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Agriprom Dairy


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Agriprom Dairy Brochure

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Agriprom Dairy

  1. 1. AGRiPROM Total Cow ComfortDairy Brochure EN
  2. 2. Copyright © 2012 by Agripromb.v. All rights reserved. Agriprom® and Easy farming® are Registered Trademarks. by Agriprom China Ltd. All Copyright © 2012 rights reserved. Agriprom®, Easy farming® and2 Total Cow Comfort are Registered Trademarks.
  3. 3. Table of content 4 Agriprom Introduction14 Sand in free-stalls21 Choosing the ideal cow mattress25 DLG Quality Test27 Barn Equipment46 Barn Design47 Feed Additives & Tests91 Flybusters 3
  4. 4. AGRiPROM Agriprom is a dynamic company with its Agriprom works in a challenging environment. (international) activities rooted in agriculture. The dairy business is constantly changing and We are specialized in the dairy market and we variable depending on aspects like climate, aim to offer you complete solutions with economic situation, infra structure etc.
It is our respect to: mission to offer a state of the art solution to cow housing and cow comfort, thus assuring - Bovine housing equipment the best possible results within the local - Rubber mats settings.
Agriprom is manufacturer of cow - Mattresses mattresses since 1994, with an unique - Free stalls combination of a rubber topcover and real latex filling. - Head- locks - Manure management - Camera’s - Project development AGRiPROMThe Netherlands AGRiPROMFrance SARL AGRiPROMChina AGRiPROMEast Africa Ltd P.O. Box 44
7710 AA 8, Rue des Ormeaux F-59175 2/FL169 Jinxian RD P.O. Box 78733
Dar es Salaam
 Nieuwleusen Vendeville France
 Shanghai, China Tanzania
 The Netherlands
 T: +33 672 42 4921 上海进贤路169号2楼 Tel :+255 22 277 1073 T: +31 529 455320 E: E: E: E: AGRiPROMInternational SRL AGRiPROMTurkey International AGRiPROMAlgeria Str. MirceaVoda nr. 43 BLM32 SC1. SECT3, Calikdere No:9CinarkoyMadenaltiMevkii El Khroub
25100 Bucurest, Romania
 T: +40 213 208 264 T: +90 232 878 1616 T:+213 664 547 461
 E: E: E: seraouimalek@hotmail.com4
  5. 5. The Agriprom PhilosophyCow comfort has been a concept ofAgriprom since its start in 1991. In 1994 Total Cow ComfortAgriprom was the first manufacturer ofcow mattresses in the Netherlands.Cow comfort is more than acomfortable resting area alone. A cowis a herd animal with group behaviorand hierarchy and modern housing hasto take this into account.
A cowdoesn’t just have to lay downcomfortably, she also has to be secure,she has to have enough light and space,she has to be able to lay down andstand up in an easy way withoutobstruction, she has to feel goodoutside and inside.This is what we call: Total Cow Comfort. 5A system available to the innovative
  6. 6. Fast & Efficient Customer Intimacy Agriprom is located in the following countries: Agriprom uses a tailor-made approach for maintaining customers relations. This means our expertise and innovative products will be applied to meet your needs. For every - The Netherlands interaction Agriprom will use a customer interactive method; - France we find the best solutions with the customer. - Romania - Turkey We have a wide network of expert companies allowing us each - Tanzania time to select the best products for the given situation fast, - Algeria efficient and effective. - China We have distributors in almost all of the European The best solutions – countries and offer ready-made solutions, easily adaptable concepts and a large stock of products assuring immediate response to your questions and Global partnerships
 needs. Our branch in China is logistically well located in We specialize in barn equipment, mats, mattresses and rubber one of the main harbor cities in the world; Shanghai. flooring. For other productslike for instance ventilation, calf Shanghai is to be considered one of the major trade ports hutches and manure evacuation systems we cooperate with in the country. the best companies in the world. We can manufacture and source our products in Germany as well as in Romania, the USA and China, maintaining quality but lowering transport costs and Our Staff lead time. We bring our know how to the market and work with the best partners world wide. Agriprom is an international company with a team of enthusiastic and professional people. In every country Agriprom operates in, it employs local expertise with international experience in order to provide you with a better understanding of the domestic market. We guarantee the best interest in our clients needs; be it the smallest family farm or the biggest dairy business.6
  7. 7. Why Cow Comfort?For years breeding organizations focused theirresearch on improvement of the genetic level ofprotein and milk while animal nutrition companiesfocused on optimizing nutrition. Dairy producerswere taught to consider these aspects and therefocus was on reaching the highest production goals.While proper nutrition and genetics are veryimportant, they are only two of the numerousfactors necessary for productive animal husbandry.In the past attention was given primarily to nutritionand breeding. The other aspects; environment &safety were not to be considered important factorsin productive animal husbandry.The first Agriprom cow mattress was introduced in1994 along with the introduction of the terminologycow-comfort. Over the years Agriprom hasdemonstrated that cow-comfort holds close relationwith increased return on investment and thusresults in economic value.Recently, researchers and other producers havepaid more attention to creating a comfortableenvironment for dairy cows and their calves.This is reflected in Agriprom’s current productportfolio. Which aims at providing a morecomfortable and healthy environment.Observation and experience show that cows housedin a comfortable environment produce more milkand generally live healthier, longer lives. Cows havetheir own ways of making clear what they want andwhere their preference lies, when it comes to theircomfort. 7
  8. 8. Water Light How can we improve Nutrition Safety Air your Total Cow Comfort Hygiene Space Design and Construction Design and Construction Safety Ventilation and Light Heat stress reduction Clean, dry, comfortable resting Air exchange is key to proper ventilation. For Heat stressed cows are characterized by area Due to the fact that cows are known to lie ventilation to take place, fresh air must enter spending hours standing and panting rather down for more than 12 hours a day. Stalls the housing and comfortably replace the than eating or lying down and ruminating, this must thus be designed and managed to contaminated air. Sufficient care must be can occur at 25 degrees Celsius and above. provide a comfortable place for cows to taken to ensure draft-free ventilation. Clean maneuver and lay down. Stall use will decline uncontaminated air will lower disease Accompanied factors are: when one of the stall elements is pressure. In cold barns (winter period) a - Foot problems inappropriate. properly designed and managed ventilation - Decreased production system provides uniform air exchange that - Poor reproductive performance Characteristics of inappropriate stall elements results in air conditions measured by are: cows standing in the cubicles and or temperature, relative humidity and gas levels. Heat stress can have significant economic remaining in the alleys. Research has shown The purpose is to create equally comfortable consequences, this is why is should not be that with the best cow mattresses, cows will conditions. taken lightly. Research has shown that rest well over twelve to fourteen hours a day. individual dairies annually loose thousands of A productive barn must require enough euros due to summertime heat stress and its 1. Well-designed freestanding cubicles, volume and light to achieve the healthiest consequences. providing depth and width for a moving cow. conditions. Research shows that dairy cows 2. Cow mattress systems that remain flat and perform best in daylight periods of 16-18 Researchers estimate that one cow equals to a comfortable over time. hours, dry cows about 8 hours. The choice of 40-100 euro net farm income increase per 3. Rubber flooring, be it for closed floors or the right lamps can also assure energy savings. year. This is solely based on decreased loss of slats, allowing natural behavior. milk production. With the following 4. Drying and hygienic powder for cubicles to Means to achieve the right conditions are: approaches this can be achieved: lower infection pressure. 1. Flexible side curtains. 1. Mechanical air displacement ventilators 5. Use only the best quality sawdust (dry, fine 2. Well-designed ventilating top in the 2. High pressure system - misting technique to and no wood particles). barn
roof. lower the temperature 3. Sufficient three-dimensional volume 3. Climate control - computer systems for
each cow. 4. Feed improvement supplements improve 4. Day light lamps. feed
intake, digestion and health8
  9. 9. Water Light How can we improve Nutrition Safety Air your Total Cow Comfort Hygiene Space Safety Management & Control Management & Control Secure injury-free flooring Easy access: feed & clean water Quality feed harvesting & storingFlooring surfaces should not hinder cows to In order for a cow to be productive she must Harvesting corn silage, alfalfa or grasswalk, stand or mount other cows naturally. eat lots of dry matter and consume plenty of both silage or hey are of great importance water. For this reason access to both feed and since two thirds of the milk productionThe disadvantages of concrete flooring are water must be unobstructed and of supreme stems from roughage. This is only possiblethat hoofs need more maintenance and quality.deteriorate more easily due to hard and if the quality is supreme, indicating:abrasive or slippery surfaces. Rubber flooring Cows are herd animals, for that reason efficient harvesting and qualityto the contrary alleviates these disadvantages comfortable housing must provide enough preservation by storage. Biological silageand can be of added value to your stalls. They space for the whole herd to collectively do the enhancer use has proven to be bothare available to cover concrete and slated same thing. Therefore, sufficient unobstructed productive and effective. It results infloors. Cows have indicated that when given space is necessary for eating and drinking in decreased feed loss and quality, whilethe choice, their preference goes to rubber order to prevent the cow from increased stress improving palatability and digestibility.flooring. and discomfort. Space, safety and access are as important as comfortable resting areas. 1. Feed balanced portions and add supplements when needed 1. Several, long and shallow troughs, with1. Rubber mats on the walking, waiting and plenty of fresh and clean water 2. Lactation phase feeding to meet the feeding areas 2. Temperature regulation, maintain water energy needs temperature at easy drinkable level in winter 3. Wide access and enough space at the feeding area 4. Good quality palatable feed. Biological silage agents improves digestion and production 9
  10. 10. Water Light How can we improve Nutrition Safety Air your Total Cow Comfort Hygiene Space Management & Control Management & Control Management & Control Control Management is a crucial element on a farm, whether it be a manager or the experienced farmer. They must observe the cow’s behavior in order to detect discomfort in an early stage. Signs of discomfort: - Decreasing feed intake - Increased levels of mastitis - High cell count - Increased levels of feet and leg problems - Decreasing production - Decreasing rumination - Decreasing rest time Hygiene & Health Calf rearing - Calving and fertility problems These two aspects are equally essential to Cow comfort starts with the newborns. In This is why a good management program is of obtain a high quality end product and assure order to assure the early passive and active the essence to assist the manager of a large long-term cow productivity. immunity the following needs to be taken care farm. On the farm quality checks like; testing of: somatic cell count and antibiotics in the milk, To prevent contamination hygiene should be testing feed quality, testing calf manure for maintained in the milking parlor, stalls, 1. Hygienic environment bacteria and viruses, testing cow comfort, cubicles and walking areas. This is why the 2. Fresh air testing hygiene levels, can be done. Frequent following thorough production practices can 3. Efficiently and sufficiently administering quality checks and hygienic working approach prevent contamination. supreme quality colostrum will result in top quality milk from healthy 4. House calves in calf hutches, avoid cows. 1. Post dipping - single most effective contact
in the first weeks of their lives technique to lower mastitis 5. Test for disease causing bacteria Agriprom can assist you in this important 2. Cleaning and drying the udder before and
viruses process by providing you with the following milking 6. Use probiotics rather than treatment products: 3. Cleaning and maintenance of the milking with
antibiotics (Digestar) parlor 1. Cow identification and separation 4. Hoof treatment through regular trimming It is now widely accepted that pneumonia, system and foot baths infectious diarrhea and subsequent treatment 2. Heat detection system with camera’s 5. Keep cubicles and floors dry, eliminate flies, with antibiotics can seriously impair the calf’s and
data storage rats and mice growth and production potential as mature 3. In line or separate cow side SCC animal. testing 
equipment and other required data 4. On farm testing of antibiotics in the milk 5. Rapid testing bacteriological and viral infections at calves. Johan Staal Chief Executive Officer, Agriprom The Netherlands10
  11. 11. The Cow ComfortChecklist24 points to check if your cow is healthy 11
  12. 12. Agriculture resource management & development Agricultural Resource Management is Agriprom’s agricultural project management department employing a diverse team of highly trained and experienced specialists to provide an integrated project approach in planning, design, implementation, and management. In many cases projects fail because they lack the process of integration between designers and strategists and those who need to implement the project on the ground. Through our vast network Agriprom has access to the latest technologies and information concerning livestock production. Introduction Agriprom offers expertise in: - International arable and dairy production - Resource Management - Project Management and Development At the head of ARMAD is Chief Executive Officer Dr. IonutBabu a veterinarian by education and shareholder of Agriprom International his commitment to sustainable development of Romanian Agriculture has placed the company at the fore- front of Romanians agricultural industry. Agriprom International Agriprom International is a joint venture of Romanian and Dutch capital. Agriprom started the activity in Romania in 2005 and since then the company has a leading position in the market. Agriprom is active in Holland for more than 20 years. The company has offices in France, Turkey and Tanzania. The group exports its products globally to the following countries, such as: Denmark, England, Belarus, Japan and New Zeeland. 
 Agriprom is not just supplying equipment but also hands-on advice on how to develop the business and build the production facilities. In the last 6 years of activity Agriprom has specialized in the following: - Build up of new dairy and sheep/ goat farms - Modernization of old eastern European style farms - Building of dairy farms from 20 cows up to 1000 cows - Building of sheep and goat farms (milk and meat) from 300 up to 2000 animals - Selection and Import of livestock 
(cattle and sheep) from EU countries - Manure management - Biogas installations Due to our position Agriprom has an excellent relation with the following associations: - Romanian Cattle Breeding Association - Romanian Arable land producers - Romanian sheep producers We have excellent knowledge regarding the agriculture market in Romania and near regions. Information is coming directly from the field, which in the agricultural business is most important. All our people are all highly qualified; Veterinary University graduates. We keep good contact with fellow veterinarian colleagues from the Veterinary State Institution, Ministry of Agriculture and universities. Our value is our Agricultural background. Also through our success and connection in hands on Agriculture we have excellent ties with companies from across Europe in both supply of equipment as well as supply of livestock. Dr. Eng. IonutBabu Agriprom International Romania Bucharest12
  13. 13. Our locations Agriprom Turkey The Turkish Joint venture was agreed in 2007 and created in January 2008. The office is conveniently located in Kemalpasha (Izmir), next to the demonstration farm with 250 cows. The Turkish dairy market is developing well and Agriprom Turkey has rapidly become the market leader in cow mattresses and a professional partner for farm development. The Agriflex system performs very well under the Turkish climate. It saves straw bedding and is very animal friendly. Agriprom East-Africa 
 In 2009, we also created Agriprom East Africa as a joint venture with Dutch and Tanzanian capital. Agriprom East Africa is located in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The company offers an excellent starting point for arable investments and projects in Tanzania. We have recognized through our partner in Tanzania some great projects in the most fertile areas of the country. Join our program for Tanzania! Agriprom Algeria In 2011, we have created a new joint venture for the Agriprom group: Agriprom Algeria. Together with our partner a well-established family operation in agriculture we will further invest in dairy farming and arable farming. Agriprom China This is the latest addition to the Agriprom group. It is established in the beginning of 2012. The primary focus of this branch is the Chinese dairy market, with secondary interest in the Chinese Agriculture industry. Agriprom China will serve as a hub for the entire Agriprom group in Asia. Addition Agriprom expertise - Identify land and areas to develop farms
 - Identify breeding stock in Romania and organize purchase and export of these - Purchase of High Value genetic products from different EU countries
 - Plan, design and construction of farms on location in different countries
 - Identify, organize and employ qualified people
 - Advice on documentation for exports of produce 13
  14. 14. Sand as surface material What you need to know about sand in free-stalls and other systems Lack of published data on sand as surface material. Value of Sand Sand has been a long established system, with few According to Jack Rodenburg, users of sand as bedding find that one benefit of supporters. Researchers haven’t discussed the use of sand working with sand is a lower incidence of clinical mastitis caused by to much extend, they have mainly limited their findings to; environmental organisms like E. Coli and environmental streptococci. The “sand is ideal for cows”. The factors related to this lower incidence of clinical mastitis lies in the fact that no organic bedding is statement such as; labor, animal health and other used and thus opportunity for bacteria to manifest. economic parameters have been left out of the published findings. Some users also claim to experience, when switching to sand, that the somatic cell count (SCC) decreases. This in contrary to a survey conducted in One thing that has been proven in practice is that once a Wisconsin, where there was no difference in average SCC between herds system is chosen, the user will defend his choice from his using sand and herd using mattresses. perspective leaving no room for objective data to flow. This outcome probably reflects the fact that coli from infections are Loose Housing frequently clinical and thus result in milk being withheld from bulk tanks. For this reason “herd bulk milk” SCC’s may not be the most suited measurement This is a new development in the livestock industry. It is for the impact of san on environmental mastitis. Sand probably plays a partial promoted as animal friendly but still lacks the following role in the solution to environmental mastitis. Sand cannot be the labels; “Environmentally Friendly” and/or “Economically overshadowing reason for contributing factors like: poor milking practices, Interesting”. ventilation and barn hygiene. Pro and contra for use of sand Clear advantages of sand bedding lay in the reduction of the following problems: Sources Article from Jack Rodenburg associated with OMAFRA Less cows with swollen hocks (Ministry of Agriculture and Food in Ontario) Less cows with hair off hocks Comparative study amongst users of sand, sawdust and Less cows with knee injuries mattresses, in the Netherlands from 2008 conducted by An Ontario field survey showed 9% of the cows on mattresses showed swollen Agriprom The Netherlands hocks and many more were showing hair off, this in comparison to 0% on sand bedding. Introduction Users of sand bedding also reported better footing and fewer slipping Nowadays sand as bedding material is still a viable option problems amongst their cowherd. These positive occurrences lead to fewer when building new dairy cow housing. However there has injuries and stronger heat signs. Regardless of the lack of published data, field been a lot of controversy about the use of sand as cow experience has shown that less trimming is needed with sand bedding. bedding material. When comparing sand with mattresses one should keep in mind that the comparison must be A published study compared three inches of sand, over clay, with a mattress; based on the latest information about the mattress the cows preferred the mattress. systems and not with information on mattress systems from fifteen years ago (rubber granules filling).14
  15. 15. Value of cow comfortDLG (Deutsche Landwirtschaftsgesellschaft) conducts Value of Mattressesresearch in order to certify mattresses and they concludedthat cows lie 12-14 hours in free stalls covered with Over the years the quality of cow mattresses has improved, of course this isAgripromEnergetix Latex mattresses. Sand does not producer-dependent.necessarily make cows lay down longer. Deterioration has indicated that old top layers of mattresses became rough,Research conducted at the University of Nebraska show uneven, and abrasive also the used rubber granules collapsed and becamethat cows that rest 14-hours a day, give the most milk. very hard. Another deteriorating aspect is that the impression and elasticity ofThey don’t waste time in the alleys. They entrust their those mattresses reduced to an uncomfortable level.lower legs and blood flow to the udder is better thusresulting in more time for rumination. Internet-based DLG test reports give an overview of the mattresses that are subject to these risks. The DLG report on Agriprom showed that the EnergeticA farmer with a crowded stable and little capacity in the Latex rubber sheets under a flexible rubber top-cover give a much better andmilking parlor will sell himself short; cows will have to walk longer lasting comfort.longer distances and wait for longer periods in standingposition. All these aspects will lead to less ruminating time In comparison to these old mattresses, modern mattresses have a strongerand thus less milk production. and more flexible rubber top-cover and a latex comfort sheet underneath. DLG research concludes that these materials show little wear and the bottomIn this Nebraskan study, cows that were normally laying latex sheet retains its shape and elasticity over the years.down 9 hours a day, where given 12 hours of rest; thisresulted in a milk production increase of 4Kg per cow per Experience shows that the use of sawdust in addition to the mattresses can beday. minimal and some even do without. Of course there are different qualities of sawdust thus resulting in different results. A thin layer of “bad” sawdust (not dry, wood particles, splinters, contaminated) can result in abrasiveness on any type of surface, which in turn can cause skin irritations. This proves that cheap is not always the best solution. It is recommended to have lower quantity of a better quality than the other way around. For this reason good quality mattresses should only be used with lower quantity of high quality saw dust in order to generate premium results. In retrospect it isn’t a necessity from comfort point of view, to have sawdust as an addition to the mattress. The purpose of the sawdust is to merely absorb, which can also be improved by using barn hygiene product such as: Staldren Brize Mixture of one of the above with saw dust 15
  16. 16. Stall design and management in a sand bedding setting require more detailed attention. Sand-box system are not recommended for basement-typed barns, this because the sand sinks to the bottom, making it difficult to remove and Overview Box-surface construction: clean. This type will be lower in combination with sand, The free-stall should have a curb of 15-20cm with a rounded top edge and a since there is no need for a mattress and less use 45-degree slope to the inside of the stall, to ensure there is always sand of concrete. between the rising cow and the curb. For this reason the bottom of the box The cost of sand in comparison with saw dust or should always be 15-20cm below the curb to ensure a 15cm sand minimum in straw will also be lower the stall. Most users refill as soon as the sand level is below 2.5-5cm. Higher logistics costs for sand Higher labor costs for handling the sand Stalls should be of standard length (according to Dutch concepts) from 115cm. Mechanization costs Most of the time there is no use of brisket boards and the neck-rail is adjusted Extensive investment needed for processing at 122cm above the concrete curb. This results in a relatively low positioning manure in combination with sand of the neck-rail when the sand is added. Extensive investment in the separation and storage of manure and sand The lack of brisket board in this system lays in the fact that configurations Increased and quicker concrete, machine and change continuously in this system, which makes it difficult and practically equipment deterioration impossible to implement the use of a brisket board. Overview cow mattress: Cows typically kick 20-25kg of sand per day out of each stall in a above-curb- level of the sand and 10-15kg of sand per day when below-curb-level. Relatively lower investment for purchasing of mattresses It is custom practice to fill the stalls with a skid steer, dumping one full bucket Faster ROI (Return on investment) of sand per stall. In order to facilitate this, the alleys need to be wide enough Safe on saw dust for the machine to turn. Mid-size machines require at least 3m to turn. Safe on labor costs and time Machines need to be equipped with a relatively long bucket in order to cover the front half of the stall in order to avoid any additional labor interference. Agriprom conducted its own research that resulted in the Sand is added every 3-4 weeks and at first instance at least 15-18cm above following; bedding material costs in sand box systems in the curb. This because right after the refill cows kick the most sand out of the comparison to cow mattresses are quit similar (keeping in stalls. If the sand level is below the advised height it will get increasingly mind that for the use of sand and spreading, one needs to difficult to clean the stalls thus the refill and upkeep should be frequent. have specialized machinery). Even though the refills should occur every 3-4 weeks, the cleaning and upkeep Deep litter boxes have the highest bedding costs; up to should occur on a daily basis in order to maintain the comfort level. A four factors higher than sand and cow mattresses. common practice is to do the leveling of the surface with a small raker attached to the side of the skid steer bucket. Because it is highly labor intensive to refill sand and keep it leveled, some farmers invest in mechanization of the process.16
  17. 17. Most farmers with sand barns replace their scraper cables annually. In most cases their bad experience with chains outweighs the cost of annual replacement. The chains cause more damage to the floor and don’t outlast the cables in these situations. Rinsing of the floors requires a slope of 2-2.5% in order to keep the heavy sand moving in the rinsing liquid. One needs to realize that a 2%Mechanization doesn’t come cheap though; it can easily slope in a stable of 100m translates into 2m decay. Waiting areas willmean a 20.000-euro investment. This isn’t the only factor need to be equipped with a drain in order to discharge the water load.that should be taken into consideration; it also means that These drains or trenches will need to be cleaned manually to removethe floors and slated gutters of the stable should be able tocarry the 14-20 ton load of the machine. The up side of this any access sand that settles inside.investment lies in the fact that refill frequency can behigher thus resulting in more efficient use of the sand. Tractors will be able to dump the manure and sand in the designated storage facility. However alley scrapers (and in some cases tractors)Some users use different low-cost aids in order to save on will transport the manure to a discharge channel in the middle or endsand use, they put 2 half and 4 whole tires in the box in of the barn. This channels will gradually reach capacity unless it isorder to fill it up. These tires should however be attached equipped with drainage system or another means of discharge; athoroughly with bolts in order to prevent the cows from chain system. Once again deterioration should be taken into account.kicking them out. A build in ramp in the channel can help of course, but to save costs,A prerequisite of sand used in these stalls is that it should most users locate their storage facilities near the barns and ramp-upbe clean and free of soil-particles. There should not be anysharp particles that can come between the hooves of the the storage and design the discharge channel to be wide enough toanimals, thus resulting in injuries. drive into it from the storage facility. There is a diverse range of suitable machinery for this concept, however sand and gravelFine sand particles can get attached to the udders of the specialized machinery is recommended. These machines arecows, which can easily be removed by using cow-wipes programmed not to touch the sides of the discharge channel andbefore milking. The use of sand also means that it finds its operate on low capacity, which result in lower deterioration.way into anything does contributing to a fasterdeterioration of the equipment and machinery. Another option would be transport involving gravity flow pipes, however this options is of high-maintenance; the pipes get cloggedManure Handling and thus need to be equipped with special pumps in order to functionManure handling and separation is the biggest challenge without interference. Specially designed ramp pumps have been usedon farms that use sand bedding systems. The simplest successfully in combination with daily rinsing.solution is a tractor-scraper. There is some moredeterioration to the floor surface, but using a rubber When designing the manure storage, one needs to keep in mind thatscraper can easily prevent this. the separated sand needs to be extracted as well. Extraction by means of a crane is an option, taking careful consideration of the height,Mechanical alley scrapers will wear a track in the center of depth and width. An alternative would be to make the storagethe floor where the cables or chains run. When laying the accessible to a loader tractor and manure spreader. Accessibilityfloor, a thicker layer of concrete in this area will preventthe pre-mature resurfacing of the cables of chains; still one means a concrete floor and a ramp of not more than 10-15%. This ismust be prepared to fill the center groove every 5-6 years. however a very costly alternative. Manure silage will require the reinforcement parameters to have a much stronger footing. When handling sand-manure mixture, one needs to be aware that excess water and stirring can cause the sand to separate form the manure. So when handling it for pumping liquid purposes, one should not use excess water and stir too much. Sand-manure-mixture reacts differently from manure-only-mixture. Most users pump with minimal stirring and than scoop out what is left with an excavator suitable for semi-solid material. 17
  18. 18. Composted horse manure The use of horse manure is still very small-scale. The most common reasons for switching to this manure are cost-reduction and the fact that it lies more steadily in the box. Systems to separate manure from sand are still The use of composted horse manure depends on the thickness of the experimental and expensive. Bigger companies and farms litter layer and any additional litter. When loosely applying the consider investing in the McLanahan separator, which manure the usage is between 2-3.5m³ per stall per year. The quality of works very well but is still too expensive for the average horse manure is very imported and should not be contaminated. farmer. When used in the stalls, it should solely consist of the bedding Sand spread over the land not considered detrimental. The material (sawdust, straw, hay or a similar product) and manure balls amount of sand added to field’s trough manure application of healthy horses. Also in this type of bedding, there should not be any will not be enough to change the soil type. sharp or abrasive parts. The applied composted horse manure should not be too moist but also not too dry, the right ratio should be used. Internal research conducted by Agriprom in the Too wet will cause faster heating and too dry manure will easily be Netherlands amongst users of sand in cubicles lead to kicked out of the box by the cows. similar conclusions: The composted horse manure should at least have been composted There are no differences in cell count for 2-3 weeks in order for all the bacteria to be killed. The stall refilling Sand use is labor intensive Sand use requires heavy investment in both will need to occur on average once every 1-2 weeks with 1-1.5 m³ of processing as well as maintenance composted horse manure per ten stalls. This is a relatively labor intensive process. Here as well the process can be mechanized in order to save on labor, the weight of the light tractor and spreader Options for deep-litter boxes should be kept in mind when constructing the floors. Deep-litter boxes that are well bedded have the tendency Research has concluded that there is no significant difference in the to mold themselves to the shape of the cow. Most of the bacterial count between deep-litter boxes with composted horse time they create a soft and comfortable bed with sufficient manure and boxes filled with sawdust or straw. grip for the cow. This is to be reflected in the cows that show good haired heels, almost no bald spots and little or no thick heels and knees. Mixture of straw, lime, water and sawdust The disadvantage of deep-litter boxes lies in the higher The advantage of this bedding form is that it is a relatively soft labor intensity and quickly increasing bedding costs in surface, which is why cows don’t easily kick it out of the stalls. The comparison to cow mattress-use. mixture contains fewer organic material en thus it shall show a higher pH level due to the presence of lime. The high pH has an inhibitory Deep-litter boxes generally are filled with sawdust or effect. woodchips. In the recent years more diversity in materials have surfaced. The most important driving factor for this Important reasons for the switch to this bedding material are the occurrence is of course cost saving. relative cost-savings in comparison to sawdust in deep-litter boxes. A deep-litter box must provide a comfortably soft and dry The mixture has a labor peak of once every 8-10 weeks when it is due resting area for the cow in addition it should offer for refill. In between refill periods, the labor is minimal. The mixture is sufficient grip in the laying-and-standing-process of the also beneficial to the claw health, because the claws remain dry cow. The recommended use is 15-20cm thick bedding for because of the lime. The number of bald and/or thick heels and knees optimal comfort. would be less as well. The disadvantages of this bedding system lies in the increased dust amount in the barn, this increases due to the presence of calcium. If there is no top layer of sawdust applied, the udder and teats will often be covered with a thin layer of lime. At milking time these need to be cleaned with the wipes as well. During summer periods this mixture can dry up fast and become very18 dense which in turn can undermine the advantages of the mixture. In order to use this system, the farm needs to be well mechanized. A
  19. 19. Loose Housing CompostThis concept is relatively new in the Netherlands. A common definition of compost is: “an organic soil conditioner that isImportant in cow housing are the following aspects; space, stabilized to a humus-like product, free of pathogens and plant seeds,free movement, rest, herd behavior and nutrition. Theloose housing seems to be a continuation or extension of not attracting insects and vermin, free of odor which can be storedthe deep-litter and slope housing. and will stimulate plant growth”.Farmers have strong interest in a barn with a lot of comfort Regulatory: BOOM/BDGMfor his animals provided it could be built and managedefficiently and economically. This combination delivers a Up to half of the compostable material can consist of manure and togood return in terms of production, low veterinary costs be recognized finally as compost, this in order for it to be utilizedand longevity. under the regulation “decision quality and use organic fertilizers”(BOOM) is allowed. In addition demands are made withImportant environmental demands are: respect to the heavy metal content. If the compost doesn’t fall under Low emission “BOOM” than the application must be in accordance with “decision Well integrated into the landscape use animal manure”(BDGM). Possibility for cows to graze Reduction of pollution In order to produce good compost bacteria, other contaminations Where possible the barn should be able to must be eliminated. To reach this level of hygiene, the process must produce energy instead of consume (biogas, take place at a temperature of 70C° for 60 minutes or an equivalent solar panels) treatment (see EG regulation 1774/2000). When composting chicken manure, this temperature can be achieved, but composting of theLoose housing fulfills one of the criteria, more freedom for solid fraction of pig or cattle manure is difficult to achieve.the cow to graze. The space in loose housing doubles to15-20m² per cow in comparison to current stalls. Thebuilding however will also be bigger which will make it Advantages and Disadvantagesmore difficult to integrate in the surroundings andprevention of emissions will nearly be impossible. Good compost is a stable soil conditioner, but when compost is insufficiently matured, degradation of organic matter and emissionsEssence of Good Composting continue and pathogens and weed seeds possibly survive.Composting a biological process in which in the presence Emissionsof oxygen, organic material is converted into stable humus-like compounds. The process will produce heat, water, CO² When composting, significant undesirable emissions may occur suchand a number of (odor) compounds (ammonia). As a result as; greenhouse gasses (N²O and CH4) and odor. Nitrogen emissionsof evaporation of water and the decomposition of organic may occur in the form of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N²O) andmatter, the dry matter content increases and the volume (harmless) nitrogen gas (N2). Estimates for extensive composting, ondecreases. The microorganisms use for their own growth aportion of the released minerals. During this process high farm scale, mention as nitrogen losses 15-50%, of which a portion willtemperatures may occur, which under the right conditions emit in the form of NH3 and N²O. Although proper process monitoringwill kill any bacterial contaminations. For a smooth process and control can avoid most emissions, this is still in extensivethat results in stable compost, both the properties of the composting processes usually not possible. Intensive composting inmaterials of interest (porous structure, a suitable an enclosed area can be emission-free by means of (chemical) aircarbon/nitrogen ratio and proper humidity) and a good cleaning and good process management and control. The nitrogenaeration during the process are of vital importance. containing water from the cleaning process can be added back into the compost. Controlling Difficulties in Stables Under Dutch conditions, characterized by high humidity and low solar heat, the compost will not dry well and will not achieve the required temperature for sanitation. The compost will be muddy and aeration will be difficult. This process is hygienically inadequate and emissions can be substantial. Good compost management is essential but even then it does not seem to meet the new requirements in respect to emissions, because of the uncontrollability of the process. 19
  20. 20. Conclusion Sand, compost and deep litter all provide cow comfort, but no real benefits to health, hoof and leg problems, mastitis and somatic cell count in comparison to modern cow mattresses. In respect to resting time in the stalls, no difference can be demonstrated. These systems however require significantly more attention and labor. Some of the costs are still difficult to estimate, but keeping in mind that bedding materials like straw and sawdust are becoming much more expensive. The loose housing with compost bedding, even though animal friendly, does not seem to meet the environmental requirements due to the instability of the composting process under Dutch circumstances. The comfort of the Agriflex® cow mattresses with Energetic®Latex has been extensively proven over the past ten years. The required daily resting periods of 12-14 hours have been proven in practice. There are no direct rivalry methods Costs bedding material per cow per year when it comes to user friendliness; this has been concluded € 90.00 from independent research. € 80.00 € 70.00 In comparison to sand; composed horse manure, mixture of € 60.00 straw, lime, water and sawdust, bedding material on Agriflex® is € 50.00 not necessary. € 83.00 € 40.00 The Agriflex reduces labor significantly, because insertion of € 30.00 bedding in the stall, leveling out and evacuation of used and or € 20.00 € 30.00 packed material is eliminated. In addition to labor savings, the € 10.00 € 21.00 20.00 € € 5.00€ 9.00 12.00 € investment in equipment, measures for manure storage and €- composting or sand separation are lower if not required. Farm Farm Farm Farm Farm Farm Farm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 If you are looking for a uncompromised, environmentally friendly and labor-saving solution with low maintenance costs and a short pay-back period, Agriflex® is the solution. Installation can also be provided. Consumption and costs compared with box covering Farm Surface type Bedding Refill/ bedding Cleaning per Consumption per Costs per Tank somatic material per week day box (kg)/year cow cell count 1 Concrete w/ rubber Sawdust <1 2x 104 € 21 293 mat 2 Blisters Sawdust <1 2x 246 €20 254 3 Concrete w/ Chopped straw 0.5 2x 60 €5 156 mattresses 4 Concrete, deep Sand <1 2x 1339 €9 161 cubicle 5 Concrete, deep Lime 0.5 2x 1154 €12 160 cubicle 6 Concrete, deep Sawdust 1 2x 813 €83 206 cubicle 7 Concrete, deep Digestate 1 4x 889 €30 120 cubicle20
  21. 21. What to watch whenchoosing a cow mattressA cow mattress must be big enough for a cow to lay in afree stall barn as well as she would outside in a meadow. Why rubber/latexLaying down and standing up should be as comfortably,without stress and strain on the feet and legs and jointswhich cause inflammations. The cow must have enough filling is better, evenspace so she can rise in one comfortable movementwithout obstacles and or sliding. though it is thinner?These criteria can be obtained with a mattress softness of The rubber Agriprom uses is more elastic and has a higherapproximately 20 mm, according to the DLG (Deutsche tear resistance than recycled rubber. The latex filling isLandwirtschaftsGesellschaft). Softer will not automatically softer and more elastic than thicker mats using recycledgenerate better results. car tire granulate. The Latex filling is heavier (> 250 kg m3) and stronger and therefore on the long run moreFor health reasons, extreme softness is not a comfortable than mattresses with a polyether or mixednecessary prerequisite. Quality of the surface filling. The latter usually use ‘foam rubber / polyether of less than 200 kg m3.and weight division are to be considered moredominating factors. Latex also has a better ‘memory’ than polyether and will return in its original form better than other materials, therefore the surface will not show dents or hollows, is easier to clean and will not conserve moisture in these areas. With polyether filling cows will at times tent to push down further (higher imprint DLG) but experience less comfort. In the long run, the recovery of this type of filling is not as good and shows a higher permanent deforming.Graph 1: Imprint nnDeforming(mm) x% = Injury per 100 examined joints 30 20 10 5% 8.9% 10.5% 24.2% 21.3% 16% 0 Agriprom Huber Kraiburg Kraiburg Zimso Agricow Technik KKM KSL Koematras 21
  22. 22. How thick must a cow mattress be? The filling must be thick enough to assure long-term comfort, softness and imprint of approximately 20 mm. The thicker and softer the mattress is the larger the chance of permanent deforming. Thicker is not a measure for comfort this is shown by the DLG research. Softer has proven more permanent deforming in time. 100% rubber mats on the other hand do not supply the same comfort as rubber/latex mattresses do, this has been shown by the percentage of complaints regarding feet and legs. Graph 3 supplies information from DLG research done at farm level with the users of the different mats and mattresses. Also in this graph Agriprom is the lead scorer. (Table 1) Individual mats or rolls Individual mats must be heavier than rolls in order to be stable. Normally they are also much thicker, which is not necessary for the comfort of the animals, but does increase the permanent deforming factor. However individual mats have the tendency to stretch and must often be installed a few centimeters apart. This makes it almost inevitable for manure and sawdust to buildup in the openings between the mats. Table 1 What is ‘permanent in mm Manufacturer Thickness Imprint in mm Permanent deforming after prolonged use in mm in % DLG-report deforming’? Huber Technik N20 AgripromKoematras 20 43 10,6 20,2 0 0 0 0 5438F 5401 DeLaval M 35 R 35 21,8 4 11 5443F Especially mattresses with granulate filling rapidly loose AgricowKoematrasSchuim 43 24,4 7 16 5885F Kraiburg KEW form. The mattress will show dents, hollows their original Plus 62 42,9 10 16 5410F BioretLouisiane Nr1This will negatively influence comfort and or stretches. 43 22,4 20 23 5091 and make them difficult to clean. This is also been40 Spinder Meadows shown 38,2 10 25 5068 to occur with softer mattresses. Mattresses with a latex AgricowKoematras Rubber-granulaat 72 40,9 20 28 5884F filling do not show any change of form (Agriprom 0% DLG Agrotel-Koematras 82 30,2 30 36 4892 research table 1 and graph 4). Pasture Weidemat 44 20,8 23 47 5085 Zimflex The Latex filling has enough resistance and comfort 61 35,6 29 48 5086 Brouwersnoppenmatrasright mass-elasticity ratio.40 because it offers the These 14,6 20 50 4890 Pasture Euromatras are unequalled by any mattress filling. properties of Latex 44 29,4 24 53 5083 Genetics Erri Comfort the heaviest test in the research and The deforming test is 135 43,2 95 70 489122 the Agriprom mattress is the only mattress combining optimal comfort (20 mm, graph 1) with 0% deforming after prolonged testing. Graph 3 shows gives an overview of the percentage of remarks made regarding status of
  23. 23. What about thedurability of the mats?Cow mattresses with a rubber top cover and latex fillinghave an impressively long durability (warranties up to 10years). When it comes to mattresses consisting of a topcover and filling material, quality of both componentsdetermine the durability. Table 2 shows the differences ina DLG deterioration test of the top cover of themattresses. Agriprom scores best of all researchedmattresses. Thinner top covers must be relativelystronger. The Agriprom top cover has polyester nettinginside. Agriprom offers several rubber top covers andscores as the best in the DLG research with the least Labor savingsdeterioration of all matrasses. On this point Agriprom canonce again deliver a warranty for very high durability. It needs no real convincing that with switching to cowThere is an important difference in the quality of the matrasses significant savings on labor can be realized.filling material as well. This difference can be determined Cleaning and bedding the cubicles demands much lessby the permanent deforming (table 1). time in comparison with traditional sawdust beds. The need for sawdust (expenses) has dropped significantly since there is lesser amount needed for the bedding. CowIs bedding necessary? comfort also translates into your personal comfort due to the following; savings on personnel equals lower laborIn all instances of binding moisture, bedding is necessary; wages which in turn leaves more time to be spend onthis in order to keep the laying area dry. However, on a other important tasks on the farm.comfortable cow matrass the use of bedding is only afraction in comparison to traditional sawdust beds.Agriprom cow matrasses are known to have the following Graph 2 Imprintthree effects: Chance of infection is slimmer, flies haveless possibilities to develop and an overall lower infectionpressure. By switching to cow matrasses one can save on 50 40bedding alone around 75%. Experience shows that very 30soft and dry bedding assures the best result because 20 10larger and or hard particles in low quality bedding can act 0as the granules of sandpaper between the skin and thesurface of the mattress.Table 2 Manufacturer Thickness in mm Wear in mm Wear in % DLG-report AgripromKoematras 9 0.5 5 5401 Huber Technik N20 20 0.9 5 5438F Pasture Weidemat 4 0.5 13 5085 Pasture Euromatras 4 0.5 13 5083 DeLaval M 35 R 5 0.7 14 5443F Spinder Meadows 3 0.5 17 5068 AgrotelComfortex 3 0.8 26 5113F BioretLouisiane Nr2 3.2 1 31 5114F Genetics Erri Comfort 2 0.8 40 4891 Besouw/Pasture 1.1 0.5 45 5108F BioretLouisiane Nr1 3.2 2 63 5091 Zimflex 1.2 1 80 5086 Brouwersnoppenmatras 3.5 3 85 4890 23
  24. 24. Graph 3 Remarks about feed & legs 20 10 0 Thickness & permanent Graph 4 160 deforming 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Conclusion Important aspects when investing in a cow mattress are: - Comfort - Deforming - Durability Cows must have maximum comfort, without permanent mattress deforming; in time this can lead to less comfort, hygiene and cleaning problems. Important and independent research done by the DLG concludes that Agriprom mattresses score as the best on all three aspects.24
  25. 25. Brief descriptioncription Floor system for cow bedding with a black mat covering, Thickness 4mm; Top layer consists of a weaving profile with nylon netting inside the latex sheets are made of natural latex. The dimensions of the Latex under lay are 200 x 90 cm or 165 x122 cm, thickness approximately 35 mmHersteller und AnmelderAgripromStalmatten B.V. Postbus 44NL-7710 AA NieuwleusenTelefon: 0031 (0)529 4553-20Telefax: 0031 (0)529 4553-15E-mail: info@agriprom.nlDeutscheLandwirtschaftsGesellschafte.V.PrüfstellefürLandmaschinen 25
  26. 26. Test results Test feature Test results Assessment Suitability As elastic ground covering in lying ++/+/0/-/-- area, suitable for high cubicles in 0 = standard cubicle housing Technical criteria Wear resistance, durability and ageing Abrasion test Good wear resistance + Elasticity No permanent deforming ++ Top layer Slight wear resistance 0 Bottom layer Slight wear resistance 0 Acid test No changes to the covering + Dimensional accuracy No appreciable changes in length or + width Deformation No appreciable ++ Handling, installation Installation by farmer Costly in terms of time - Installation instructions Understandable and easy to carry out 0 Keeping clean and disinfecting Self cleaning capacity Good + Daily cleaning Does not present any difficulties + High pressure cleaning Minimum distance of 30 cm by use of + a turning jet nozzle Minimum distance of 15 cm by use of + flat jet nozzle Effective basic cleaning and disinfecting Top covering good possible + Disinfecting Underlayer very costly - Guarantee, recycling 7 years writing off Ground covering will be taken back + Animal-related criteria Observations of behavior No deviation from normal behavior ascertainable Preference test Ground covering The animals accept the ground ++ covering very positively Joints research 85% are no findings + Anti-slip properties During slide tests On dry and wet covering good + Safety underfoot for animals Good in practical farms + Deformation capacity and elasticity In new state 21.55mm, very good ++ After long-time testing 20.8 mm, very good ++ Toxicological unobjectionability Confirmed by the manufacturer 026
  27. 27. Agriflex Cow Mattresses Comfortable cows produce more milk.
 Solid cow mattress system with elastic Energetic®ecolatex sheets. The flexible rubber top mat is durable and consists of 100% rubber with netting inside. Rubber has proven its strength and durability in cow barns. The AgriFlex cow mattress has a lot to offer:Advantages Energetic® Latex under layer - The mattress remains elastic and does not deform The cow mattress consists of a top mat and a flexible Energetic® - The mattress is very durable and reliable ecolatex under layer. The sheets of Energetic® ecolatex consists - Cows stand up easier, the mat is not slippery of natural rubber with a very high elasticity level. The memory of - Easy to clean, highly flexible top mat the ecolatex assures life long comfortable flexibility. No other - Almost no need to use sawdust material comes close to the flexibility and durability. Energetic® - Labor-saving latex is water repellent and has a anti-fungal and anti-bacterial effect.Top mat of rubber:The top mat is solid and consists of 100% rubber. Technical dataThickness of the top cover is 4 mm. The flexible top layer is Top mat:reinforced by a weaving, which prevents tearing and Dimensions: Width 2000 mm. Thickness: 4 mmexpanding. The mat has a textured profile, which guarantees Length: Rolls to 50 meteroptimal grip. The top cover can be cleaned using a high Material: 100% rubberpressure cleaner (max 120 bar). Under layer: Dimensions: 1650 x 1180 mm (l x w) Thickness: 32 mm and 35 mm 2000 x 900 mm (l x w) Thickness: 32 mm and 35 mm Material: Energetic®Ecolatex 27
  28. 28. Mammouth Cow Mattresses Comfortable cows produce more milk.
 Solid cow mattress system with elastic Energetic®ecolatex sheets. The flexible rubber top mat is durable and consists of 100% rubber with netting inside. Rubber has proven its strength and durability in cow barns. The Mammouth cow mattress has a lot to offer: Advantages The cow mattress consists of a top mat and a flexible Energetic® - The mattress remains flexible and does not deform ecolatex under layer. The sheets of Energetic® ecolatex consist - The mattress is very durable and reliable of a large share of natural rubber with a very high elasticity level. - Cows stand up easier, the mat is not slippery The memory of the ecolatex assures life long comfortable - Easy to clean, highly flexible top mat flexibility. No other material comes close to the flexibility and - Almost no need to use sawdust durability. Energetic® latex is water repellent and has a anti- - Labor-saving fungal and anti-bacterial effect. Top mat of rubber: Technical data The top mat is solid and consists of 100% rubber. Top mat: Thickness of the top cover is 8 mm or 10 mm. The flexible top Dimensions: Width 1700/1800 mm. Thickness: 4 mm layer is reinforced by a weaving, which prevents tearing and Length: Rolls to 50 meter expanding. The mat has a textured profile, which guarantees Material: 100% rubber optimal grip. The top cover can be cleaned using a high pressure cleaner (max 120 bar). Under layer: Dimensions: 1550 x 1180 mm (l x w) Thickness: 32 mm and 35 mm Energetic® Latex under layer 2000 x 900 mm (l x w) Thickness: 32 mm and 35 mm Material: Energetic®Ecolatex28
  29. 29. Easy Roll Cow Mattresses Comfortable cows produce more milk.
 Solid cow mattress system with elastic Energetic®ecolatex sheets. The flexible rubber top mat is durable and consists of 100% rubber with netting inside. Rubber has proven its strength and durability in cow barns.The Easy Roll cow mattress has a lot to offer:Advantages The Easy Roll cow mattress has a Energetic® ecolatex under - The mattress remains flexible and does not deform layer. The total thickness of the mat is 22 mm. - The mattress is very durable and reliable - Cows stand up easier, the mat is not slippery Technical data - Easy to clean, highly flexible top mat Top mat: Hammer profile - Almost no need to use sawdust Under layer: Hollow in the bottom made for the - Labor-saving Energetic Latex under layer Dimensions: Width: 1850 mmTop mat of rubber: Thickness: Top layer: 11 mm Under layer: 11 mmThe top mat is solid and consists of 100% rubber. Length: Rolls of 30 meterThickness of the top cover is 11 mm. The flexible top layer is Material: 100% rubberreinforced by a weaving, which prevents tearing and expanding.The mat has a hamered profile, which guarantees optimal grip. Front side:The front side of the mat has a massive ridged border of 10cm. Dimensions: 1550 x 1180 mm (l x w)The back side of the mat has a massive ridged border of 20cm to Thickness: 32 mm and 35 mmprevent any moisture and dirt coming underneath. At the sametime the last 20 cm of the mat functions as a incline (3 cm) in 2000 x 900 mm (l x w)order for moisture to slide of the mat. Thickness: 32 mm and 35 mm Material: Energetic®EcolatexEnergetic® Latex underlayer 29
  30. 30. Puzzle Comfortmat Cow Mattresses Solid comfortable puzzlemat with elastic studs. The solid rubbermat is durable and consist of 100% rubber.
The rubbermats have proven themselves in the agriculture. Advantages Technical data - Anti-slip Surface: Morphic profile (jigsaw profile on all 4 sides) - Resists high point load Underside: 4 mm split circle. - Durable - Shock absorbing Material: Solid rubber - Warmth isolating - Comfortable; dry and warm Dimensions: - Easy on the joints Thickness: 18 mm - Easy to clean Width: 91cm - Saves bedding Length: 121 cm. Weight: 19.1 kg/m2 - 21 kg/each. Top mat of rubber: The top mat is solid and consist of 100% rubber. Thickness of the puzzle mat is 18 mm. Loose lay installation (Floor underneath with slope). Easy installation due to jigsaw profile.
 Application Flooring in the horse stable: loose boxes, stables walkways and washing areas.30