

Comprehension is “making meaning” of
text.



Students find the comprehension
difficult to understand when they lack

...
1. Metacognition


It can be defined as
"thinking about thinking.”



Good readers read and
think at the same time.
W³- What? So What? Now What?


Good readers have control over their reading.

 Identify

where the difficulty occurs

 ...
Metacognition
THINKING STEMS
I’m thinking…
 I’m noticing…
 I’m wondering…

2. Activating Schema


Schema is the background knowledge
and experience readers bring to the
text.



Schema theory exp...
Activating Schema
 Good readers

stimulate their schema before
and while reading.

 Good readers

make connections (text...
Text to Self
These are highly personal connections
that a reader makes between a piece of
reading material and the reader'...


“My brother and I were playing
around, when things got out of hand.
As we were wrestling around on the
floor, my foot k...
That Reminds Me……….
Had I ever fought with my siblings?
 Had I broken any object?
 What was that?
 How did my parents r...
Text-to-Self Questions
 What

does this remind me of in my life?

 What

is this similar to in my life?

 How

is this ...
Text-to-Text


If the readers make a connection from the
story they are reading to another story

they have read, it is c...


The wizard looked up at the stars.
Surely, the lunar eclipse was a bad
omen! He knew he had to tell the
king quickly be...
Text-to-Text Questions
 What

does this remind me of in another book I’ve

read?
 How

is this text similar to other thi...
Text-to-World


If the readers make a connection to

something they have seen on the news
or experienced by someone they ...
Text-to-World
“Unlike Iraq, which most experts
agreed was five to seven years
away from developing its own

nuclear weapon...
Text-to-World
America is concerned about weapons of
mass destruction in Iraq
 United States dropped nuclear bombs in
Japa...
Text-to-World Questions
 What

does this remind me of in the real world?

 How

is this text similar to things that happ...
3. Visualization


“Visualizing is a comprehension strategy
that enables readers to make the words on

a page real and co...
Visualizing


Gives a clearer picture in mind



Helps to get rid of dullness



Let readers feel the taste, smell, tou...
Picture This!


The powder-white beach slopes gently into the emerald
tropical lagoon. Further out, beyond the coral reef...
Sketch- to- Stretch
Sketch your response to the story in the
box.

Describe your sketch and your reaction to the
story .
_...
Visualizing
THINKING STEMS


I’m picturing…



I can imagine…



I can feel…see…smell…
taste…touch…hear



My mental i...
4. Answering Questions
Give students a purpose for reading
 Help students to think actively as they read
 Encourage stud...
Four Different Types of Questions:


The Question-Answer Relationship strategy
(QAR) encourages students to learn how to
...
THINKING STEMS
Right There Think &
Search

Author &
Me

On My Own

What? Where?

What examples? What kind of
person is?

W...
Read this paragraph and categorize the following
questions.

Sam has lived in Merrytown his entire life; however,
tomorrow...
5. Questioning


“Questioning is the strategy that
keeps readers engaged. When readers
ask questions, they clarify

under...
Questioning


Good readers ask questions before, during and
after reading.



Readers will focus their attention, clarif...
Questioning
THINKING STEMS


I wonder…



What if…



Why…



I don’t understand…



It confuses me…



How could…
6.Determining Importance


“Thoughtful readers grasp the essential
ideas and important information when
reading. Readers ...
Determining Importance


They skim and scan the text.



Good readers think about what information
is important to remem...
Coat of Arms

Use a few words
or make symbols /
pictures to
represent
important places,
people, actions
etc.
Timeline
Determining Importance
THINKING STEMS


What’s important here…



What matters to me…



One thing that we should
notic...
7. Predict and Infer


“Research suggests that when students

make predictions their understanding
increases and they are...
Predict and Infer


Good readers make predictions about text
and confirm or reject them as they read
on.



Good readers...
Predict and Infer
Look at this picture and make three predictions about the text you will read.

Predict

Prove
“Eleven” By Sandra Cisneros
"Whose is this?" Mrs. Price says, and she holds the red sweater up in the air
for all the clas...
Inferring
THINKING STEMS
My guess is…
 Maybe…
 Perhaps…
 It could be that…
 This could mean…
 I predict…
 I infer…

8. Building Conceptual
Frameworks


Graphic organizers can help readers focus
on concepts and how they are related to
oth...
Building Conceptual
Frameworks
Building Conceptual Frameworks



Readers use story maps to
identify the elements of story
(characters, setting, events, ...
9. Synthesizing
 Synthesizing

is putting together
separate parts into a new
whole….a process akin to
working a jigsaw pu...
Synthesizing
 Good readers

retell what they have read as
one way to synthesize.

 Good readers

advocate and criticize
...
Helping Students Move Beyond the
Text
Reexamine

Reconnect

Rethink

• A good end-of-the-study task builds on students’
st...
Helping Students Move Beyond the
Text
“Open-mind" Activity:
Synthesis
Inferring

Visualizing

Schema

Frame
Work
References
Adler, C.R. (Ed). 2001. Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read, pp.
49-5...
Creating comprehension connections
Creating comprehension connections
Creating comprehension connections
Creating comprehension connections
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Creating comprehension connections

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This presentation can help the readers to deepen their understanding by building connections. A variety of strategies along with activities will ensure a better result and development of strategic readers.

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Creating comprehension connections

  1. 1.  Comprehension is “making meaning” of text.  Students find the comprehension difficult to understand when they lack  Comprehension strategies  Background knowledge  A purpose for engaging with the text  Creating connections can assist students in making the meaning of the text.
  2. 2. 1. Metacognition  It can be defined as "thinking about thinking.”  Good readers read and think at the same time.
  3. 3. W³- What? So What? Now What?  Good readers have control over their reading.  Identify where the difficulty occurs  Identify what the difficulty is  Restate the difficult sentence or passage in their own words  Look back through the text  Look forward in the text for information that might help them to resolve the difficulty
  4. 4. Metacognition THINKING STEMS I’m thinking…  I’m noticing…  I’m wondering… 
  5. 5. 2. Activating Schema  Schema is the background knowledge and experience readers bring to the text.  Schema theory explains how our previous experiences, knowledge, emotions, and understandings affect what and how we learn. (Harvey & Goudvis, 2000).
  6. 6. Activating Schema  Good readers stimulate their schema before and while reading.  Good readers make connections (text-to-self, text-to-text, and text-to-world) while reading.
  7. 7. Text to Self These are highly personal connections that a reader makes between a piece of reading material and the reader's own experiences or life.
  8. 8.  “My brother and I were playing around, when things got out of hand. As we were wrestling around on the floor, my foot kicked the glass table and smashed it into pieces!”
  9. 9. That Reminds Me………. Had I ever fought with my siblings?  Had I broken any object?  What was that?  How did my parents react? 
  10. 10. Text-to-Self Questions  What does this remind me of in my life?  What is this similar to in my life?  How is this different from my life?  Has something like this ever happened to me?  How does this relate to my life?  What were my feelings when I read this?
  11. 11. Text-to-Text  If the readers make a connection from the story they are reading to another story they have read, it is called a text-to-text connection;
  12. 12.  The wizard looked up at the stars. Surely, the lunar eclipse was a bad omen! He knew he had to tell the king quickly before the marriage ceremony started.  What other texts does this remind you of?  Have you read a book about a wizard and astronomy?
  13. 13. Text-to-Text Questions  What does this remind me of in another book I’ve read?  How is this text similar to other things I’ve read?  How is this different from other books I’ve read?  Have I read about something like this before?
  14. 14. Text-to-World  If the readers make a connection to something they have seen on the news or experienced by someone they know has had, it is called a text-toworld connection.
  15. 15. Text-to-World “Unlike Iraq, which most experts agreed was five to seven years away from developing its own nuclear weapons, there is broad agreement that North Korea is only months away”
  16. 16. Text-to-World America is concerned about weapons of mass destruction in Iraq  United States dropped nuclear bombs in Japan in World War II  Weapons of mass destruction used in Iran–Iraq War  Chemical weapons were a major point of discussion between the Syrian government and world leaders 
  17. 17. Text-to-World Questions  What does this remind me of in the real world?  How is this text similar to things that happen in the real world?  How is this different from things that happen in the real world?  How me? did that part relate to the world around
  18. 18. 3. Visualization  “Visualizing is a comprehension strategy that enables readers to make the words on a page real and concrete.”
  19. 19. Visualizing  Gives a clearer picture in mind  Helps to get rid of dullness  Let readers feel the taste, smell, touch etc.  Makes the text personal or memorable to the reader.
  20. 20. Picture This!  The powder-white beach slopes gently into the emerald tropical lagoon. Further out, beyond the coral reef, a spectacular wedge-shaped, green-coated island juts out of the deep blue expanse of the Indian Ocean. The sun gradually sets behind the island in radiant shades of orange, red, pink, mauve and purple.
  21. 21. Sketch- to- Stretch Sketch your response to the story in the box. Describe your sketch and your reaction to the story . _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ STORY WHEEL
  22. 22. Visualizing THINKING STEMS  I’m picturing…  I can imagine…  I can feel…see…smell… taste…touch…hear  My mental images include…
  23. 23. 4. Answering Questions Give students a purpose for reading  Help students to think actively as they read  Encourage students to monitor their comprehension  Help students to review content and relate what they have learned to what they already know 
  24. 24. Four Different Types of Questions:  The Question-Answer Relationship strategy (QAR) encourages students to learn how to answer questions better. In the Book In the Head Right There Author and You Think and Search On Your Own
  25. 25. THINKING STEMS Right There Think & Search Author & Me On My Own What? Where? What examples? What kind of person is? Who? When? What are the three or four…? What would you Do you Agree do if you..? with? Define. Name. What happened before/ after…? What part of the Have you ever…? text made you….? How many….? Why does the… ? Compare What will probably…? Where did…? If you could? What’s your opinion…?
  26. 26. Read this paragraph and categorize the following questions. Sam has lived in Merrytown his entire life; however, tomorrow Sam and his family would be moving to Rosslare. Sam hated the idea of shifting. He would be leaving behind his best friend, Pat. And to make the matter worse, he was moving on his birthday! http://www.nbss.ie/sites/default/files/publications/qar_strategy_handout.pdf
  27. 27. 5. Questioning  “Questioning is the strategy that keeps readers engaged. When readers ask questions, they clarify understanding and forge ahead to make meaning.” Harvey and Goudvis
  28. 28. Questioning  Good readers ask questions before, during and after reading.  Readers will focus their attention, clarify meaning and have a deeper comprehension level.  By generating questions, students become aware of their understanding of text and they learn to ask questions.
  29. 29. Questioning THINKING STEMS  I wonder…  What if…  Why…  I don’t understand…  It confuses me…  How could…
  30. 30. 6.Determining Importance  “Thoughtful readers grasp the essential ideas and important information when reading. Readers must differentiate between less important ideas and key ideas that are central to the meaning of the text.” Harvey and Goudvis
  31. 31. Determining Importance  They skim and scan the text.  Good readers think about what information is important to remember.  They use clues the author gives them like headings, bold words, and captions to find important information.
  32. 32. Coat of Arms Use a few words or make symbols / pictures to represent important places, people, actions etc.
  33. 33. Timeline
  34. 34. Determining Importance THINKING STEMS  What’s important here…  What matters to me…  One thing that we should notice…  I want to remember…  It’s interesting that…
  35. 35. 7. Predict and Infer  “Research suggests that when students make predictions their understanding increases and they are more interested in the reading material.” Fielding, Anderson, Pearson, Hanson
  36. 36. Predict and Infer  Good readers make predictions about text and confirm or reject them as they read on.  Good readers use their schema and the clues in the book to draw conclusions and make their own interpretations.
  37. 37. Predict and Infer Look at this picture and make three predictions about the text you will read. Predict Prove
  38. 38. “Eleven” By Sandra Cisneros "Whose is this?" Mrs. Price says, and she holds the red sweater up in the air for all the class to see. "Whose? It's been sitting in the coatroom for a month." "Not mine," says everybody. "Not me." "It has to belong to somebody," Mrs. Price keeps saying, but nobody can remember. It's an ugly sweater with red plastic buttons and a collar and sleeves all stretched out like you could use it for a jump rope. It's maybe a thousand years old and even if it belonged to me I wouldn't say so. Saldivar says, "I think it belongs to Rachel. "Of course it's yours," Mrs. Price says. "I remember you wearing it once.” "Rachel," Mrs. Price says. She says it like she's getting mad. "You put that sweater on right now and no more nonsense." Today I'm eleven. There's cake Mama's making for tonight, and when Papa comes home from work we'll eat it. There'll be candles and presents and everybody will sing Happy birthday, happy birthday to you, Rachel, but I wish I was anything but eleven, because I want today to be far away already, far away like a runaway balloon, like a tiny o in the sky, so tiny-tiny you have to close your eyes to see it.
  39. 39. Inferring THINKING STEMS My guess is…  Maybe…  Perhaps…  It could be that…  This could mean…  I predict…  I infer… 
  40. 40. 8. Building Conceptual Frameworks  Graphic organizers can help readers focus on concepts and how they are related to other concepts.  Graphic organizers are known by different names, such as maps, webs, graphs, charts, frames, or clusters.
  41. 41. Building Conceptual Frameworks
  42. 42. Building Conceptual Frameworks  Readers use story maps to identify the elements of story (characters, setting, events, pr oblem, resolution).  Story map can assist students organise and comprehend the events of the story.
  43. 43. 9. Synthesizing  Synthesizing is putting together separate parts into a new whole….a process akin to working a jigsaw puzzle. Harvey and Goudvis
  44. 44. Synthesizing  Good readers retell what they have read as one way to synthesize.  Good readers advocate and criticize books/ text they have read.  Good readers synthesize to create their own interpretation.
  45. 45. Helping Students Move Beyond the Text Reexamine Reconnect Rethink • A good end-of-the-study task builds on students’ strengths to express themselves in a variety of formats.
  46. 46. Helping Students Move Beyond the Text “Open-mind" Activity:
  47. 47. Synthesis Inferring Visualizing Schema Frame Work
  48. 48. References Adler, C.R. (Ed). 2001. Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read, pp. 49-54. National Institute for Literacy. Retrieved Nov. 1, 2007, from http://www.nifl.gov/partnershipforreading/publications/reading_first1text.html. Draper, D. Comprehension Strategies: Making Connections. Retrieved from http://curriculumdepot.wikispaces.com/file/view/Making_Connections_Strateg.pdf on 20th Oct 2013 Draper, D. Comprehension Strategies: Visualising and Visual Literacy . Retrieved from http://www.decd.sa.gov.au/northernadelaide/files/links/4_VisualisingBooklet.pdf on 26th Oct 2013. Harvey, S. & Goudvis, A. (2000). Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension to enhance understanding. Portland, ME: Stenhouse. Hatzigeorgiou, K. J. Making Connections. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/kjhatzi/makingconnections-1926853 on 21st Oct 2013. McGregor, T. (2007) Comprehension Connections: Bridges to Strategic Reading. Heinemann: USA Olson, C. B. Interactive Strategies for Teaching Students Response to Literature. Retrieved from http://www.gse.uci.edu/uciwp/documents/eleven_nevada.pdf on 19th October 2013.

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