They carry advertisements and carry them to individuals Such as wanting to know about certain kind of products and brands
The problem is that we use media and vehicle interchangeably-the practice should be avoided
The definition is is rather general, but it provides a broad picture of what media planning is all about
Rating is generally used for TV and radio For magazines the audience delivery can be referred as coverage
Let’s assume a total TV HH population of 5 homes Only three TV programs are on air during 7:00-9:30 Same dynamics apply to calculating a rating for people. If 2 people live in each of these five homes the total population is ten
Media Media exists primarily to deliver entertainment,information and advertisements to a vastaudience Media should be thought of as both carriersand delivery systems It is important to know that consumers havespecialized needs that media can meet
Media Vs Vehicles A medium refers to a class of carriers such astelevision, newspapers, magazines, etc A vehicle is an individual carrier within amedium– The News is a carrier within the newspaper group
Classes of Media Mass Media (newspapers,magazines,radio,television)– Such media are able to deliver to large audiences at relatively low cost– Varied contents – attracted to different kind of audiences Traditional Vs Nontraditional media– Media that have been traditionally used for reaching mass audiences(newspapers, magazines,radio,TV and outdoor)- Traditional mediums– Almost any innovative way of delivering ad messages to consumers isconsidered a nontraditional medium (SMS, CDs etc.)
Cybermedia– “Cybermeida” are media that require a computerand all the computer related communications fallunder this definitionClasses of Media
Which Media Do We Use, Why OrWhy Not ?• Mass Reach• Audio-visual appeal• Appeals to senses• Emotional• Afinity• Targetable by program/contentselection• Demonstration• Credible/prestigious• High awareness• Low CPM• Impact• Creates desirePros Cons High out-of-pocket cost Limited target audienceselectivity Long lead time Clutter - Switching offTelevision
• Targetability• Frequency• Portability• Personal• Economical for local markets• Short lead times• Community involvement• Strong promotional vehicle• Low cost of entryPros Cons• No visual• Background medium• Expensive reach builderRadioWhich Media Do We Use, Why OrWhy Not ?
Immediate high reachpotential National/local flexibility Short lead time Timely/newsworthyenvironment Shopping/retailenvironment Special interesttargetabilityPros Cons High out-of-pocket cost Short issue life Passive medium Non targeted readership Inferior reproductionquality High clutterNewspapersWhich Media Do We Use, Why OrWhy Not ?
Steps in a Media Campaign Define objectives. Nail down your strategy. Consider all options available. Gather and analyze research. Negotiate with suppliers. Execute/book. Campaign maintenance. Post buy analysis.
Because they establish the criteriafor evaluating the media planWhy Are Media Objectives SoImportant?
Media Strategies Evolve from media objectives anddescribe how they will be accomplished Reflect specific course of action to betaken A matter of evaluating different mediatypes and mixes to determine best way toachieve objectives within given budget
Media Strategies Should IncludeFour Elements Element One Broad selection of media to be used andrationale for their choice Element Two Specific use of media to be used (e.g. TVdayparts, magazine categories) andselection rationale Element Three Rationale for each vehicle’s use includingquantitative and qualitative analysis Element Four Description of scheduling including when,where and at what levels–
Media Planning“The process of designing a course of action thatshows how advertising time and space will be usedto contribute to the achievement of marketingobjectives.”
RATINGS (Rating Points) A rating is the percentage of individuals or homesexposed to an advertising medium e.g. “Mera Saain” has a rating of 3%.
GROSS RATING POINTS (GRP)/TARPS TARPs or GRPs is the sum of individual rating pointsfor each placement in a TV schedule among aspecific target audience without regard to duplicationor repeat exposure to the media vehicle.REACH x FREQUENCY = GRP’s TARPs = Add individual Rating Points.
GRPs offer a description of total audience delivery withoutregard to duplication or repeat exposure to the mediavehicle. Individuals, homes are counted as many times asthey are exposed to the advertising Example: 10 spots with avg. rating of 20%-GRPS=200% The 10 spot schedule with 200 GRPs, will be seen onceby the equivalent of 200% of the populationGROSS RATING POINTS (GRP)/TARPS
IMPRESSION Impressions are the sum of all advertising exposures Impressions are same as the GRPs/TRPs, but expressed in terms ofnumber of individuals rather than as a percentage– Multiply GRPs delivered to a given population group by the number ofpeople in the population group– 200GRPs X 9m HH= 18m Impression, like GRPs indicate the gross delivery without regard tomultiple exposure to the same HH or individual 10 spot schedule will be seen by equivalent of 18m homes butobviously not by 18m different homes
Neither of the two indicates how manydifferent people will be exposed to themedia formsEnter – Reach and frequency
REACH (opportunity to see) The unduplicated reach of the defined target population. Reach takes into consideration your coverage area and your media selection. The coverage area you define. With media selection, the more you spread your dollars the broader the reach.However is it effective reach? Media selection should be based on the medium’s ability to cover your definedgeographic area with limited waste. It is always better to convince 10% of the buyers 100% of the way, than toconvince 100% of the buyers 10% of the way.e.g. If the target audience population is 1,000,000 people, and 800,000 areexposed to the media vehicle at least once, then reach is :800,001,000,000 X 100% = 80%
Reach accumulation of alternative schedules1514131211109876543210Telecast1 2 3 4 5Reach5 Spots-Same prg.Telecast1 2 3 4 55 Spots-different prg.DuplicatedUnduplicated
Shape of a typical reach curve% of HH reached605040302010Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
FREQUENCY Frequency takes into consideration the number of times an individual isexposed to your message. You can build frequency with consistency in media selection and creativemessage. For budgetary reasons this often means focusing on a specificgeographic area and a few well targeted media vehicles. Remember that the stronger the frequency of message, the quicker theresponse. The average consumer needs 4 exposures before the message registerswith them, and studies show that after 7 exposures they will take action.
AVG. FREQUENCY The average number of times an audience unit isexposed to a vehicleFrequency= GRPs or total duplicated audienceReach
Coverage Vs Reach Coverage could mean potential to be exposedto the advertising, and reach refers to thosepeople who actually are exposed– A network television program has a coverage 85%of TV homes in Pakistan– Television program X reaches 9 million men aged18-34 within a four-week period
COST EFFICIENCYIt is the relationship between a media vehicle’saudience and the cost of using that mediavehicle : Cost per Thousand (CPM) and Cost Per Rating Point (CPRP) are measures ofcost efficiency.
COST PER THOUSAND (C P M ) It is the advertising cost of reaching 1,000 units of agiven audience with a particular media vehicle. C P M is calculated by dividing the advertising unit costby the audience,in thousands :Cost of the prg. / Number of people = Cost-per-person
CPP(Cost Per Rating Point) It Is the cost of purchasing one rating point or cost ofreaching one percentage of target audience CPRP = COSTGRP’S
SHARE OF VOICE (SOV) It refers to the % of a product activity,in media weight terms,within thetotal category.e.g. Media WeightTotal Women S O VTARPs Per week %Brands A 180 23B 200 26C 250 33D 140 18770 100– To Evaluate S O V, one must use the same target group for allproducts.
SHARE OF ADVERTISING (S O A) It refers to the % of a product activity, in terms of advertising dollar, withinthe total category.e.g.Advertising S O VRs. Mil %Brands A 2.0 29B 1.0 14C 2.5 36D 1.5 217.0 100
Develop A Media Plan That... Helps increase brand share by 5% versus last year Directs advertising to users of the competition’sproduct (defined as women 25-54 employed with kids)to gain trial and increase share Generates effective reach levels that are 20% higherthan last year Limits each active period to five weeks to ensurecoverage of the product’s purchase cycle
Media Mix This is where you determine which media make sensefor you. Based on your objectives, budget and strategy, whichwill deliver results? You are setting a boundary around the types of mediayou will consider.
Media’s Relationship To MarketingShould Guide PlanningContinually QuestionHow will this media planhelp accomplishmy marketing objectives?
Brand Development Index (BDI)BDI = % local market brand sales% local market populationA measure of a brand’s sales in a market relativeto market’s populationKarachi% population = 7.74% brand sales =15.48BDI = 200
Category Development Index (CDI)CDI = % local market category sales% local market populationA measure of a product category’s sales in amarket relative to market’s populationKarachi% population = 7.74% category sales =11.98CDI = 155
Timing Objectives Determine best times to advertise Weeks of year Days of week Times of day Establish a scheduling pattern that Achieves communication goals Minimizes non-advertising periods Recognizes competitive activity
Three Scheduling MethodsContinuityPulsingFlightingJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Effective Frequency EF can be defined as the amount of frequencynecessary for advertisements to be effective incommunicating This number can vary from one repetition to asmany as ten or more Many thought that the optimum number of effectivefrequency was from three repetitions on – three plusconcept
Response CurvesFrequencyResponseThreshold•Advertising doesn’tgive resultsimmediately•The first tworepetitions are athreshold thataudiences have topass beforeadvertisementsbecome effective