Computer Software 7/2/10


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Computer Software 7/2/10

  1. 1. Computer Software
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Describe the software components of a typical software package </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the way an operating system manages each computer resource </li></ul><ul><li>Describe key features of popular software </li></ul><ul><li>List types of software available </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how to install and uninstall software </li></ul><ul><li>Describe rights associated with software: for users and programmers </li></ul>
  3. 3. Software <ul><li>Software is the instructions and associated data, stored in electronic format, that direct the computer to accomplish a task. </li></ul><ul><li>Software includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A computer program is a set of detailed, step-by-step instructions that tells a computer how to solve a problem or carry out a task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main executable file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support module </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data module </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Programmers and Computer Languages <ul><li>Computer programmers write the instructions for the computer programs </li></ul><ul><li>Software publishers distribute the software, they specialize in packaging, marketing, and selling commercial software </li></ul><ul><li>A computer language provides the tools that a programmer uses to create software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-level languages </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Programmers and Computer Languages <ul><li>A compiler translates all of the instructions in a program as a single batch </li></ul><ul><li>The resulting machine language instructions are called the object code </li></ul><ul><li>An alternative to a compiler is an interpreter , that converts one instruction at a time while program is running </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scripts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>JavaScript </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VBScript </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. software Types <ul><li>Software is categorized as either application software or system software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application software is designed to be used for a purpose such as drawing designs, creating documents, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System software is designed to help the computer carry out the basic operating functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operating systems, utilities, and drivers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Operating System <ul><li>An operating system (OS) is the master controller for all of the activities that take place within a computer. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Windows XP, Mac OS, Linux, UNIX </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The operating system also interacts with the next functional layer called application software. </li></ul><ul><li>An operating system manages resources (any component that is required to perform work) </li></ul>
  8. 8. OS manage processor resources <ul><li>It ensures the microprocessor doesn’t spin its wheels waiting for input while it could be working on other processing tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Ideally, the OS is able to help the microprocessor switch tasks so that everything seems to be happening at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>The OS also must ensure that the microprocessor does sit idle </li></ul>
  9. 9. OS keep track of storage resources <ul><li>The OS acts as a filing clerk </li></ul><ul><li>It remembers the names and locations of all your files and keeps track of empty spaces where new files can be stored </li></ul><ul><li>OS controls peripherals to ensure input and output proceeds in an orderly fashion </li></ul>
  10. 10. User Interface <ul><li>A user interface can be defined as the combination of hardware and software that helps people and computers communicate with each other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphical user interface (GUI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Command-line user interface </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Where is the operating system? <ul><li>The OS’s small bootstrap program resides in ROM and provides the instructions to load the core parts into memory when system boots </li></ul><ul><li>This component is called the kernel </li></ul>
  12. 12. Operating System Types <ul><li>Single-user operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-user operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Network operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Multitasking operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop operating system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mac OS, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unix, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DOS </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Application Software <ul><li>Word processing software is used for producing reports, letters, papers, and manuscripts. </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop publishing software helps you use graphic design techniques to enhance the format and appearance of a document. </li></ul><ul><li>Web authorizing software helps you design and develop customized Web pages </li></ul>
  14. 14. Application Software <ul><li>Accounting and Finance, Mathematical Modeling, and Statistical Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounting and finance software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal finance software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tax preparation software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small business accounting software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistical software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematical modeling software </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Application Software <ul><li>Data management software helps you to store, find, organize, update, and report information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File management software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database management software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Graphics Software: a software you do need to work with drawings, photos, and other pictures? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Application Software <ul><li>Graphics – refers to any picture, drawing, sketch, photograph, image or icon that appears on your computer screen </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paint software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photo editing software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawing software </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Application Software <ul><li>Music Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio editing software – lets you make your own digital voice and music recording </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MP3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MP3 Player </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CD ripper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MP3 encoding software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ear training software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notation software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer-aided software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Midi sequencing software </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Application Software <ul><li>Video Editing Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video editing software provides a set of tools for transferring video footage, editing video, adding special effects, and adding a sound track </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Educational and Reference Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational software – helps you to learn and practice new skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MindTwister Math </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3-D Froggy Phonics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SAT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GMAT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LSAT </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Application Software <ul><li>Reference software – provides you with a collection of information and a way to access that information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encyclopedias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Encarta </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grolier’s encyclopedia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comptons encyclopedia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>World Book </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Britannica </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dictionaries </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Application Software <ul><li>Entertainment Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Role-playing games </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Action games </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adventure games </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Puzzle games </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation games </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sports games </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy games </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Application Software <ul><li>Business Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical market software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal market software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Payroll software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accounting software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Project management software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groupware </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Why is it necessary to install software? <ul><li>When you install software, the new software files are placed in the appropriate folders on your computer’s hard disk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy files from distribution disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncompress files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze computer’s resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze hardware components and peripheral devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for any system files and players </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Update necessary system files </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Software Installation Issues <ul><li>A setup program guides you through the installation process </li></ul><ul><li>Following the program will make installation easy </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes files are zipped , so they must be unzipped </li></ul><ul><li>Other types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-installing software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-executing zip file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual download and install </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Uninstall routine deletes the software’s files </li></ul><ul><li>A copyright is a form of legal protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchaser has right to copy software to a computer’s hard disk in order to install it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchaser can make a backup copy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchaser is allowed to copy and distribute sections of a software program for use in critical reviews and teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most software displays a copyright notice </li></ul><ul><li>A software license is a legal contract that defines the ways in which you may use a computer program </li></ul><ul><li>A shrink-wrap license goes into effect as soon as you open the packaging </li></ul>