Course Structure


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Course Structure

  1. 1. Course Structure This class has one three-hour meeting per week. The class times will be divided between formal lectures (marked ‘L’) and informal discussions, student presentations, and document analysis (marked ‘D’). Topics for each week are detailed below Week One Introductory session; course overview The European Renaissance (L) Week Two The European Renaissance (D) The State and its Opponents (L) Week Three Monarchy, Representation and Protest (D) The Reformation (L) Week Four The Division of Christendom (D) [review exercise due] Early Modern Catholicism (L) Week Five The Catholic Church in the Old World and the New (D) Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe (L) Week Six Ritual, Carnival and Popular Culture (D) Print and Print Culture (L) Week Seven Print and Propaganda: Oral and Written Culture (D) [primary source analysis] Magic and Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe (L) Week Eight [essay due] The European Witch Craze (D) The Disenchantment of Europe?: Religion, Science, and a New World View (L) Week Nine Religion, Science, and a New World View (D) Week Ten Essay returns / tutorials. Written feedback on essays will given by the end of week nine. Students are invited to discuss their work in more detail on Tuesday of week ten.
  2. 2. Essay questions Did their knowledge of the classical past help the men of the renaissance to see the present more clearly? What can Renaissance art tell us about the society which produced it? Was 1525 a decisive moment in the German Reformation? How important were the new religious orders to sixteenth century Catholicism? How can the appeal of Anabaptism and the radical reformation be explained? Why did Geneva resist Calvin until 1555? How far did early modern popular culture reply upon the ability to read and write? Can printing be regarded as a ‘revolutionary’ force in early modern Europe? Did charivari and carnival affect attitudes to authority in this period? Why were women so prominent both as accused and accusers in early modern witch trials? How important was the Malleus Maleficarum in shaping attitudes to witchcraft in Early Modern Europe? To what extent was Catholic missionary activity in the new world informed by developments in Europe? How important was the reign of Francis I to the development of the French monarchy? Did the Spanish conquest of the New World strengthen or weaken her position in Europe? Was there a relationship between political thought and political violence in the French wars of Religion? To what extent was Philip II to blame for the revolt of the Netherlands? Were early modern rebels fundamentally conservative in their aims and methods? What problems face a historian attempting to chart economic patterns of development in this period? Did the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century really take place? To what extent did the ideas of the Scientific Revolution undermine religious belief?
  3. 3. Skills Exercises 1. Primary Source Analysis: This exercise will be undertaken in the context of a seminar topic in the second half of the term, looking at print and popular culture in early modern Europe. Students will be introduced to a range of primary sources, including manuscript, printed books, and visual images, and asked to prepare a commentary similar to the 'gobbets' required in the Part 3 Special Subjects. An ability to read critically and reflect upon primary sources is one of the essential skills of the historian, and this exercise will provide useful training. However it is also intended to act as an introduction to the wide range of primary sources that are available to students of the early modern period, and hopefully encourage some more imaginative thinking about potential dissertation topics. Assessment: 20%: explanation of what the source t the gobbet is about; who wrote it, why and for what audience 30%: identification of the context. Explore the circumstances of and the process giving rise to the event / debate / issue 30%: Criticise and evaluate the source – how much use is it to the historian / what can we learn from it? 20%: Style and presentation of the evaluation. 2. Review Exercise Detailed advice on preparation of book reviews is on the module webpage. The intention of the review exercise is to encourage students to engage with the complex historiography of the European reformation, and to locate specific pieces of historical scholarship in the broader landscape of writing on the topic. Students are asked to provide a review of one specific work, and to think in detail about its content and approach to the topic. What sources has the author used to research his / her study? What is the intended audience for the book? What is 'new' about it - does the book approach the subject from a fresh perspective, or is this the first in- depth analysis of a particular area / group / issue? Students are also required to locate and use at least one other review of the same book. In part, this is a web-searching exercise, encouraging use of JSTOR and other online journal collections to locate reviews. It is also an introduction to how reviews might be useful to students and readers more generally, and the academic review process. Assessment: 20%: effectiveness of the summary of the content and argument of the book 20%: discussion of how this book fits with the broader historiography 20%: evaulation of the strengths and weaknesses of the book 20%: location and evaluation of an independent academic review of the book 20%: clarity of style and presentation / organisation
  4. 4. Basic Chronology c.1450 Invention of the Printing Press 1492 Christian conquest of Granada. Columbus reaches New World. 1517 Luther posts 95 Theses. 1519 Charles V elected Holy Roman Emperor 1520 Luther excommunicated by Leo X. Revolt of the Comuneros in Castile. 1521 Luther condemned by Diet of Worms. 1524 Start of German Peasants’ War. 1525 Defeat of Peasants. Francis I of France defeated and captured by Charles V at Battle of Pavia. 1527 Sack of Rome by Imperial troops. 1529 Colloquy of Marbug. Luther and Zwingli fail to resolve differences over the Eucharist Diet of Speyer – the appearance of the term ‘Protestants’. 1530 Confession of Augsburg - statement of Lutheran belief. Schmalkaldic League formed in opposition to Charles V 1531 Death of Zwingli at Kappel 1535 Anabaptists defeated at Munstera 1536 Publication of Calvin’s Institutes. 1540 Foundation of Society of Jesus (Jesuits). 1542 Re-establishment of Roman Inquisition. 1545 First session of the Council of Trent. 1546 Death of Luther. 1547 Charles V victory over the Schmalkaldic League at Battle of Mühlberg. 1548 Charles imposes Interim of Augsburg. 1551 Second session of Council of Trent. 1555 Peace of Augsburg : Cuius Regio eius religio’. 1556 Abdication of Charles V. Philip II rules Spain and Netherlands; Ferdinand in empire 1562 Start of the French Wars of Religion. Last session of Trent. 1563 End of Council of Trent. 1564 Death of Calvin. 1566 ‘Iconoclastic fury’ in Netherlands 1567 Outbreak of Dutch Revolt. 1572 France : Massacre of St Bartholomew. 1581 States General in Netherlands renounces sovereignty of Philip II. 1584 Assassination of William of Orange. 1589 Assassination of Henry III of France leads to accession of Henry IV. 1593 Henry IV converts to Catholicism. 1598 Edict of Nantes ends Wars of Religion in France. 1609 Dutch revolt ends with the Twelve Years Truce between Spain and United Provinces 1610 Assassination of Henry IV of France 1618 Start of the Thirty Years War
  5. 5. (1) General Texts Bonney, R., The European Dynastic States (Oxford, 1991). Brady, T., Oberman, H, Tracy, J., Handbook of European history, 1400-1600 : late Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Reformation (Leiden, 1994). Cameron, E., Early Modern Europe (Oxford, 1999). Cochrane, E., Gray, C.M., Kishlansky, M., Early Modern Europe : Crisis of Authority (London, 1987). Cohn, H.J., Government in Reformation Europe (London, 1979). Elliott, J.H., Europe Divided, 1558-1598 (London, 1968). Elton, G.R., Renaissance and Reformation (New York, 1976). Kamen, H., Early Modern European Society (Routledge, 1994). Kumin, B., (ed) The European World 1500–1800 An Introduction to Early Modern History (London, 2009) See also the companion website at Koenigsberger, H.G., Europe in the Sixteenth Century (London, 1989). Koenigsberger, H.G., The Habsburgs and Europe (Ithaca, 1971). Mackenney, R., Sixteenth Century Europe (Basingstoke, 1993). Pettegree, A., Europe in the sixteenth-century (Blackwell, 2002). Rice, E.F., The Foundations of Early Modern Europe (London, 1971). Shennan, J., The Origins of the Modern European State 1450-1725 (London, 1974). Sutherland, N.M., Princes, Politics and Religion 1547-1589 (London, 1984). (2) The Renaissance (2.i) Art & Patronage Benesch, O., The Art of the Renaissance in Northern Europe, (London, 1965). Cahan, C.L., Bosch Breugel and the Northern Renaissance (New York, 1980). Cochrane, E.W., The Late Italian Renaissance (London, 1970) Dekker, H., The Renaissance in Italy (London, 1967). Dunkerton, J., Giotto to Durer : Early Renaissance Painting (London, 1991). Freedburg, S.J., Painting in Italy 1500-1600 (Harmondsworth, 1971). Hollingsworth, M., Patronage in Renaissance Italy (London, 1994). Huse, N., The Art of Renaissance Venice 1460-1590 (Chicago, 1990). Kempers, B., Paintings, Power, and Patronage (London, 1992). Kent, F.W, Simons, P., Patronage, Art and Society in Renaissance Italy (Oxford, 1987). Lytle, G.F., & Orgel, S., Patronage in the Renaissance (Princeton, 1981). Levey, M., The Early Renaissance (London, 1967). The High Renaissance ( Harmondsworth, 1975). Stechow, W., Northern Renaissance Art 1400-1600 (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1966). Strong, R., Art and Powers : Renaissance Festivals 1400-1650 (Woodbridge, 1984). Strong, R., Splendour at Court (London, 1973).
  6. 6. (2.ii) Humanism and Texts Adams, R.P., The Better Part of Valor : More, Erasmus, Colet, and Vives on Humanism, War and Peace 1496-1535 (Seattle, 1962). Beer, J. & Lloyd Jones, K., Translation and the Transmission of Culture between 1300 and 1600 (Kalamazoo, 1995). Bietenholz, T.B., Contemporaries of Erasmus. A Biographical Register (Toronto, 1985). Bradshaw, B., ‘The Christian Humanism of Erasmus’, Journal of Theological Studies 33 (1982). Dickens, A.G., Jones, W.D., Erasmus the Reformer (London, 1994). Erasmus, D., In Praise of Folly, (multiple editions in UL) Ferguson, W.K., The Renaissance in Historical Thought (Boston, 1948). Halkin, L.E., Erasmus, A Critical Biography (Cambridge, Mass. 1993). Henry, J., & Hutton, S., New Perspectives on Renaissance Thought (London, 1990). Huizinga, J., Erasmus of Rotterdam (London, 1952). Kray, J., The Cambridge Companion to Renaissance Humanism (Cambridge, 1996). Kristeller, P.O., Renaissance Thought (New York, 1965). Renaissance Thought and Its Sources (New York, 1979). Studies in Renaissance Thought and Letters (Rome, 1956). Jardine, L., Erasmus, Man of Letters (Princeton, 1993). MacKay, A., The Impact of Humanism on Western Europe (London, 1989). McConica, J., Erasmus (Oxford, 1991) Mazzeo, J.A., Renaissance and Revolution : The Remaking of European Thought (London, 1967) Nauert, C.G., Humanism and the Culture of Renaissance Europe (Cambridge, 1995). (3) Renaissance Monarchy Baumgarter, F.J., France in the Sixteenth Century (Basingstoke, 1996). Bireley, R., The Counter Reformation Prince (London, 1990). Bitton, D., The French nobility in crisis, 1560-1640 (Stanford, 1969). Bonney, R., The King's debts : finance and politics in France, 1589-1661 (Oxford,1981). Brandi, K., The Emperor Charles V : the Growth and Destiny of a Man and of a World Empire (Brighton, 1980). Davis, N.Z., Society and culture in early modern France (London, 1975). Dominguez Ortiz, A., The Golden Age of Spain 1516-1659 (London, 1971). Elliott, J.H., ‘A Europe of Composite Monarchies’, Past and Present (1992). Kelley, D.R., The beginning of ideology : consciousness and society in the French Reformation (Cambridge, 1981). Keniston, H., Francisco de los Cobos : secretary of the Emperor Charles (Pittsburgh, 1960). Knecht, R.J., Catherine De' Medici (London, 1998). Francis I (Cambridge, 1982). Francis I and Absolute Monarchy (London : Historical Association, 1969). French Renaissance monarchy : Francis I and Henry II (London, 1984). The Rise and Fall of Renaissance France, 1483-1610 (London, 1996).
  7. 7. ‘Francis I and the Lit de Justice’, French History 7 (1993). Koenigsberger, H., ‘Prince and States General. Charles V and the Netherlands’, TRHS (1994). ‘The Empire of Charles V’, New Cambridge Modern History 2 (1990). ‘Western Europe and the Power of Spain’, New Cambridge Modern History, 3 (1990) Politicians and Virtuosi (London, 1986). Esp. Philip II MacDonald, S., Charles V : ruler, dynast and defender of the Faith, 1500-58 (London, 1992). Major, J.R., ‘Crown and Aristocracy in Renaissance France’, American Historical Review (1964). Potter, D., A history of France, 1460-1560 : the emergence of a nation state (Basingstoke, 1995). Rady, M., The Emperor Charles V (London, 1988). Salmon, J.H.M., Society in crisis: France in the sixteenth century (London, 1975). Shennan, J.H., Government and society in France 1461-1661 (London,1969). Stone, D., France in the sixteenth century : a medieval society transformed (Englewood Cliffs, 1969). Sutherland, N., Princes, Politics, and Religion (London, 1984) Catherine de Medici and the Ancien Regime (London, 1966). Thompson, I., War and Government in Habsburg Spain (London, 1976). Trevor-Roper, H., Princes and Artists : Patronage and Ideology (London, 1991). Yates, F., Astraea : The Imperial Theme in the Sixteenth Century (London, 1975). (3.ii) French Religious Wars Benedict, P., ‘The St Bartholomew’s day Massacre in the Provinces’, Historical Journal (1978). Rouen During the Wars of Religion (Cambridge, 1980). Buisseret, D., Henri IV (London, 1984). Cameron, K., ‘Henri III : The Anti-Christian King’, Journal of European Studies (1974). Carroll, S., Noble power during the French wars of religion : the Guise affinity and the Catholic cause in Normandy (Cambridge, 1998). Diefendorf, B., Beneath the Cross (Oxford, 1991). Franklin, J.H., Constitutionalism and resistance in the sixteenth century: three Treatises by Hotman, Beza & Mornay (New York, 1969). Greengrass, M., ‘The Psychology of Religious Violence’, French History (1991). France in the Age of Henri IV (London, 1995). Heller, H., The conquest of poverty : the Calvinist revolt in sixteenth century France (Leiden, 1986). Heller, H., Iron and blood : civil wars in sixteenth-century France (London, 1991). Holt, M.P., ‘Putting Religion Back into the Wars of Religion’, French Historical Studies (1993) Holt, M.P., The French wars of religion, 1562-1629 (Cambridge, 1995). Kettering, S., ‘Clientage During the French Wars of Religion’, Sixteenth Century Journal (1989). Kingdon, R., Geneva and the Coming of the Wars of Religion in France (Geneva,
  8. 8. 1956). Myths about the St Bartholomew’s Day Massacres (London, 1988). Knecht, R.J., The French Wars of Religion, 1559-1598 (London,1989). Potter, D., The French wars of religion : selected documents (London, 1997). Roberts, P., A City in Conflict. Troyes During the French Wars of Religion (Manchester, 1996). Salmon, J.H.M., Renaissance and revolt : essays in the intellectual and social history of early modern France (Cambridge, 1987). Soman, A., The Massacre of St. Bartholomew : reappraisals and documents (The Hague, 1974). Sutherland, N., The massacre of St Bartholomew and the European conflict, 1559- 1572 (London, 1973). (3.iii) Dutch Revolt Adams, S., ‘The Lurch into war’, History Today, 38 (1988). Backhouse, M., ‘The Official Start of Armed Resistance in the Low Countries’, Archiv fur Reformationsgeschichte, 71 (1980). Clark, G., ‘The Birth of the Dutch Republic’, Proceedings of the British Academy, 32 (1946). Duke, A., ‘From King and Country to King or Country’ : Loyalty and Treason in the Revolt of the Netherlands’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th series, 32 (1982). Geyl, P., The Revolt of the Netherlands (London, 1962). van Gelderen, M., The Dutch Revolt (Cambridge, 1993). The Political Thought of the Dutch Revolt (Cambridge, 1992). Koenigsberger, H., ‘The Organisation of Revolutionary Parties in France and the Netherlands during the Sixteenth Century’, Journal of Modern History, 27, 1955 Kossmann, E.H., Texts Concerning the Revolt of the Netherlands (1974). Limm, P., The Dutch Revolt (London, 1989). Parker, G., The Dutch Revolt (London, 1979). Spain and the Netherlands (London,1979). van Peteghem, P., ‘Flanders in 1576 : Reactionary or Revolutionary?’, Low Countries Yearbook, 11 (1979). Pettegree, A., Emden and the Dutch Revolt (Oxford, 1992). Swart, K.W., William the Silent and the Revolt of the Netherlands (London, 1978). (3.iv) Riots and Rebellions Berce, Y-M., Revolt and Revolution in Early Modern Europe (Manchester,1987). A History of Peasant Revolts. The Social Origins of Rebellion (Cambridge, 1990). Burns, J.H., Goldie, M., The Cambridge History of Political Thought (Cambridge,1991). Burns, J.H., ‘John Knox and the Revolution of 1558’, History Today (1958). Cargill Thompson, W.D.G., ‘Luther and the Right of Resistance to the German Emperor’, Studies in Church History, 12 (1975). Cohn, H.J., ‘Anticlericalism in the German Peasants War’, Past and Present (1979). Davies, C.S.L. ‘Popular Disorder’ in., The European Crisis of the 1590s, ed., P.Clark
  9. 9. (London, 1982). Davies, J., ‘Popular Revolts in Normandy’, History Today, 1981. Franklin, J., Constitutionalism & Resistance in the Sixteenth Century, (New York, 1969). Van Gelderen, M., The Political Thought of the Dutch Revolt (Cambridge, 1992). Hopfl, H., Luther and Calvin on Secular Authority (Cambridge, 1991). Mason, R., John Knox on Rebellion (Cambridge, 1994). Powis, J., ‘Guyenne 1548: The Crown, the Province and Social Order’, European Studies Review (1982). Robisheaux, T., Rural Society and the Search for Order in Early Modern Germany (Cambridge, 1989). Scott, T., ‘Peasant Revolts in Early Modern Germany’, Historical Journal (1985). ‘The German Peasants War. A Historiographical Review’, Historical Journal (1981). Skinner, Q., The Foundations of Modern Political Thought (Cambridge, 1979). Skocpol, T., States and Social Revolutions (Cambridge, 1979). Zagorin, P., Rebels and Rulers 1500-1660 (Cambridge, 1982).
  10. 10. (4) The Reformation (4.i) General Cameron, E., The European Reformation (Oxford, 1991). DeMolen, R., The Leaders of the Reformation (Selingrove, 1984). Dickens, A.G., Reformation and Society in Sixteenth Century Europe (London, 1966). Greengrass, M., The Longman Companion to the European reformation (1998) Greengrass, M., The French Reformation (Oxford, 1987). Hillerbrand, H.J., The Oxford Encyclopaedia of the Reformation (Oxford, 1996). The Reformation in its Own Words (London, 1964). Johnston, A., The Reformation in Europe (London, 1996). Lindberg, C., The European Reformations (Oxford, 1996). McGrath, A., The Intellectual Origins of the European Reformation (Oxford, 1987). Reformation Thought. An Introduction (Oxford, 1993). Macculloch, D., Reformation : Europe's house divided, 1490-1700 (London, 2003). Oberman, H., Masters of the Reformation : The Emergence of a New Intellectual Climate in Europe (Cambridge, 1981). Ozment, S., Protestants. Birth of a Revolution (New York, 1992). Ozment, S., The Age of Reform 1250-1550 (London, 1980). Pettegree, A., The Early Reformation in Europe (Cambridge, 1992). Pettegree, A., Reformation and the culture of persuasion (Cambridge, 2005). Pettegree, A., The Reformation World (London, 2000) Ryrie, A. (ed) Palgrave advances in the European reformation (Basingstoke, 2006). Reardon, B.M.G., Religious Thought in the Reformation (London, 1981). Scribner, R., Porter, R., Teich, M., The Reformation in its National Context (Cambridge, 1994). (4.ii) Early Reformation Abray, L.J., The People’s Reformation. Magistrates, Clergy and Commons in Strasbourg (Oxford, 1985). Andersson, C., From a Mighty Fortress. Prints, Drawing and Books in the Age of Luther (Detroit, 1983). Blickle, P., The Revolution of 1525. The German Peasants’ War (Baltimore, 1981). Blickle, P., ‘Communal Reformation and Peasant Piety’, Central European History, 20 (1987) Brooks, P.N., Seven Headed Luther : Essays in Commemoration of a Quincentenary (Oxford, 1983). Chaunu, P., The Reformation (Gloucester, 1989). Cohn, H., ‘Anticlericalism in the German Peasants’ War’, Past and Present, 83 (1979) Dickens, A.G., Contemporary Historians of the German Reformation (London,
  11. 11. 1978). The German Nation and Martin Luther (London, 1974). Dixon, C.S., The German Reformation (Oxford, 1999) Edwards, M.U., Luther’s Last Battles. Politics and Polemics 1531-1546 (London, 1983). Hillerbrand, H., ‘Religion and Politics in the German Reformation’, Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 3 (1973). Hsia, R., The German People and the Reformation (Ithaca, 1988) Kouri, E.I., Scott, T., Politics and Society in Reformation Europe (Basingstoke, 1987). Lortz, J., The Reformation in Germany (London, 1968). De Molen, L., Leaders of the Reformation (Selingrove, 1984). Moeller, B., Imperial Cities and the Reformation (1972). Oberman, H., Luther. Man Between God and the Devil (New Haven, 1989). Ozment, S., The Reformation in the Cities (New Haven, 1975). Parker, G., ‘Success and Failure During the First Century of the Reformation’, Past and Present 136 (1992) Po-Chia Hsia, R., The German People and the Reformation (Ithaca, 1988). Potter, G.R., Ulrich Zwingli (London, 1977). Scott, T., ‘The Common People and the German Reformation’, Historical Journal, 34 (1991) Scott, T., ‘The German Peasants’ War’, Historical Journal (two parts) (1979) Scribner, R.W., For the Sake of Simple Folk. Popular Propaganda for the German Reformation (Cambridge, 1981). The German Reformation (London, 1986). Popular religion in Germany and Central Europe, 1400-1800 (New York, 1996). ‘Civic Unity and the Reformation in Erfurt’, Past and Present, 66 (1975). Spitz, L.W., ‘Particularism and Peace. Augsburg 1555’, Church History 25 (1956). Strauss, G., Luther’s House of Learning. Indoctrination of the Young in the German Reformation (Baltimore, 1978) Pre Reformation Germany (London, 1972). ‘Success and Failure in the German Reformation’, Past and Present, 67 (1975). Todd, J.M., Luther. A Life (London, 1982). (4.iii) Calvinism Bouwsma, W.J., John Calvin : A Sixteenth Century Portrait (Oxford, 1988). Duke, A., Lewis, G., Pettegree, A., Calvinism in Europe, 1540-1610 : a collection of documents (Manchester, 1992). Gordon, B, The Swiss Reformation (Manchester, 2002) Hall, B., John Calvin, Humanist and Theologian (London, 1956). Hopfl, H.M., The Christian Polity of John Calvin (Cambridge, 1982).
  12. 12. Kingdon, R., Shapers of Religious Traditions in Germany, Switzerland, and Poland (London, 1981) ‘Was the Genevan Reformation a Revolution?’, Studies in Church History 12 (1975). McGrath, A., A Life of John Calvin (Oxford, 1990). McKim, D.K., The Cambridge companion to John Calvin [electronic resource] (Cambridge, 2004). Access via library catalogue (Athens) Monter, E.W., Calvin’s Geneva (1967). Studies in Genevan Government (1964). Mullett, M., Calvin (London, 1989). Murdock, G., Beyond Calvin : the intellectual, political and cultural world of Europe's Reformed churches, c. 1540-1620 (Basingstoke, 2004) Naphy, W.G., Calvin and the consolidation of the Genevan Reformation (Manchester, 1994) Parker, T.H., John Calvin (Tring, 1975). Pettegree, A., The Reformation World (London, 2000) Prestwich, M., International Calvinism 1541-1715 (Oxford, 1986). Randell, K., Calvin and the Later Reformation (London, 1988). Ryrie, A. (ed) Palgrave advances in the European reformation (Basingstoke, 2006). Steinmetz, D.C., Calvin in Context (Oxford, 1995). Wendel, F., Calvin (1978). Calvin : the Origins and Development of his Religious Thought (London, 1965). (4.iv) The Radical Reformation Bainton, R., ‘The Left Wing of the Reformation’, in Studies on the Reformation (London, 1964). Balke, Calvin and the Anabaptist Radicals (Grand Rapids, Mich., 1981). Baylor, M.G., Revelation and Revolution. Basic Writings of Thomas Muntzer (London, 1993). Clasen, C.P., Anabaptism : A Social History 1525-1618 (1975). Cohn, N., The Pursuit of the Millennium (London, 1993). Depperman, A., ‘The Anabaptists and the State Churches’, in K.von Greyerz (ed) Religion and Society in Early Modern Europe (London, 1984). Dickens, A.G., ‘The Radical Reformation’, Past and Present 27 (1964). Fix, A., ‘Radical Reformation and Second reformation in Holland’, Sixteenth Century Journal, 18 (1987). Klaassen, W., ‘The Anabaptist Understanding of the Separation of the Church’, Church History (1977) Mullett, M., Radical Religious Movements in Early Modern Europe (London,1980).
  13. 13. Hsia, R., ‘Munster and the Anabaptists’ in his German People and the Reformation (Ithaca, 1988) Potter, G., ‘Balthasar Hubmaier’, History Today 26 (1976). Roper, L., ‘Sexual Utopianism and the German Reformation’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 42 (1991). Rupp, E.G., Patterns of Reformation (1969). Scott, T., Thomas Muntzer. Theology and Revolution in the German Reformation (Basingstoke, 1989) Scott, T., ‘Thomas Muntzer’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 34 (1983) Stayer, J., ‘The Anabaptists and the Sects’, New Cambridge Modern History 2 (Cambridge, 1990). Williams, G.H., The Radical Reformation (1962). Williams, G.H., ‘Radical Reformation’, in Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformatio, III (Oxford, 1996) (5) Catholic Reformation Aveling, J.C.H., The Jesuits (London, 1981). Bergin, J., ‘The Counter Reformation Church and its Bishops’, Past and Present 165 (1999) Bireley, R., The Refashioning of Catholicism 1450-1700 (Basingstoke, 1999). Bossy, J., Christianity in the West 1400-1700 (Oxford, 1985). ‘The Counter Reformation and the People of Catholic Europe’, Past and Present, 87 (1970). ‘The Mass as a Social Institution’, Past and Present, 100 (1983). ‘The Social History of Confession’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 25 (1975). Chatellier, L., The Europe of the Devout (Cambridge, 1989). Davidson, N., The Counter Reformation (Oxford, 1987). Delumeau, J., Catholicism Between Luther and Voltaire (London, 1977). Evennett, H.O., The Spirit of the Counter Reformation (London, 1970). Fenlon, D., Heresy and Obedience in Tridentine Italy (Cambridge, 1972). Forster, M., The Counter Reformation in the Villages. Religion and Reform in the Bishopric of Speyer ( Ithaca, 1992). Gernet, J., China and the Christian impact : a conflict of cultures (Cambridge, 1985) Haliczer, S., Inquisition and society in early modern Europe (London, 1987). Janelle, P., The Catholic Reformation (Basingstoke, 1971). Jedin, H., A history of the Council of Trent [electronic resource] (London, 1957-61) access via RUL catalogue (Athens) Harline, C., ‘Official Religion and Popular Religion in Recent Historiography’, Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte (1990)
  14. 14. Hsia, R., The world of Catholic renewal, 1540-1770 (Cambridge, 1998) Kamen, H., The Phoenix and the Flame. Catalonia and the Counter-Reformation (New Haven, 1993). Inquisition and Society in Spain (London, 1987). Martin, A.L., The Jesuit Mind (London, 1988). Mullett, M., The Counter Reformation and the Catholic Reformation (London, 1984). O’Malley, J.W., The First Jesuits (Cambridge, Mass., 1993). Olin, J.C., Catholic reform : from Cardinal Ximenes to the Council of Trent, 1495-1563 : an essay with illustrative documents and a brief study of St. Ignatius Loyola (Fordham, 1990) Po-Chia Hsia, R., The World of Catholic Renewal 1540-1770 (Cambridge, 1998). Wright, A.D., The Counter Reformation (London, 1982). (6) Popular Culture MacAloon, J., Rite, Drama, Festival, Spectacle (London, 1983). Burke, P., Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe (London, 1978). Camporesi, P., Bread of Dreams. Food and Fantasy in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge, 1989). Cashmere, J., ‘The Social Uses of Violence in Ritual’, European History Quarterly, 21 (1991). Clark, S., ‘French Historians and Early Modern Popular Culture’, Past and Present (1983). Davis, N.Z., Society and Culture in Early Modern France (London, 1975). ‘The Reasons of Misrule. Youth Groups and Charivari in Sixteenth Century France’, Past and Present (1971). Ginzburg, C., The Cheese and the Worms. The Cosmos of a Sixteenth Century Miller (London, 1980). Greyerz, K. von, Religion and Society in Early Modern Europe (London, 1984). Kamen, H., European Society 1500-1700 (London, 1984). Kaplan, S.L., Understanding Popular Culture. Europe from the Middle Ages to the Nineteenth Century (Berlin, 1984). Kinser, S., ‘Carnival at Nuremberg 1450-1550’, Representations, 13 (1986). Klaniczay, G., The Uses of Supernatural Power. The Transformation of Popular Religion in medieval and Early Modern Europe (Cambridge, 1990). Ladurie, E. Le Roy., Carnival : a People’s Uprising at Romans (Harmondsworth, 1980). Muchembled, R., Culture populaire et culture des elites (Paris, 1978). Muir, E., Ritual in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge, 1997). Roper, L., ‘Going to Church and Street : Weddings in Reformation Augsburg’, Past and Present (1985) Sabean, D., Power in the Blood. Popular Culture and Village Discourse in Early Modern Germany (Cambridge, 1984). Scribner, R., ‘Reformation, Carnival, and the World Turned Upside Down’, in Popular Culture and Popular Movements in Reformation Germany (London, 1987). Popular religion in Germany and Central Europe, 1400-1800 (New York, 1996). ‘Is the History of Popular Culture Possible?’, History of European Ideas (1978).
  15. 15. (7) Print and Propaganda Andersson, C., 'Popular imagery in German Reformation broadsheets' in Print and Culture in the Renaissance, ed. G. Tyson & S. Wagonheim (Newark, 1986). Andersson, C. & Talbot, C., From a mighty fortress : prints, drawings, and books in the age of Luther, 1483-1546 (Detroit, 1983). Brady, T., ‘The social place of a German Renaissance Artist. Hans Baldung Grien at Strasbourg’, Central European History 8 (1975). Chrisman, M.U., Lay Culture, Learned Culture: Books and Social Change in Strasbourg, 1480-1599 (1982). ‘Lay response to the Protestant Reformation in Germany’, in P.N.Brookes ed., Reformation Principle and Practice (London, 1980). ‘Printing and the Evolution of Lay Culture in 16th century Strasbourg’, in Po Chia Hsia The German People and the Reformation (Ithaca, 1985). Cole, R., ‘The Dynamics of Printing in the Sixteenth Century’, in L.Buck, J.Zophy and G.G.Coulton eds., The Social History of the Reformation, (1972) Crick, R. and Walsham, A., The Uses of Script and Print 1300-1700 (2004) Crofts, R., ‘Books, reform and the Reformation’, Archiv fur Reformationsgeschichte 71 (1980). Dickens, A.G., German Nation and Martin Luther (London, 1974). Eisenstein, E., The Printing Press as an Agent of Change, vol. I (Cambridge, 1979). Febvre, L., & Martin, H.J., The Coming of the Book: the Impact of Printing, 1450- 1800 (London, 1990). Gawthorp, R., Strauss, G., ‘Protestantism and Literacy in early Modern Germany’, Past + Present 104 (1984). Gilmont, J-F., The reformation and the book (Aldershot, 1998). Michalski, S., The Reformation and the visual arts : the Protestant image question in Western and Eastern Europe (London, 1993). Moxey, K., Peasants, Warriors and Wives. Popular Imagery in the Reformation (1989) Ozment, S., The Reformation in the Cities (New Haven, London 1975). Po Chia Hsia, R., The German People and the Reformation (Ithaca, 1988). Russell, P.A., 'Common People and the future of the 1525', Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte, 74 (1983). Scott, T., 'The common people in the German Reformation,' Historical Journal, 34 (1991) Scribner, R.W., The German Reformation (London, 1986) . 'Reformation carnival and the world upside down', in Popular Culture and Popular Movements in Reformation Germany (London, 1987). 'Preachers and People' in Popular Culture and Popular Movements in Reformation Germany (London, 1987).. For the Sake of Simple Folk: Popular Propaganda for the German Reformation (Oxford. 1994). ‘Oral Culture and the Diffusion of Reformation ideas’, History of European Ideas 5 (1984).
  16. 16. Strauss, G., Luther’s House of Learning (Baltimore and London, 1978). TLTP tutorial: The Engraven Reformation & linked case study (8) Witchcraft and Magic Anglo, S., The Damned Art : Essays in the Literature of Witchcraft (London, 1977). Ankalroo, B., Henningsen, G., Early Modern Witchcraft, Centres and Peripheries (Oxford, 1989). Apps, L., and Gow, A., Male Witches in Early Modern Europe (Manchester 2003). Baroja, J., ‘Witchcraft and catholic Theology’, in Ankarloo and Henningsen eds, Early Modern Witchcraft, Centres and Peripheries (Oxford, 1989). Barry, J., Hester, M., Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe. Studies in Culture and Belief (Cambridge, 1998). Behringer, W., ‘Weather Hunger and fear. The Origins of the European WitchPersecutions in Climate, Society and Mentality’, German History, 13 (1995). Briggs, R., Witches and Neighbours. The social and Cultural Context of European Witchcraft (London, 1996). ‘Women as Victims? Witches, Judges, and the Community’, French History (1991) Clark, S., Thinking with Demons. The idea of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe (Oxford, 1997). ‘Inversion, Misrule, and the Meaning of Witchcraft’, Past and Present 87 (1980) ‘The Gendering of Witchcraft in French Demonology’, French History (1991) ‘The Scientific Status of Demonology’, in B.Vickers Occult and Scientific Mentalities in the Renaissance (Cambridge, 1984). Cohn, N., Europe’s Inner Demons (New York, 1993). Gibson, M., Early Modern Witches (London, 2000). Ginzburg, C., The Night Battles : Witchcraft & Agrarian Cults in the Sixteenth & Seventeenth Centuries (London, 1983). Goodare, J., ‘Women and the Witch Hunt in Scotland’, Social History, 23 (1998). Horsley, R.A., ‘Who were the witches? The Role of the Accused in European Witch Trials’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History 9 (1979). Kieckhefer, R., Magic in the Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1989).
  17. 17. Kieckhefer, R., The European Witch Trials (Berkeley, 1976). Kors, A., Witchcraft in Europe 1100-1700. A Documentary History (London, 1973). Kramer, H., Malleus Maleficarum (London, 1971). Lehmann, H., ‘The Persecution of Witches as the Restoration of Order. Germany 1590-1650’, Central European History, 21 (1988). Levack, B., The Witch-hunt in Early Modern Europe (London, 1987). Midelfort H.C., Witch hunting in South West Germany 1562-1684 (London, 1972). Monter, E.W, Ritual, Myth and Magic in Early Modern Europe (Brighton, 1983). European Witchcraft (London, 1969). Pumphrey, S., Rossi, P.L., Science, culture and popular belief in Renaissance Europe (Manchester, 1991). Purkiss, D., The Witch in History. Early Modern and Twentieth Century Representations (London, 1996). Roper, L., Oedipus and Devil. Witchcraft, Sexuality and Religion in Early Modern Europe (London, 1984). Scarre, G, Witchcraft and Magic in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Europe (London, 1987). Scribner, R.W., ‘Witchcraft and Judgement in Reformation Germany’, History Today, 40 (1990). (9) A New World view? (9.i) The Old World and the New Bitterli, U., Cultures in Conflict. Encounters Between European and Non- European Cultures (Cambridge, 1989). Casas, B. de las, A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies (London, 1992). Delgado-Gomez, A., Spanish Historical Writing About the New World (Providence R.I., 1994). Elliott, J.H., The Old World and the New 1492-1650 (London, 1970). Spain and its World 1500-1700 (London, 1989). Gerbi, A., Nature in the New World from Christopher Columbus to Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo (Pittsburgh, PA., 1985). Grafton, A., New Worlds, Ancient Texts : the Power of Tradition and the Shock of Discovery (Cambridge, Mass., 1992). Greenblatt, S.J., Marvelous Possessions : the Wonder of the New World (Oxford, 1991). Horgan, P., Conquistadors in North America (London, 1963). Lewis, B., Cultures in Conflict. Christians, Muslims and Jews in the Age of Discovery (New York, 1995). MacLachlan, C.M., Spain’s Empire in the New World (Berkeley, 1988). McAlister, L.N., Spain and Portugal in the New World 1492-1700 (Minneapolis, 1984). Muldoon, J., The Americas in the Spanish World Order (Philadelphia, 1974). Pagden, A.R. European encounters with the New World : from Renaissance to Romanticism (London, 1993). ‘The Impact of the Old World on the New : the History of an Idea’,
  18. 18. Renaissance and Modern Studies (1986). Parry, J.H., The Age of Reconnaissance (London, 1963). Pastor Bodmer, B., The Armature of Conquest : Spanish Accounts of the Discovery of America (Stanford, 1992). Phillips, W.D., The Worlds of Christopher Columbus (Cambridge, 1982). (9.ii) Early Modern Society Braudel, F., Civilization and Capitalism : 15th-18th Century (London, 1981-1985). Burke, P., Economy and society in early modern Europe : essays from Annales (London, 1972). Darnton, R., The great cat massacre and other episodes in French cultural history (Harmondsworth, 1985). De Vries, J., European Urbanization, 1500-1800 (London, 1984). Eisenstein, E.L. , The printing revolution in early modern Europe(Cambridge, 1983). The Printing Press as an Agent of Change : Communications and Cultural Transformations in Early-modern Europe (Cambridge, 1979). Febvre, L., Martin, H-J., The Coming of the Book (London, 1990). Flinn, M.W. The European Demographic System 1500-1820 (Brighton, 1981). Friedrichs, C.R., The early modern city, 1450-1750 (London, 1995). Goubert, P., ‘Family and Province. A Contribution to our Knowledge of Family Structure in Early Modern France’, Journal of Family History , 2 (1977). Houston, R.A. Literacy in early modern Europe : culture and education 1500-1800 (London, 1988). Huppert, G., After the black death : a social history of early modern Europe (Bloomington, Ind., 1998). Kamen, H., Early modern European society (New York, 1999). Le Roy Ladurie, E., The French peasantry, 1450-1660 (Aldershot, 1987). Miskimin, Harry A. The economy of later Renaissance Europe, 1460-1600 (Cambridge, 1977). Rich, E.E., Wilson, C.H., The Cambridge Economic History of Europe, vols. 4&5 (Cambridge 1967, 1977). Robisheaux, T., Rural Society and the Search for Order in Early Modern Germany (Cambridge, 1989). Schmal, H., Patterns of European urbanisation since 1500 (London, 1981). Strauss, G., Nuremberg in the Sixteenth Century (1996). Watts, S.J., A social history of Western Europe, 1450-1720 : tensions and solidarities among rural people (London, 1984). Wheaton, R., ‘Family and Kinship in Western Europe’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History 5 (1975). (9.iii) Science and the Supernatural
  19. 19. Anglo, S., The Damned Art : Essays in the Literature of Witchcraft (London, 1977). Armitage, A., Copernicus and the Reformation of Astronomy (London, 1950). Boas, M., The Scientific Renaissance (Cambridge, 1962). Burke, P., ‘Religion and Secularisation’, in New Cambridge Modern History, XIII (Cambridge, 1979). Copenhaver, B.P., ‘Astrology and Magic’, in C.Schmitt, Q.Skinner eds., The Cambridge History of Renaissance Philosophy (Cambridge, 1987). Curry, P., Prophecy and Power (Cambridge, 1989). ‘Astrology in Early Modern England. The making of vulgar knowledge’, S.Pumfrey et al. Eds., Science, Culture and Popular Belief in Renaissance Europe (Cambridge, 1991). ‘Revisions of Science and Magic’, History of Science 23 (1985). Debus, A.G., Man and Nature in the Renaissance (Cambridge, 1978). Alchemy and Chemistry in the Seventeenth Century (New York, 1966). Science, Medicine and Society in the Renaissance (London, 1972). Dijksterhuis, E.J. Mechanization of the world picture (London, 1961). Dixon, C.S., ‘Popular Astrology and Lutheran Propaganda in Reformation Germany’, History 84 (July 1999). Finocchiaro, M., The Galileo Affair. A Documentary History (Berkeley, 1989). Garin, E., Astrology in the Renaissance. The Zodiac of Life (London, 1983). Goodman, C., Science & Belief from Copernicus to Darwin (Open University, 1974). Kearney, H., Science and Change 1500-1700 (London, 1971). Koyre, A., The Astronomical Revolution (Cambridge, 1973). Levere, T., Shea, W., eds Nature, Experiment and the Sciences. Essays on Galileo and the history of science (Dordrecht, London, 1990). Lindberg, D., Westman, R.S., Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution (Cambridge, 1990). Mandrou, R., From humanism to science 1480-1630 (Harmondsworth, 1978). Maxwell-Stuart, P., The Occult in Early Modern Europe (New York, 1999). Nauert, C.G. Agrippa and the Crisis of Renaissance Thought, (Urbana, IL, 1965). "Magic and Skepticism in Agrippa's Thought." Journal of the History of Ideas 18 (1957) Porter, R., Teich, M., The Scientific Revolution in National Context (Cambridge, 1992) Redondi, P., Galileo Heretic (Princeton, 1987). Schechner, S., Comets, Popular Culture and the birth of modern cosmology (Princeton, 1997). Scribner, R.W., ‘The Reformation, popular magic, and the "disenchantment of the world’, in Journal of interdisciplinary history, XXIII, 1993 "Magic, Witchcraft, and Superstition”, Historical Journal 37 (1994). Shumaker, W., Occult Sciences in the Renaissance (London, 1972). Thomas, K., Religion and the Decline of Magic (London, 1971). Esp. ch 10-12 Wallace, W.A., Prelude to Galileo. Essays on Medieval and sixteenth century sources of Galileo’s Thought (Dordrecht, London 1981). Wildong, M., Raising Spirits, making gold, and swapping wives (Beeston, 1999).