free’. And lastly it ignores the question of power, in particular the notions that policies are not neutral, but rather help to empower and disempower specific groups differentially in society, and moreover, that at specific moments in the history of policies, intervention by key interest groups may become possible. The policy process is not a neat set of sequential stages. Cracks, fissures and crevices may open up in policy discourses, into
  21. 21. 21 which wedges may be driven, which can splinter the apparently smooth and united face with which a policy is often presented. Beyond this, the managerial approach fails to allow much role for differentiation - that is, that different readings of a policy are possible, indeed virtually ubiquitous. From another perspective, the policy process can be characterised as a form of social problem-solving, often in an implicitly evolutionary sense. From the American philosopher John Dewey's standpoint, problems arise when some group (or groups) is/are dissatisfied, or cannot satisfactorily account for something. The source of the dissatisfaction may be perennial (as in some general human trend to anticipate a better state - some vision of 'the good life'), or it may be the values of another group, or an aspect of the situation (environmental, economic, political) or a configuration of these things. Policy arises to help some group adapt to the situation, or modify it, so the problem is solved, at least as they see it. Dewey's notion of problem-solving conceived it as evolutionary and adaptive, and one that must be solved in context. Just as within evolution, species adapt to their environment more or less successfully, (and either flourish or decline in the process), Dewey argued that social problem-solving was also adaptive, but that only some forms added to the level of learning of the species. He devised a relatively simple evolutionary methodology with which to analyse problems, including implicitly policy problems. At least this characterisation allows for some differentiation, and competition for control of the policy process, Some elements of Dewey's concern with democratic community and its implications for policy analysis may be seen in Kahne, J., 1994 'Democratic Communities, Equity and Excellence : A Deweyan Reframing of Educational Policy Analysis', Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 16, 3, pp. 233-248, and there are other accounts of Dewey’s implications for understanding public policy. Other philosophers, naturally, have devised different versions. Styles of Policy Analysis Ball (1990, 1992, 1994) too stresses the importance of context based processes, and plumps for two somewhat different accounts of policy, both of which emphasis the dynamics of policy processes: policy as discourse, and policy as text. The latter focuses on the encoding of meaning in policy, and its decoding by participants in the policy process. Policies, on this account are 'textual interventions into practice' (Ball 1994 : 18). This can be 'readerly', as when the participants have little scope to afect the policy, or 'writerly', as when they have a larger, more substantial role. Such interventions are achieved in various ways, by different groups with different interests: 'A policy is both contested and changing, always in a state of 'becoming', of
  22. 22. 22 'was' and 'never was' and 'not quite'; 'for any text a plurality of readers must always produce a plurality of readings' (Ball 1994, p. 16) Clearly however, despite this multiplicity of meanings, (policies are inherently neither closed nor complete), authors of policies do make strenuous efforts to control the proliferation of meanings : both to assert the 'one', 'true', or 'received' view, and to render other accounts or meanings, illegitimate. Once again, this recognition reminds us of the fact that policies involve politics, which are shaped with reference to (and which in turn help to shape) specific histories, or as Foucault might have it, genealogies. Key figures, too, can at times act as virtual 'gatekeepers', interpreting policy to those around them (or not). In school settings these could be Principals or Departmental Heads, for example, while equivalents within social work settings might be the coordinator/manager of a women’s or youth refuge. Moreover, policy, which often attempts to redistribute power relations, can at times be effectively undermined, perhaps by those charged with its implementation at local level. The example on national assessment policy in Britain given by Ball (1994 : 18) amusingly reveals this process. Despite this, and the recognition that one policy may well contradict other policies, nonetheless, policy 'matters: it is important, not the least because it consists of texts which are (sometimes) acted on', (Ball 1994 : 18). Ultimately, 'Given constraints, circumstances and practicalities, the translation of the crude, abstract simplicities of policy texts into interactive and sustainable practices of some sort involves productive thought, invention and adaptation. Policies do not normally tell you what to do, they create circumstances in which the range of options available in deciding what to do are narrowed or changed, or particular goals or outcomes set. A response must still be put together, constructed in context, offset against other expectations. All of this involves creative social action, not robotic activity.' (Ball 1994, p. 19) Official policy, then, sets the rules of the game, but does not determine the outcome, which may be settled by competing interest groups. Moreover, public policy pronouncements often confront the realities of social inequalities, lack of resources, and other resistant elements of the local context that they are powerless to change. By policy as discourse, Ball intends to raise the way in which policy is deliberately presented as 'truth', its meaning as fixed or given. Discourses, according to Foucault, shape what may be said and by whom, and with what legitimacy; they are practices that produce 'knowledge' and 'truth', and express particular ways of thought, language and practice. They contain particular value systems. Policy emsembles such as 'marketisation', 'management', 'efficiency and effectiveness' each contain their own truths,
  23. 23. 23 values and practices. They create their own new sciences (and associated technologies) of education, with the assistance of specific 'experts' or 'intellectuals' who help to create the machinery of this new science, and elaborate its rationale. Thus the discourse creates a reality, and it may be (at times) difficult or impossible to 'see' (talk, write) beyond the boundaries of this reality. The discourse may render it difficulty to think 'otherwise' (oppositionally): The essence of this is that there are real struggles over the interpretation and enactment of policies. But these are set within a moving discursive frame which articulates and constrains the possibilities and probabilities of interpretation and enactment. We read and respond to policies in discursive circumstances that we cannot, or perhaps do not, think about' (Ball 1994 : 23) Might this lead to simple pessimism, a perception of powerlessness or loss of agency based on the assumed determinism of the discourse? Does the limits of the discourse form the limits to what we can think and do? Not necessarily, on this account, since in practice we are enmeshed in a variety of contradictory discourses, some of which may well be starting points for opposition. Nonetheless, some discourses contain more power (in certain settings) than others, and it is arguably currently the case that 'market liberalism', 'economic rationalism' and the like are powerfully influential on social policy. Functionalist v Critical Policy Analysis Another basic distinction, which may be used in policy analysis is between two general forms of analysis, or social science: Critical and Functionalist. Traditionally, policy analysis was often tied more or less closely to the machinery of policy making, and thus often echoed its values. Thus the generally functionalist values of maintaining the social system and fostering values that tended towards social harmony, consensus, and integration, were often (implicitly) incorporated into policy analysis. This was not different from the situation of the social sciences in general whereby, in the pre and post WWII era, such values also dominated social analysis. From around the 1970s however, such values were less likely to be taken for granted, and sets of principles based more around the struggle of competing interests for power and control became more prominent. From this view, personal and social emancipation are prime values and confront modes of domination in society that are oppressive for the many (who are disempowered in society) and advantageous for the few (whose powerful positions in society give them disproportionate influence). One way of chararcterising the differences between 'functionalist' and 'critical' policy frameworks in education may be seen in the opening section of Prunty (1984). For a good summary of different styles or schools of social policy analysis, see …………. While different authors see the policy process differently, and start from different assumptions, the basic schools of thought are much
  24. 24. 24 the same across social and educational policy fields, whether the specific theme is youth, aged care, disabilities, or post-compulsory education. But these assumptions are often implicit, so that it is necessary to infer - carefully – the underlying epistemological and normative positions of individual authors. A key question perhaps is what is policy designed to do – are notions of efficiency and economism paramount, or social egalitarianism and social amelioration? Who makes policy? Tennis clubs, state or national Departments of Community Services, or Education, or Health, as well as the World Bank are engaged in the policy process: that is they attempt to achieve certain goals by setting and attempting to implement policies. (Clearly however, not all policy decisions are as world shattering as others - more people are affected by policy decisions made at the more general societal level, or internationally, than by a policy devised by the local tennis club). But in another sense, there is no one answer to the question of who makes policy, since different policy contexts involve different dynamics, in which specific processes and individuals become important. This again reminds us that policies always need to be seen in their actual social and institutional context. For while abstract discussions of policy may be interesting, a close examination of the actual, historically concrete political and social context, and in turn the major players in that episode, is more likely to yield knowledge of what the policy was actually designed to achieve (and not merely its stated objectives), and why certain historical figures were important in the determination of that specific policy, at that time, and in that setting. This applies in all areas of social policy (education, health, welfare, youth, ageing, environment, transport, etc.), and it is often important to scrutinise policies for their underlying aims and effects, which are by no means always congruent with the stated ones! See Majone, G., 1989 for a useful few pages (118-120) entitled 'The Importance of Context' in his Evidence, Argument and Persuasion in the Policy Process. New Haven, Yale University Press. These are but a few of the perspectives on the policy process. I hope that our collective efforts over this semester will reveal the process more clearly. The treatment sketched above mirrors perhaps the process you will undergo in the course, as we review the literature, evidence, methodologies, changing contexts and politics that make the study of policy such a fascinating, dynamic and complex exercise. In a sense, this process itself is a form of critical analysis because it will involve asking questions about the values involved, the policy's analysis of the problem, what might be taken for granted, the adequacy of the strategy, and the process of implementation. Naturally, the word 'critical' means different things to different thinkers, and its use is by no means limited to the use given by Prunty above. Some, including Prunty, would see
  25. 25. 25 the overall or meta-framework as ethical/political, others would see policy analysis as more or less leaving the values to the democratic political powers and beginning policy critique at the level of the explanatory/descriptive adequacy of problem delineation and the causal adequacy of strategy and process. Some employ systems theory, some social problems theory, some 'critical theory'. But for us as researchers of policy, we are required to critically scrutinise evidence adduced and omitted, research methodologies employed, underlying assumptions, and the emphases, silences and omissions of policy documents The role of Government As argued above, policies have a concrete history, (or as the French philosopher Michel Foucault might have it an 'archaeology' or ‘genealogy’) - that is they are produced at a particular time, for a particular purpose, and by a complex social and political process. In addition, they are promulgated with some sort of legal/administrative force, and they are elaborated, evaluated, implemented (or not implemented) and revised or jettisoned. They are above all, social artefacts, often forged in a struggle between competing interest groups, and often ultimately satisfying no single interest group entirely. But what role does the state play in this process? It is this question that makes analysis of the role of government, the 'state' as an apparatus in a nation, including the bureaucracy, and other organisations, important. Michael Pusey’s Economic Rationalism in Australia (1991), as well as Anna Yeatman’s Bureaucrats, Technocrats, Femocrats (1990) both focus on ways in which the policy climate in Australia has changed significantly over the past decade or more, and each of these works provide useful starting points for your reading into the policy context in Australia, and perhaps overseas. While each use different terms, both are characterising similar trends which have occurred in Australia, and some other parts of the world over the last decade or more : Pusey speaks of the change from a previous set of values which saw the economy as needing to serve social policy, to something more like the reverse. Yeatman characterises the changes as from a welfare state to a competition state, in which, under the latter, the only real rationale for state intervention is to maximise competitiveness. Both works evaluate the changing role of the state in areas of social policy such as education. Both books should be high on your priority list for early reading, as both characterise and chart the changes in the Australian policy context. You may disagree of course; but not without reading them first. In Australia's case we have also often been influenced by other (English-speaking) countries, but there are also international economic patterns which in the 1980s and 1990s continue to be influential, as well as modern theoretical curents, such as Postmodernism, which are influential in
  26. 26. 26 terms of helping cast policy in particular moulds. Globalisation processes are also exerting specific effects on the policy process, and we will consider some of the key ways in which globalisation has been understood, and some of the ways it is changing the world of policy. Equally, there are many aspects of policy in Australian education which reflect local influences. The structure of Australian government, its demographic profile (both a country of migration and a small population in a big country), the centralised bureaucratic tradition in Australia, the role of federal and state governments, and voluntary associations and interest groups such as, for example, the Isolated Children’s Parents’ Association, the Business Council of Australia, or the Sisters of the Muslim Community, are all important local influences, as too is the economic and political situation of Australia, located close to Asia, at a time of rapid changes in the global economy. Cultural factors and multiculturalism, urban-rural differences, and broad generic changes in communication and information management are also important. Aims of the Course Course Structure and Assessment The structure of the course is tri-partite, although the following outline should not be seen as sequential, and in practice the three parts will overlap to a degree: First, we will explore ways of analysing policy: the global, as well as the Australian federal context, and recent changes in the policy climate. This will include some acquaintance with policy structures, legal and organisational. Second, we will examine a number of recent policy foci, through policy statements (often 'Reports’), and their critical literature, as well as delving into historical policy episodes and making some allusions to international contexts where relevant. Finally, you yourself will examine current and past policy contexts, perhaps including some international comparisons, via your own policy presentation and essay. This includes arenas where policy is being made right now or as yet has not been made. How well are we handling our emerging problems in key arenas of public policy? What policy formation agents and agencies are likely to be interested in these problems? What is being done to develop policy? What sort of policy is appropriate? What is the research base, and are the research methodologies comprehensive and appropriate? How has the macro and micro climate within which policy is shaped changed over time? How are international trends, and influences (re)shaping the policy environment? Who are the
  27. 27. 27 winners and losers in relation to this policy? Assessment The assessment for the course consists of three elements: Class Attendance and participation (including both discussion and mini-presentations drawn from readings) 15% Presentation (see outlined below) 35% Essay 50% Attendance and Participation Assessment Criteria: - clarity of argument and expression - evidence of careful reading of prescribed texts - evidence of research - capacity to work effectively with others (where relevant) - awareness and inclusion of relevant research - willingness and capacity to contribute to class discussions and debates The Presentation - an individual presentation (weighted at 35%) will be assessed on your oral presentation in class, together with a written summary, from which it will be possible to assess the extent to which your knowledge of the policy and its context is solid, how clear your argument is, the extent to which you have successfully integrated relevant data, theories and methods, and your awareness and inclusion of relevant research on that policy. A crucial quality of your presentation is the ability to select from a mass of descriptive detail, to outline a policy problem or panorama, with just enough detail to show that detailed empirical underpinning is there, to reveal the key issues, to show how the policy has changed over (recent) time, to indicate who are the groups most affected (and perhaps who are the winners and losers), and to present the logic of any policy critique you are making. (Like all critics, you may praise as well as blame). Although only required to bring a carefully structured 2-4 page summary of your presentation (including a handful of references that you found particularly helpful) for each other member of the class (including Class Coordinator!), in practice presenters often decide to provide more, and you may incorporate relevant material from any media in your presentation. By all means, do incorporate relevant data (graphs, charts, diagrams) that help illustrate the logic and scope of your argument. Do aim to structure debate and discussion into your presentation, where relevant, and be prepared to give, or
  28. 28. 28 allocate, each class member a specific article chapter etc., to be read for your presentation, as appropriate. In order for this to operate effectively, references should be allocated in the week prior to your presentation, and it may be best to provide the actual articles to members of the class. Please bear in mind that your fellow students are just as busy as you, and thus have limited time available - hence, only if it is not possible to provide copies, ensure that the readings you have selected are at least available in the Library, or accessible the web (NB. Fisher Library has an extensive collection of journals available on-line, as well as subscriptions to a wide range of databases (OECD Source, Australia Policy Online, Asia Studies Full-text Online etc). Assessment Criteria: - clarity of argument and expression - ability to engage the class - solid knowledge of the policy, together with relevant data - extent to which relevant theory is integrated - awareness and inclusion of relevant research - inclusion of brief relevant bibliography. - clear relation to at least one of the themes listed in the Thematic Bibliography The Essay/Special Study This will focus on a social/educational problem, and associated policy or policies. The essay, which is weighted at 50%, will develop a critical analysis of a policy moment or reform initiative. In so doing, however, you may wish to give special emphasis to one or other of the elements covered in the course in the treatment of your chosen policy, (the links if any between research and policy, the rise of markets and/or managerialism, problems of implementation, international influences or comparisons, changes in the notion of the state, or the underlying social philosophy, for example). You may deal with a policy situation that is currently in flux or emergent, or with a policy situation that has had a longer history. The word limit is 4000 words. The essay must apply the literature from at least one of the sub - themes listed in the Thematic Reading List to your chosen policy arena, and should treat in much greater depth and detail an aspect of a policy context that you undertook in your presentation. You may be required to defend your choice, and, before beginning, should raise with me your proposed arena, and some of the ideas you have about how to analyze it, what are the key issues etc. The Essay is due on the last day of class, but may be submitted a week or two earlier, if desired. Assessment Criteria:
  29. 29. 29 - clarity of argument and expression - application of pertinent literature from at least one of the sub - themes listed in the Thematic Reading List to the chosen policy arena - in-depth, contemporary knowledge of the policy, together with integration of relevant data - extent to which relevant theory is integrated - awareness and inclusion of relevant research - inclusion of relevant bibliography, with accurate details of all sources used, including urls where appropriate, and accurate, consistent format for Bibliog. The list provided below is of readings considered useful throughout the course. Both in the earlier sessions and in the student presentations, these readings, which are organised around key themes should be seen as complementing the more empirical content of particular policies. That is, you should draw upon the materials listed below, in order to investigate central themes that are relevant to almost any policy context: - to what extent, if at all, is this policy based on research, and if so how comprehensive and adequate is its research base? - What was the state’s role? Is any particular theory of the state, visible or implicit, in this policy. If so, of what kind, and has it changed from previous models? - What (implicit) model of the ideal society, individual, or knowledge, is appealed to, or assumed in this policy? - What is the genealogy, or archaeology of this policy? (where did it come from?). What problem was it designed to solve, and what were its antecedents, if any? - Were there any international or global trends or examples that were persuasive/influential in developing this policy? - Who appear to be the principal interest groups involved, and how have they exerted their influence? Who has power in this policy discourse? - Were any groups disempowered, and if so how, and why? What are the equity outcomes and implications? Who benefits, who loses? This list is designed to be indicative, rather than exhaustive, but should help you begin to orient yourself around the policy process, and its analysis. Again, there is no single form of policy analysis, and it is an aim of this course to help you develop a set of tools with which to develop your own framework. THEMATIC READING LIST MARKETS AND MANAGERIALISM Wong, L. and Flynn, (Eds) (2001) The Market in Chinese Social Policy. Basingstoke, Palgrave. Gee, J., Hull, G., and Lankshear, C., (1998) New Work Order. Behind the Language of the New Capitalism . Sydney, Allen and Unwin. Welch, A., (2008) ‘Mammon, Markets and Managerialism . Asia Pacific Perspectives’
  30. 30. 30 Cowen, R., and Kazamias, A., (Eds) Interrnational Handbook of Comparative Education. Dordrecht, Springer. (In Press). Campbell, C., (2007) School Choice., Connell, R. et al. Education, change and Society. Oxford University Press. Campbell, C., and Sherington, G., (2006) The Comprehensive Public High School. Historical Perspectives. New York, Palgrave Macmillan. Fenna, A. 2004 State and Market in Australia, Australian Public Policy. Sydney, Longman. Laffin, M., and Painter, M., Politics and Markets in the Premier State. Sydney, Hale and Iremonger, 1995. Marginson, S. 1997 Markets and Education. Cambridge University Press. McKnight, A., 2005 Beyond Left and Right. New Politics and the Culture Wars. Sydney, Allen and Unwin. Welch, A., 2007 Making Education Policy, Connell, R. et al. Education, change and Society. Oxford University Press. RESEARCH AND POLICY Castells, M., (1998) The Rise of the Network Society (Vol. II of The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture) (Oxford, Blackwells). Marlin-Bennett, R,. (2006) The Commons or the Market? Information in a Global Market Economy, New Developments in Asia Pacific and the World. Taipei, Taiwan Elite Press. Pp. 171-196. Welch, A., 1998, ‘The Cult of Efficiency in Education. Comparative Reflections on the Rhetoric and the Reality’, Comparative Education, 38, 4. OECD 1998 Rethinking Tertiary Education. Paris, OECD Currie, J., and Newsom, J., (Eds) 1998 Universities and Globalisation. Thousand Oaks, Sage Gray, J., 1998. False Dawn. The Delusions of Global Capitalism. London, Granta. Bulmer, M., 'The Policy Process and the Place in it of Social Research', Bulmer, M., et al, Social Science and Social Policy. London, Allen and Unwin, 1986 Bulmer, M., 'Types of Research Utilisation. An Overview', Bulmer, M., et al, Social Science and Social Policy. London, Allen and Unwin, 1986 Crump, S. (Ed) School-Centred Leadership. Melbourne: Nelson, 1993. David, M., 1992, 'Parents and the State: How has Social Research Informed Educational Reforms?', Arnot, B., and Barton, L., (Ed.) Voicing Concerns. Sociological Perspectives on Contemporary Education Reforms. Wallingford, Triangle. Gipps, C., 1993, 'Policy Making and the Use and Misuse of Evidence', Chitty, C., and Simon, B., (Eds.), Education Answers Back. London, Lawrence and Wishart. Hoogerwerf, A., 1981, ' Planning Agencies : Bridges or Barriers between Research and Policy Processes', Wittrock, B., and Baehr, P., (eds) 1981, Policy Analysis and Policy Innovation. Patterns, Problems and Potentials. London, Sage Husen, T., and Kogan, M., (Eds.) 1984, Education Research and Policy. Oxford, Pergamon. Husen, T., 'Policy Impact of IEA Research', Comparative Education Review , 31, 1987 Nisbet, J., and Broadfoot, P., 1980, The Impact of Research on Policy and Process in Education. Aberdeen, Aberdeen University Press. Mok, K-H., and Welch, A., (Eds) 2003 Globalisation and the RE-structuring of
  31. 31. 31 Education in the Asia Pacific Region. Basingstoke, Palgrave. (See both Introduction, and especially Conclusion) Porter, P., 1993, 'Discourse on Educational Research and Policy Development', Discourse, 13, 2, Robinson, V., 1993, Problem Based Methodology. Research for the Improvement of Practice. Oxford, Pergamon. Robinson, V., 1992, ‘Why Doesn’t Educational Research Solve Educational Problems?’, Educational Philosophy and Theory, 24,2, pp. 8-28 Weiss, C., 'The Many Meanings of Research Utilisation', Bulmer, M., et al, Social Science and Social Policy. London, Allen and Unwin, 1986 POLICY AND SOCIAL THEORIES General Bulmer, M., 1986, 'The Use and Abuse of Social Science', Bulmer, M., et al, Social Science and Social Policy. London, Allen and Unwin. Majchrzak, A. Methods for Policy Research. London: Sage, 1984. Specific Theories Critical & Marxist Agger, B., 1991, A Critical Theory of Public Life. London Falmer. Bulmer, M., 1986, 'The Role of Theory in Applied Social Science Research', Bulmer, M., et al, Social Science and Social Policy. London, Allen and Unwin. Connerton, P., 1976 Introduction, Critical Sociology, London, Penguin, Pp. 11-39. Cherryholmes, C., 1988. Power and Criticism. Teachers College Press Gamble, A. Marsh, D. and Tant, T. (Eds.) 1999 Marxism and Social Science. Basingstoke, Macmillan. Giroux, H., 1992 Border Crossings. Cultural Workers and the Politics of Education. London, Routledge. McKenzie, J., 1993, ‘Introduction’, Education as a Political Issue. Aldershot, Avebury Prunty, J., 1984, A Critical Reformulation of Educational Policy Analysis. Deakin University Press Welch, A., 1996, ‘Reform or Crisis in Australian Education’, Australian Education: Reform or Crisis? Sydney, Allen and Unwin. Post modernist / Poststructuralist/Postcolonialist Altbach, P., and Kelly, G., 1984, Education and the Colonial Experience New York, Transaction Books Ball, S., 1994, 'Poststructuralism, Ethnography and the Critical Analysis of Educational Reform', Education Reform. A Critical and Post-Structural Approach. Buckingham, Open University Press Cherryholmes, C., 1988, 'Thinking About Education Poststructurally', Power and Criticism. Poststructural Investigations in Education. Columbia, Teachers College Press, pp. 31-47 Foucault, M. Power/Knowledge, London: Verso, 1984. Giroux, H., 1992 Border Crossings. Cultural Workers and the Politics of Education. London, Routledge. Hall., S., 1996,‘’”When was the Postcolonial?”, Thinking at the Limit’, Chamber, I., and Curti, L., (Eds.), The Post-colonial Question: Common Skies, Divided Horizons. London, Routledge. Hinkson, J., 1991 Postmodernity, State and Education. Deakin, Deakin University Press. Ngugi wa Thiong’o 1995, ‘On the Abolition of the English Department’, Ashcroft, B., et
  32. 32. 32 al., The Postcolonial Studies Reader. London:Routledge Norris, C., The Truth About Postmodernism. Oxford, Blackwells Porter, D., ‘Orientalism and its Problems’, Williams, P., nad Chrisman, L., (Eds.), 1994, Colonial Discourse and Postcolonial Theory. Hemel Hempstead, Harvester/Wheatsheaf. Spivak, G., 1988, ‘Can the Subaltern Speak?’, Nelson, C., and Grossberg, L., Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture. (Basingstoke, Macmillan) Tikly, L., 1997, ‘Changing South African Schools? An Analysis and Critique of Post- Election Government Policy’, Journal of Educational Policy, 12,3, Functionalist/Systems Theory Harman, G., 1984, ’Conceptual and Theoretical Issues’, Hough, J., (Ed.) Educational Policy. London, Croom Helm (Stages of the Policy Process, Actors, Context etc.) Howell, D., and Brown, R., 1983, Educational Policy Making. An Analysis. Heinemann Education. Feminist Kenway J., and Willis, S., 1986, 'Feminist Single Sex Education Strategies ; Some Theoretical Flaws and Practical Fallacies', Discourse , 7, 1, Kenway, J. Gender & education policy: A call for new Directions. Deakin University Press, Geelong, 1990. Knopp Biklen, S., 1994, 'Feminism, Methodology and Point of View in the Study of Women who Teach', Melbourne Studies in Education 1994 Theobald, M., 1994, 'Writing the Lives of Women Teachers: Problems & Possibilities', Melbourne Studies in Education 1994 Yates, L. The Education of Girls, Melbourne: ACER, 1993. Qualitative Approaches Bulmer, M., 'The Value of Qualitiative Methods', Bulmer, M., et al., 1986, Social Science and Social Policy. London, Allen and Unwin, Crossley, M., and Vulliamy,G., (Eds)., Qualitative Educational Research in Developing Countries. New York, Garland, Crossley, M., 1990 ‘’Collaborative Research, Ethnmography and Comparative and International Education’, International Journal of Educational Development, 10, 1. Postcolonialist Tikly, L., 1997,‘’Changing South African Schools? An Analysis and Critique of Post- Election Government Policy’, Journal of Educational Policy, 12,3, PUBLIC POLICY & THE STATE Allan, J., 1990, ' Does Feminism need A Theory of The State?', Watson, S., (Ed.) Playing the State: Australian Feminist Interventions. Sydney Allen and Unwin. Bell, S., and Head, B., 'Australia's Political Economy: Critical Themes and Issues', and 'Understanding the Modern State', Bell, S., and Head, B.,' State, Economy and Public Policy in Australia. Melbourne, Oxford University Press Byrne, J., and Davis, G., 1998 ‘Participation and the NSW Policy Process’. NSW Cabinet Office Bowe, R., Ball, S., and Gold, A., 1992, 'Policy Analysis and the State Control Model', Reforming Education and Changing Schools. London, Routledge
  33. 33. 33 Carnoy, M and Levin, H. The State and Political Theory, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984. Carnoy, M., 'Education and Theories of the State’ Carnoy, M., and Levin, H., Schooling and Work in the Democratic State. Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1985. Dale, 1994, 'Locating the Family and Education in the Year of the Family', ANZCIES Conference, University of Melbourne, December Dale, R., 1989, The State & Education Milton Keynes, Open University Ham, C., and Hill, M., 1993, The Policy Process in the Modern Capitalist State. (2nd. Edition) London, Harvester. Hinkson, J., 1991, Postmodernity: State & Education. Deakin, Deakin University Press Irving, T., Maunders, D., and Sherington, G., 1995, Youth In Australia. Policy ,Administration, and Politics. Melbourne Macmillan Jonathan, R., 1990, 'State Education Service or Prisoner's Dilemma : the "Hidden Hand" as a Source of Educational Policy’, Educational Philosophy and Theory, 22, 1, 16-24 Offe, C., 1985, ‘Social Policy and the Theory of the State’, McNay, I., and Ozgay, J., Policy making in Education. The Breakdown of Consensus. Oxford, Pergamon, Painter, M. 1998 Collaborative Federalism. Economic Reform in the 1990s. Cambridge University Press. Parliament of Victoria, 1998 Australian Federalism. The Role of the States. Parliament of Victoria, 1999 Australian Federalism and the Role of the States. 'Ungovernabiltiy: On the Renaissance of Conservative Theories of Crisis in Habermas, J. (Ed). Observations on the Spiritual Situation of the Age, London: MIT Press, 1984. Weiler, H., 1983a, ‘Education, Public Confidence and the Legitimacy of the Modern State: Is there a Crisis Somewhere?’ Journal of Curriculum Studies , 15 (2), April–June. Pp. 125 - 142 Weiler, H., 1983b, ‘Legalization, Expertise, and Participation: Strategies of Compensatory Legitimation in Educational Policy’. Comparative Education Review, 27 (2). Pp. 259 – 277. Weiss, L. States in the Global Economy. Bringing Domestic Institutions Back In. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Weiss, L. 1998 The Myth of the Powerless State. Ithaca, NY : Cornell University Press, 1998. Welch, A., 1993, 'Class, Culture and the State in Comparative Education', Comparative Education, 29, 1, 1993 (Pp. 7 - 28) Welch, A., 1996, ‘Reform or Crisis in Australian Education’, Australian Education: Reform or Crisis? Sydney, Allen and Unwin (Contained in your Readings) THE POLICY PROCESS Ball, S. Politics and Policy-Making in Education: Explorations in Policy Sociology, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1990. Ball, S., 1994, ‘What is Policy - Texts, Trajectories and Toolboxes', Education Reform. A Critical and Post-Structural Approach. Buckingham, Open University Press Bowe, R., Ball, S., and Gold, A., 1992, 'The Policy Analysis and the Processes of Policy', Reforming Education and Changing Schools. London, Routledge Crump, S. (Ed) School-Centred Leadership. Melbourne: Nelson, 1993. Chs 1 and 2. (On approaches to policy analysis). Course Outline, especially ‘Introduction-Some Thoughts on Policy’. Lewis, G. 2000 Introduction. Expanding the Social Policy Imaginary, Lewis, G. Gewirtz, S. and Clarke J. (Eds.) 2000 Rethinking Social Policy. London, Sage. McClelland, A., 2006 What is Social Policy? McClelland, A., and Smyth, (Eds.) P. Social Policy in Australia. Oxford University Press, Pp. 5-20.
  34. 34. 34 Yeatman, A. 1998 Activism and the Policy Process, Yeatman, A. (Ed.) Activism and the Policy Process. Sydney Allen and Unwin. Pp. 16-35 Taylor, S., et al.,* 1997, ’The Policy Phenomenon’, Educational Policy and the Politics of Change. London, Routledge Welch, A., 2007 Making Education Policy, Connell, R., et al. Education, Change and Society. Oxford University Press, Pp. 1-33. Considine, M. 2005 Making Public Policy. Cambridge, Polity Press. McNay, I., and Ozgay, J., 1985, Policy making in Education. The Breakdown of Consensus. Oxford, Pergamon, Taylor, S., et al. ,Educational Policy and the Politics of Change. London, Routledge. OUTCOMES AND EVALUATION OF SOCIAL POLICY Finch, J., 1984, ‘Conclusion: Evaluating Education as social Policy’, Finch, J., Education as Social Policy. Essex, Longman (Raises questions as to how one measures outcomes of policy - which groups gains , society V individual, capacity to resist) POLICY DEVOLUTION Brown, D., Decentralisation and School-Based Management. London, 1990. Crump, S. (Ed) School-Centred Leadership. Melbourne: Nelson, 1993. Jonathan, R., 1990, 'State Education Service or Prisoner's Dilemma: the Hidden Hand as a Source of Educational Policy', Educational Philosophy and Theory , 22, 1, pp 16-24. Riseborough, G., 1992, 'Primary Headship, State Policy and the Challenge of the 1990's', Journal of Education Policy, 8, 2, pp. 123-42 Painter, M. and Pierre, J. (eds) (2005) Challenges to state capacity: Global trends and comparative perspectives, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Salamon, L.M. (ed.) (2002) The tools of government: A guide to the new governance, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Strange, S. (1996) The retreat of the state: the diffusion of power in the world economy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Seddon, T., 1994,'Assessing the Institutional Context of Decentralised School Management:Schools of the Future in Victoria', Discourse, 15, 1, pp. 1-15 Smyth, J.,(Ed.)1993, A Socially Critical View of the Self Managing School. London, Falmer Press Weiler, H., 1990, 'Comparative Perspectives on Educational Decentralisation : An Exercise in Contradiction', Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 12,4 , Pp. 433 - 448. Weiler, H., 1993, ‘Control versus Legitimation:The Politics of Ambivalence’, Hannaway, J., and Carnoy, M., (Eds.) Decentralisation and School Improvement. Can we Fulfill the Promise? New York, Josey Bass (pp. 55-83) Weiler, H., 1990, 'Comparative Perspectives on Educational Decentralisation : An Exercise in Contradiction', Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 12,4 , Pp. 433 - 448. Welch, A., 1996, ‘Reform or Crisis in Australian Education?’, Australian Education: Reform or Crisis? Sydney, Allen and Unwin Wong, L. and Flynn, N. (eds.) (2001) The market in Chinese social policy, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Wong, L. White, L. and Gui, S.X. (eds.) (2004) Social policy reform in Hong Kong and Shanghai, Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe.

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