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  • Others New business opportunities New business models diversification
  • 1.Mail-order retailers that go online:Traditional mail-order retailers (e.g., Land’s End) simply added another distribution channel, the Internet. 2. Direct marketing from manufacturers: direct marketing: broadly, marketing that takes place without intermediaries between manufacturers and buyers; in the context of this book, marketing done online between any seller and buyer; e.g., DELL 3. Pure-play e-tailers: Virtual (pure-play) e-tailers: Firms that sell directly to consumers over the Internet without maintaining a physical sales channel (No physical store) e.g.,; 4. Click-and-mortar retailers: traditional retailers with a supplementary Web site (, 5. Internet (online) malls: the malls include large numbers of independent storefonts.
  • The agents emulate the work and behavior of human agents in executing organizational processes, such as travel authorization and planning. The system increases organizational productivity by carrying out several tedious watchdog activities, thereby freeing humans to work on more challenging and creative tasks.
  • Others: latest on funding and pricing of initial public offerings (IPOs) chart lovers will enjoy mutual fund evaluation tools and other interesting investment information earnings estimates and more anything that anyone would need to know about finance and stocks The Motley Fool is a comprehensive site that tries to educate, amuse, and enrich; a portal for individual investors
  • E-grocers offer consumers the ability to order items online and have them delivered to their houses free regular “ unattended ” weekly delivery based on a monthly subscription model on-demand deliveries - a surcharge and additional delivery charge nonperishable items shipped via common carrier - dry-cleaning pickup and delivery “ don’t run out” automatic reordering fresh flower delivery movie rentals meal planning recipe tips multimedia features nutritional information
  • Shopping avoiders – those dislike going to the grocery store Necessity users – those are limited in their ability to shop (disabled and elderly people or no cars) New technologists – who are young and comfortable with technology Time-starved consumers – those are extremely busy and are willing to shop online in order to free up time in their schedules. – with a goal of delivering anything (esp. grocery), any time and anywhere in an efficient manner. It folded in 2001 because it was unable to secure more funds and declining demands due to economic conditions. Safeway – successfully acquire
  • Certain goods, such as software, music, or news stories, may be distributed in a physical form or they may be digitized and delivered over the Internet. Delivery, distribution and inventory management: Buyer s (customers) prefer the formats available through physical distribution Sellers , the costs associated with the manufacture, storage, and distribution of physical products can be enormous.
  • Many sites and tools are available to help consumers with online purchasing decisions. Consumers must decide: which product or service to purchase, which site to use for the purchase (a manufacturer site, a general purpose e-tailer, a niche intermediary) what other services to employ. Some sites offer price comparisons as their primary tool, others evaluate services, trust, quality, and other factors. Shopbots: find other stores with good service and policies that sell similar items at lower prices etc.. Some software agents specialize in certain product categories or niches.
  • Determining the right price -- Pricing a product or service on the Internet, especially by a click-and-mortar company, is complicated. -- in line with off-line channel’s pricing strategy -- To avoid price conflict, some companies created independent online subsidiaries. Personalization -- Online marketing business models is the ability of the seller to create an element of personalizaiton for each individual consumer. -- marketing plan tailored to that consumer’s pattern by showing items of interest, offering incentives that appeal to that consumer’s sense of value, or providing certain services that will attract that consumer back to the Web site. Although pure-play e-tailing is risky, and its future is unclear, e-tailing is growing rapidly as complementary distribution channel to traditional stores and catalogs. In other words, the click-and-mortar model currently is winning.
  • Mature transactional systems include features for payment processing, order fulfillment, logistics, inventory management, and a host of other services. The real gains for traditional retailers will come from leveraging the benefits of their physical presence and the benefits of their online presence. Speak with one voice – link all of its back-end systems to create an integrated customer experience.(consistent information distributed and received) Empower the customer – the seller creates a powerful 24/7 channel for service and information. Sellers empower the customers opportunity to perform various functions interactively, at any time (e.g., find store locations, product information, inventory availability online) Leverage the multichannels – the innovative retailer will offer the advantages of each marketing channel to customers from all channels. Whether the purchase is made online or at the store, the customer should benefit from the presence of both channels.
  • EC_ch03.ppt

    1. 1. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Describe electronic retailing (e-tailing) and its characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Define and describe the primary e-tailing business models. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how online travel and tourism services operate and their impact on the industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the online employment market, including its participants, benefits, and limitations. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe online real estate services. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss online stock-trading services. </li></ul>
    2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Discuss cyberbanking and online personal finance. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe on-demand delivery by e-grocers. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the delivery of digital products and online entertainment. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss various e-tail consumer aids, including comparison-shopping aids. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the critical success factors and failure avoidance tactics for direct online marketing and </li></ul><ul><li>e-tailing. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe reintermediation, channel conflict, and personalization in e-tailing. </li></ul>
    3. 3. OPENING VIGNETTE The King of E-Tailing
    4. 4. OPENING VIGNETTE : The King of E-Tailing <ul><li>The opportunity (Problems) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>July 1995, e-tailing pioneer, offered books via an electronic catalog from its Web site ( ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The company has continually enhanced its business models and electronic store by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>expanding product selection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>improving the customer’s experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adding services and alliances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>recognizing the importance of order fulfillment and warehousing </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. The King of E-Tailing (cont.) <ul><li>Technology used (Solutions) </li></ul><ul><ul><li> has expanded in a variety of directions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>offers specialty stores (professional and technical store) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>expands its editorial content through partnerships with experts in certain fields </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increases product selection with the used and out-of-print titles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>expands its offerings beyond books (June 2002 became an authorized dealer of Sony Corp. selling Sony products online) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>today: a diversified retailer of products and services </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. The King of E-Tailing (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Key features of the superstore are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>easy browsing, searching, and ordering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>useful product information, reviews, recommendations, and personalization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>broad selection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>low prices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>secure payment systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>efficient order fulfillment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>personalization </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. The King of E-Tailing (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Enjoyable features: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Gift Ideas” section features seasonally appropriate gift ideas and services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Community” section provides product information and recommendations shared by customers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ E-Cards” section, free animated electronic greeting </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. The King of E-Tailing (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Marketplace services: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hosts and operates auctions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>zShops service hosts electronic storefronts for a monthly fee </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>allowing small businesses the opportunity to have customized storefronts supported by the richness of’s order-fulfillment processing </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. The King of E-Tailing (cont.) <ul><ul><li> is recognized as an online leader in CRM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>informative marketing front ends </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>one-to-one advertisements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>free posting of restaurant menus from thousands of restaurants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Welcome back, Sarah Shopper” with recommendations of new books from the customers preferred genre based on previous purchases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sends purchase recommendations via </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e-mail to cultivate repeat buyers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient search engine and other shopping aids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Customers can personalize their accounts and manage orders online with the patented “One-Click” order feature including an electronic wallet </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. The King of E-Tailing (cont.) <ul><ul><li>In 1997, started an extensive affiliates program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>by 2002, the company had more than 500,000 partners that refer customers to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amazon pays a 3 to 5% commission on any resulting sale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>alliances with major “trusted partners” provide knowledgeable entry into new markets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> allows it to sell cars online </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> connects to health and beauty aids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AT&T, Nextel and others suggest service plans for wireless phones </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. The King of E-Tailing (cont.) <ul><ul><li>September 2001 Amazon signed an agreement with Borders Group Inc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>allows’s users to pick up books, CDs, and other merchandise at Borders’ physical bookstores </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is becoming a Web fulfillment contractor for national chains such as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Target </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Circuit City </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. The King of E-Tailing (cont.) <ul><li>The Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the number one e-tailer since 2001 generated $3.12 billion ($3,12 billion – Italian way ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is becoming very successful in reducing its costs and increasing its profitability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual sales for have trended upward (over $5 billion in 2003) </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. The King of E-Tailing (cont.) <ul><ul><li>$15.7 million in 1996 to $600 million in 1998 to about $4 billion by 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2003 the site offers over 17 million book, music, and DVD/video titles to some 20 million customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offers several features for international customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In January 2002, declared its first ever profit—for the 2001 fourth quarter </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. The King of E-Tailing (cont.) <ul><li>What can we learn… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>demonstrates the evolution of e-tailing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some of the problems encountered by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e-tailers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>solutions employed by to expand its business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the opportunities for e-tailing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affiliate marketing </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Affiliate Marketing <ul><li>Affiliate marketing can be simply defined as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A commission based arrangement where referring sites (affiliates or publishers) receive a commission on sales or leads by merchants (retailers) </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. 3.1 Internet Marketing and Electronic Retailing <ul><li>Overview and definitions of e-tailing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic retailing (e-tailing): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retailing conducted online, over the Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-tailers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Those who conduct retail business over the Internet </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Internet Marketing and Electronic Retailing <ul><li>Consumer Electronics </li></ul><ul><li>Office Supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Sport and Fitness Goods </li></ul><ul><li>Books and Music </li></ul><ul><li>Toys </li></ul><ul><li>Health and Beauty </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Apparel and Clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Jewelry </li></ul><ul><li>Cars </li></ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul><ul><li>Pet Supplies </li></ul>What Sells Well on the Internet? <ul><li>Travel </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Hardware and </li></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul>
    18. 18. Internet Marketing and E-Tailing (cont.) <ul><li>Characteristics of successful e-tailing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>guarantee provided by highly reliable or well-known vendors (Dell) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>digitized format (software) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relatively inexpensive items (office supplies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>frequently purchased items (groceries) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>commodities with standard specifications (books), physical inspection unimportant (unlike “Diamond”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high brand recognition (Lands’ End) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>well-known packaged items that cannot be opened even in a traditional store (vitamins) </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. 3.2 E-Tailing Business Models <ul><li>Classification by distribution channel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mail-order retailers that go online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct marketing from manufacturers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pure-play e-tailers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click-and-mortar retailers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet (online) malls </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. Exhibit 3.3: E-Tailing Business Models – E-tailing an Enterprise EC System Supplier Supplier Supplier Business Partners Supplier Supplier Supplier Business Partners Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) “ The Backbone” Our Company The E-Tailer Enterprise Finance, Accounting, HRM, IT Facing supplier distributor/ Business Partner Objective: Optimize Relationships with business partners and reduce cost of goods sold Internal Operations Objective: Facilitate internal operations & increase productivity B2C and Customer-Facing Applications Objectives: Optimize business relationships with customers; increase service effectiveness and sales Business Partners Distributor B2B and Supply Chain Management (SCM ) B2C Sales, Marketing, and CRM Customers
    21. 22. E-Tailing Business Models <ul><li>direct marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Broadly, marketing that takes place without intermediaries between manufacturers and buyers; in the context of this book, marketing done online between any seller and buyer </li></ul><ul><li>virtual (pure-play) e-tailers </li></ul><ul><li>Firms that sell directly to consumers over the Internet without maintaining a physical sales channel </li></ul>
    22. 23. E-Tailing Business Models <ul><li>click-and-mortar retailers </li></ul><ul><li>Brick-and-mortar retailers that offer a transactional Web site from which to conduct business </li></ul><ul><li>brick-and-mortar retailers </li></ul><ul><li>Retailers who do business in the non-Internet, physical world in traditional brick-and-mortar stores </li></ul>
    23. 24. E-Tailing Business Models <ul><li>multichannel business model </li></ul><ul><li>A business model where a company sells in multiple marketing channels simultaneously (e.g., both physical and online stores) </li></ul><ul><li>Retailing in Online Malls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Referring directories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malls with shared services </li></ul></ul>
    24. 25. E-Tailing Business Models <ul><li>Other B2C Models and Special Retailing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Representative special B2C services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Postal services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Services and products for adults </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wedding channels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gift registries </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 26. 3.3 Travel and Tourism Services Online <ul><li>Major travel-related Web sites are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    26. 27. Travel and Tourism Services Online (cont.) <ul><li>Revenue models of online travel services include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revenue from advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultancy fees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subscription or membership fees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revenue-sharing fees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul></ul>Direct revenues (commissions)
    27. 28. Travel and Tourism Services Online (cont.) <ul><li>Services provided: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>providing general information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reserving and purchasing tickets, accommodations, and entertainment </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 29. Travel and Tourism Services Online <ul><li>Special Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alliances and consortia </li></ul></ul>
    29. 30. Travel and Tourism Services Online (cont.) <ul><li>Unique services from virtual travel agencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>travel tips (a visa problem) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>electronic travel magazines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fare comparisons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>currency conversion calculators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>worldwide business and place locators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>outlet for travel accessories and books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>experts’ opinions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>major international and travel news </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>detailed driving maps and directions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chat rooms and bulletin boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>frequent-flier deals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>online travel auctions </li></ul></ul>
    30. 31. Travel and Tourism Services Online <ul><li>Benefits of Online Travel Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To travelers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free information accessible at any time from any place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substantial discounts are available </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To travel services providers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Airlines, hotels, and cruise lines sell otherwise-empty spaces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct selling saves the provider’s commission and its processing </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 32. Travel and Tourism Services Online <ul><li>Limitations of Online Travel Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many people do not use the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of time and the difficulty of using virtual travel agencies may be significant, especially for complex trips and for inexperienced Internet surfers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex trips or those that require stopovers may not be available online because they require specialized knowledge and arrangements </li></ul></ul>
    32. 33. Travel and Tourism Services Online <ul><li>Corporate Travel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To reduce corporate travel costs, companies can make arrangements that enable employees to plan and book their own trips </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact of EC on the Travel Industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Internet may be contributing to a sharp reduction in the number of travel agents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It has also driven the rise of intermediaries—third-party online sellers and portals provide price comparisons and a range of other value-adding services for the consumer </li></ul></ul>
    33. 34. Travel and Tourism Services Online (cont.) <ul><li>Intelligent (software) agents in travel services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agent is capable of acting autonomously, cooperatively , and collectively to achieve the stated goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved in buyer-seller negotiations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agents may activate other agents to make special arrangements, cooperate with each other, activate multimedia presentations, or make special inquiries </li></ul></ul>
    34. 35. 3.4 Employment, Placement, and the Job Market Online
    35. 36. Employment, Placement, and the Job Market Online <ul><li>THE INTERNET JOB MARKET </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job seekers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employers seeking employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government agencies and institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A consortium of large employers and college careers advisors </li></ul><ul><li>Global online portals </li></ul>
    36. 37. Employment, Placement, and the Job Market Online
    37. 38. Employment, Placement, and the Job Market Online <ul><li>Limitations of the Electronic Job Market </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The gap between those with skills and access to the Internet and those without </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Companies find that they are flooded with applicants when they advertise online, screening is a time-consuming and costly process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security and privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High turnover costs for employers by accelerating employees’ movement to better jobs </li></ul></ul>
    38. 39. Employment, Placement, and the Job Market Online <ul><li>Intelligent Agents in the Electronic Job Market </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligent agents for job seekers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligent agents for employers </li></ul></ul>
    39. 40. Employment Placement and the Job Market Exhibit 3.7 Intelligent Agents Match Resumes with Available Jobs Create “ Job Search Agent ” giving the search keywords and frequency of receiving e-mails Create Resume (objective, target job, & company, location, work status, experience, education, affiliations, skills, reference, etc.) Post Jobs (category, locations, job title & description, career level, position type, salary range) Create “ Resume Search Agents ” giving the search keywords and frequency of receiving e-mails Generate e-mails to Job Seekers Generate e-mails to Recruiters Matching around the clock Base Base Job Seeker Recruiter e-mails e-mails Resume Job Agent 1 Agent 2 Agent 3
    40. 41. BREAK-1 <ul><li>EC Application Case 3.1: Lands’ Littlewoods Shop Direct Group: From Mail-Order Catalogue to High Street to the Web (p.101) </li></ul>
    41. 42. 3.5 Real Estate, Insurance, and Stock Trading Online <ul><li>Potential homebuyers can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>view many properties online, at any time and from anywhere, saving time for the buyer and the broker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sort and organize properties according to specific criteria and preview the exterior and interior design of the properties, shortening the search process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>potential homebuyers can find detailed information about the properties and frequently get larger real estate listings than brokers will provide. </li></ul></ul>
    42. 43. Real Estate, Insurance, and Stock Trading Online <ul><li>Real Estate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-commerce and the Internet are slowly but surely having an ever increasing impact on the real estate industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Real Estate Applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advice for consumers on buying or selling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial real estate listings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Links to house listings in all major cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information on current mortgage rates </li></ul></ul>
    43. 44. Real Estate, Insurance, and Stock Trading Online <ul><ul><li>Real Estate Applications (cont.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Real Estate Mortgages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many sites offer loan calculators </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mortgage brokers can pass loan applications over the Internet and receive bids from lenders that want to issue mortgages </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Name your own price” model </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aggregation of loan seekers package placed for bid on the Internet </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    44. 45. Real Estate, Insurance, and Stock Trading Online <ul><li>Insurance Online </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard insurance policies are available online at a substantial discount : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Auto </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Home </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third-party aggregators offer free comparisons of available policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several large insurance and risk-management companies offer comprehensive insurance contracts online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>;;; </li></ul></ul></ul>
    45. 46. Real Estate, Insurance, and Stock Trading Online <ul><li>Online Stock Trading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related financial markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The risk of having an online stock account </li></ul></ul>
    46. 47. Online Stock Trading (cont.) <ul><li>Investment information </li></ul><ul><ul><li> current financial news </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> municipal bond prices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> overall market information with many links to other financial sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> free “guru” (expert) advice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> stock screening and evaluation tools (MultexInvestor) </li></ul></ul>
    47. 48. Real Estate, Insurance, and Stock Trading Online
    48. 49. Online Stock Trading (cont.) <ul><li>Well-known companies that offer online trading: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E*TRADE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ameritrade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TD Waterhouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suretrade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lombard </li></ul></ul>
    49. 50. 3.6 Banking and Personal Finance Online <ul><li>electronic banking (e-banking): Various banking activities conducted from home or the road using an Internet connection; also known as cyberbanking, virtual banking, online banking , and home banking </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers can use e-banking to pay bills online or to secure a loan electronically. </li></ul>
    50. 51. Banking and Personal Finance Online (cont.) <ul><li>Home banking capabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>View current account balances and history at anytime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain charge and credit card statements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay bills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Download account transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer money between accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Send e-mail to the bank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expand the meaning of “banker’s hours” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle finances when traveling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use additional services </li></ul></ul>
    51. 52. Banking and Personal Finance Online
    52. 53. Banking and Personal Finance Online <ul><li>International and Multiple-Currency Banking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some international retail purchasing can be done by providing a credit card number, other transactions may require international banking support </li></ul></ul>
    53. 54. Banking and Personal Finance Online <ul><li>Online Financial Transaction Implementation Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Securing financial transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to banks’ intranets by outsiders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imaging systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pricing online versus offline services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>risk of hackers; liquidity risk; susceptible to panic withdrawals </li></ul></ul></ul>
    54. 55. Banking and Personal Finance Online <ul><li>Personal Finance Online </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online Billing and Bill Paying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic transfer of mortgage payments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic transfer of funds to pay monthly utility bills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paying bills from online banking accounts. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Merchant-to-customer direct billing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using an intermediary for bill consolidation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Person-to-person direct payment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pay bills at bank kiosks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes </li></ul></ul>
    55. 56. Banking and Personal Finance Online (cont.) <ul><li>banks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have no physical location, but only conduct online transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NetBank ( </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First Internet Bank ( </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caution </li></ul></ul>Virtual <ul><ul><li>Make sure that the bank is legitimate before sending money to a virtual bank </li></ul></ul>
    56. 57. 3.7 On-Demand Delivery Services and E-Grocers <ul><li>E-grocer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A grocer that will take orders online and provide deliveries on a daily or other regular schedule or will deliver items within a very short period of time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>On-demand delivery service: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Express delivery made fairly quickly after an online order is received </li></ul></ul>
    57. 58. On-Demand Delivery Services Model
    58. 59. On-Demand Delivery Services and E-Grocers (cont.) <ul><li>Who are e-grocery shoppers? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shopping avoiders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessity users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New technologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time-starved consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><li> vs. Safeway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Webvan case will be discussed in Week#11 </li></ul></ul>
    59. 60. 3.8 Online Delivery of Digital Products, Entertainment, and Media <ul><li>Digital products : products that can be transformed to digital format and delivered over the Internet </li></ul>
    60. 61. Online Delivery of Digital Products, Entertainment, and Media <ul><li>Online Entertainment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of online entertainment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web browsing; Internet gaming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fantasy sports games </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single and multiplayer games </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adult entertainment; Card games </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social networking sites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participatory Web sites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading; Live events </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entertainment-related services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Event ticketing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restaurants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information retrieval </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieval of audio and video entertainment </li></ul></ul></ul>
    61. 62. 3.9 Online Purchase Decision Aids <ul><li>Shopping portals : Gateways to storefronts and malls; may be comprehensive or niche oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>; - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>; - </li></ul></ul><ul><li>shopping robots (shopping agents or shopbots): Tools that scout the Web on behalf of consumers who specify search criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Spy” services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless Shopping comparisons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g.;;; - </li></ul></ul>
    62. 63. Online Purchase-Decision Aids <ul><li>Business Ratings Sites </li></ul><ul><li>Trust Verification Sites </li></ul><ul><li>Other Shopping Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>’s A9 Search Engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    63. 64. Online Purchase Decision Aids <ul><li>Business rating sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer Reports Online ( </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forrester Research ( </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gomez Advisors ( </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trust verifications sites: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluate and verify the trustworthiness of various e-tailers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TrustE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Versign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BBB online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Webtrust </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Shopping Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>’s A9 Search Engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>Trust
    64. 65. 3.10 Problems with E-Tailing and Lessons Learned <ul><li>The reasons that retailers give for not going online include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Their product is not appropriate for Web sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of significant opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological immaturity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online sales conflict with core business </li></ul></ul>
    65. 66. Problems with E-Tailing and Lessons Learned <ul><li>Lessons Learned </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t ignore profitability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage new risk exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch the cost of branding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not start with insufficient funds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The web site must be effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep it interesting </li></ul></ul>
    66. 67. Problems with E-Tailing and Lessons Learned <ul><li>Successful Click-and-Mortar Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speak with one voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leverage the multichannels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empower the customer </li></ul></ul>
    67. 68. 3.11 Issues in E-Tailing <ul><li>disintermediation </li></ul><ul><li>The removal of organizations or business process layers responsible for certain intermediary steps in a given supply chain </li></ul><ul><li>reintermediation </li></ul><ul><li>The process whereby intermediaries (either new ones or those that had been disintermediated) take on new intermediary roles </li></ul>
    68. 69. Issues in E-Tailing
    69. 70. Issues in E-Tailing <ul><li>cybermediation (electronic intermediation) </li></ul><ul><li>The use of software (intelligent) agents to facilitate intermediation </li></ul><ul><li>hypermediation </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive use of both human and electronic intermediation to provide assistance in all phases of an e-commerce venture </li></ul><ul><li>Unbundling </li></ul>
    70. 71. Issues in E-Tailing <ul><li>channel conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Situation in which an online marketing channel upsets the traditional channels due to real or perceived damage from competition </li></ul>
    71. 72. Issues in E-Tailing (cont.) <ul><li>Determining the right price </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prices competitive on the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prices should be in line with the corporate policy on profitability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use cookie files and other technologies to track the specific browsing and buying behavior of each consumer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>marketing plan tailored to that consumer’s pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fraud and Other Illegal Activities </li></ul><ul><li>How to Make Customers Happy </li></ul>
    72. 73. (EXTRA) Successful Click-and-Mortar Strategies <ul><li>Mature transactional systems include features for payment processing, order fulfillment, logistics, inventory management, and a host of other services. </li></ul><ul><li>A traditional brick-and-mortar store with a mature Web site uses a click-and-mortar strategy to do the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speak with one voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empower the customer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leverage the multichannels </li></ul></ul>
    73. 74. Example: Circuit City <ul><li>Transformation to click-and-mortar: Circuit City </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1999, Circuit City’s Web site largely a brochureware site capable only of selling gift certificates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EC system credit card authorization and inventory-management systems were in place </li></ul></ul>
    74. 75. Circuit City (cont.) <ul><li>Features of the site: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>educates customers about the various features and capabilities of different products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>customers gain valuable knowledge to assist them in the purchase decision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extensive amount of information about electronics and other products, organized in a very flexible way </li></ul></ul>
    75. 76. Circuit City (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Online purchase to be smooth, secure, and seamless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order fulfillment method is flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>receive the purchase via common carrier </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pay a larger shipping charge for overnight delivery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pick up the item at the nearby brick-and-mortar store </li></ul></ul></ul>
    76. 77. Managerial Issues <ul><li>What should our strategic position be? </li></ul><ul><li>Are we financially viable? </li></ul><ul><li>How should we introduce wireless shopping? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there international legal issues regarding online recruiting? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we have ethics and privacy guidelines? </li></ul><ul><li>How will intermediaries act in cyberspace? </li></ul><ul><li>Should we set up alliances? </li></ul>
    77. 78. BREAK-2 <ul><li>Application Case 3.4: Online Security at a Bank (p.123) </li></ul>