SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 124
Download to read offline
A Main Project Report On
PROACTIVE
Submitted in partial fulfillment for the
Requirement of the award of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
In
COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING
From
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
HYDERABAD
By
CH.SAI CHARAN 11E41A05B9
Under the guidance of
Mr.G.V.N.K.V SUBBARAO
Professor& H.O.D
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING
SREE DATTHA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & SCIENCE
(Accredited by NBA, New DelhiApproved by AICTE, New Delhi & Affiliated to JNTU, Hyderabad)
SHERIGUDA (V), IBRAHIMPATNAM (M), RANGAREDDY (DT). A.P. INDIA -501510
Ph: 08414- 320919
www.sreedattha.ac.in
2014-2015
SREE DATTHA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & SCIENCE
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
CERTIFICATE
This is to Certify that the Project report on “PROACTIVE” is a bonafide work done by CH.SAI
CHARAN (11E41A05B9), in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the award for the degree of
Bachelorof Technologyin“ComputerScience andEngineering” J.N.T.U., Hyderabad during 2011-2015.
INTERNALGUIDE HEAD OF THE DEPT
Mrs.HASITHA REDDY Prof.G.V.N.K.V SUBBARAO
EXTERNAL EXAMINER
DECLARATION
I hereby declare that the entitled “PROACTIVE “submitted for the B.Tech in Computer
Science and Engineering. This Dissertation is my original work and the main project has not
formed the basis for the award of any degree, associate ship, fellowship or any other similar titles
and no part of it has been published or sent for the publication at the time of submission.
CH.SAI CHARAN (11E41A05B9)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This report will certainly not be completed without due acknowledgements paid to all those who
have helped me in doing my Project Work.
I express my sincere thanks to our supervisor Mrs.HASITHA REDDY,
Senior Professor for giving moral support for me, kind attention and valuable guidance to me
throughout this Project Work.
It is my privilege to thank Mr. G.V.N.K.V SUBBARAO, Professor &
Head of the Department, C.S.E. for his encouragement during the progress of this Project
Work.
It is my privilege to thank Mr. MD SAMEERUDDIN KHAN,
DIRECTOR for his support during the progress of this Project Work.
I would like to express my gratitude to our
COLLEGEMANAGEMENT for providing required infrastructure during this Project Work.
I am thankful to both teaching and non-teaching staff members of
DEPARTMENT OF CSE for their kind cooperation and all sorts of help to bring out this work
successfully.
I also thank my parents and friends for being supportive all the time, and I am very
much obliged to them.
CH.SAI CHARAN (11E41A05B9)
ABSTRACT
An international manufacturer produces high-performance materials for the semiconductor
Industry. The company needed to balance a need for high throughput in its manufacturing
Processes with the imperative for quality control of the Solar module components. It sought a
turnkey manufacturing execution system to track and monitor the performance of its
manufacturing equipment that would also detect and intelligently respond to even small
variances in product quality.
The solution should be designed to analyze the data to detect trends or shifts in quality based on
Product and process parameters. The purpose of the quality assurance and validation processes is
to ensure that the next generation of National Qualifications is fit for purpose. The process will
check:
 the purpose, quality and rigour of the qualifications development process
 the alignment of the qualifications with the values, purposes and principles of Curriculum
for Excellence and agreed qualifications design principles
 that roles, responsibilities and remits are clear
 that effective engagement has taken place
 the feasibility and practicality of implementation
Positive and proactive engagement with stakeholders is a critical factor in ensuring the quality of
the new and revised qualifications and their acceptance, adoption and implementation. The
development process focuses on producing qualifications which are fit for purpose. The process
of developing qualifications has to be open and transparent, and have proactive quality assurance
built-in as an intrinsic part of the process.
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE NO TITLE PAGE NO
FIG: 6.1 USE CASE DIAGRAM 22
FIG: :6.2 CLASS DIAGRAM 26
FIG: 6.3 ACTIVITY DIAGRAM 28
FIG:6.4 SEQUENCE DIAGRAM 30
FIG: 6.5 COLLABORATION DIAGRAM 32
FIG: 6.6 COMPONENT DIAGRAM 34
FIG.6.7 OBJECT DIAGRAM 35
FIG.6.9 E-R DIAGRAM 36
FIG: 7.1 J2EE APPLICATION 16
LIST OF SYMBOLS
Use case
Actor
Activity
Class
Initial state
Final state
Swim lane
Control flow
Object flow
INTRODUCTION
1. INTRODUCTION
Over the years, quality control has evolved from practicesfocused on final product inspection by a
qualityinspector topractices that rely more on in‐process self‐inspection by theproduction technician
and a much smallerauditingrole forthe inspector. Most quality professionals agree that it ismuch less
expensive andmore effective to design qualityinto the process rather than test and fix products at the
endof the process.
Inspectionof the productafteritis made resultsincostlyrework,scrapanddelays.Quality professionals
mustconsider how to best control potentially problematic processes during manufacturing to ensure
acceptablequality at the end.
Today’s manufacturing technicians manage their own quality as part of their work processes;
inspectionrequirements are built right into the manufacturing work instructions; and verification
mechanisms are built intotooling fixtures and work procedures. These additional inspection
requirementsforthe techniciancanbesimplified and automated by a Manufacturing Execution System
(MES). For example, an MES can reduce the needfor 100 percent verification on some processes, and
insteadenforce skippingorsamplingrules that willautomatically prompt the technician as needed. An
MES can also keep track of when auditing is required by aninspector. These rules could even vary
according to each technician’s experience level on different types of jobs.This level of efficiency in
dispatchingverificationscannotbe achievedwithconfidence using manual methods; itrequires an MES
to track and enforce the rules automatically.
An international manufacturer produces high-performance materials for the semiconductor industry.
The company needed to balance a need for high throughput in its manufacturing processes with the
imperative for quality control of the solar module components. It sought a turnkey manufacturing
executionsystemtotrack and monitorthe performance of itsmanufacturingequipmentthatwouldalso
detect and intelligently respond to even small variances in product quality.
The solution should be designed to analyze the data to detect trends or shifts inQuality based on
product and process parameters.
For virtuallyeverybusiness,anongoingquality improvement process is a key component to improving
operations and employee morale. Businesses that make a concerted effort to continuously improve
operations ultimately gain a competitive edge.
Market dynamicsconstantlychange andclearlydefinedQIP(Quality Improvement Program) forces key
personnel to take an objective look at business processes that are essential to keeping your company
profitable.
More importantly,qualityimprovementisanongoingprocessaimedatkeepingyour company ahead of
the competition.Thisprocessincludes continuously reviewing and improving business operations and
implementing incremental changes as they develop to promote ongoing quality improvements.
Incremental changes are easier to implement and measure. Incremental quality improvement efforts
can include finding ways to reduce production and/or operating costs or improve time efficiency in a
single business process.
Font-line employees can be a great source for incremental quality improvements. Try this: Put a
suggestionbox inthe breakroomand youmay be surprised with the quality improvement suggestions
employees come up with.
A simple suggestion box empowers employees to make suggestions on improving the quality of their
workand is perhapsone of the smartest moves business owners can make to build cohesion between
managers and their subordinates.
SYSTEM ANALYSIS
2. SYSTEM ANALYSIS
2.1 Purpose of the System:
As alreadymentioned,the introductionof qualityassurance forsolarcomponents isthe most important
part of our portal. The analytical ability of customers comes in handy in complicated diagnosis. In
business,asinlife,it’softenwise toseizethe initiative.Reacting to problems after they occur is usually
more expensive than addressing them proactively. It also usually means that the problem gets bigger
than it would have been if it got nipped in the bud.
In general the term Proactive refers to :-
“creating or controlling a situation rather than just responding to it after it has happened.”
2.2. EXISTING SYSTEM:
QA applicationslike FRACAS(Failure Reporting,AnalysisandCorrectiveActionSystem),are focusedon
reactive practicesincluding:
• Final ProductInspectionPlans
• DocumentingProblemsandFailures
• Corrective Actions
• Failure andCorrectionMetrics
These traditional stand‐alonequalityapplicationsare reactingtoerrorsand managingthe results
of poorquality..
2.4 PROPOSED SYSTEM:
The development of this new system contains the following activities, which try to develop the web-
application entire process keeping in the view of database integration approach.
 clearvision,purpose andvalues
 opencommunicationandengagement
 collaborative workingandknowledgemanagement
 Thissystemwill generateteamprogressandalsoprovidessecure registrationandprofile
managementof the users.
 Advance ProductInspectionPlans
 DocumentingProblemsandFailuresaccuratly
 Failure andCorrectionMetricsusingproactive methods
 Maintainingqualityvaluesfordeviceswhichhave tofollow byproductionteam
 Moderate initial setupcostsbothhardware andsoftware.
 Standardizednetworkprotocol TCP/IP,documentprotocol HTML andfile transferprotocol FTP.
FEASIBILITY REPORT
3. FEASIBILITY REPORT
3.1TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY:
Evaluating the technical feasibility is the trickiest part of a feasibility study. This is because, at
this point in time, not too many detailed design of the system, making it difficult to access issues
like performance, costs on (on account of the kind of technology to be deployed) etc. A number
of issues have to be considered while doing a technical analysis.
 Understand the different technologies involved in the proposed system:
Before commencing the project, we have to be very clear about what are the technologies that
are to be required for the development of the new system.
 Find out whether the organization currently possesses the required technologies:
 Is the required technology available with the organization?
 If so is the capacity sufficient?
For instance “Will the current customers be able to handle the new timetable and forms required
for the new course?”
3.2OPERATIONAL FEASIBILITY:
Proposed project is beneficial only if it can be turned into information systems that will meet the
organizationsoperatingrequirements.Simplystated,thistest of feasibility asks if the system will work
whenitis developedandinstalled.Are there majorbarrierstoImplementation?Here are questions that
will help test the operational feasibility of a project:Is there sufficient support for the project from
managementfromusers?If the currentsystemiswell likedandusedtothe extent that persons will not
be able to see reasonsforchange,there maybe resistance.Are the currentbusinessmethodsacceptable
to the user?If they are not, Users may welcome a change that will bring about a more operational and
useful systems.Have the user been involved in the planning and development of the project? Early
involvementreducesthe chancesof resistance tothe systemandingeneral andincreasesthe likelihood
of successful project.Since the proposed system was to help reduce the hardshipsencountered. In the
existing manual system, the new system was considered to be operational feasibility.
3.3ECONOMICAL FEASIBILITY:
Economical feasibility attempts 2 weigh the costs of developing and implementing a new system,
against the benefits that would assure from having the new system in place. This feasibility study
gives the top management the economical justification for the new system.A simple economical
analysis which gives the actual comparison of costs and benefits are much more meaningful in
this case. In addition, this proves to be a useful point of reference to compare actual costs as the
project progresses. There could be various types of intangible benefits on account of automation.
These could include increased customer satisfaction, improvement in product quality better
decision making timeliness of information, expediting activities, improved accuracy of
operations, better documentation and record keeping, faster retrieval of information, better
employee morale.
REQURIEMENT PHASE
4 REQURIEMENT PHASE
The requirement phase basically consists of three activities:
1.Requirement Analysis
2.Requirement Specification
3.Requirement Validation
4.1 Requirement Analysis:
RequirementAnalysisisasoftware engineeringtaskthatbridgesthe gapbetweensystemlevelsoftware
allocation and software design. It provides the system engineer to specify software function and
performance,indicatesoftware’sinterface with the other system elements and establish constraints that
software must meet.
The basic aimof thisstage isto obtaina clearpicture of the needsandrequirementsof the end-userand
alsothe organization.Analysisinvolves interaction between the clients and the analysis. Usually analysts
research a problem from any questions asked and reading existing documents.
The analysts have to uncover the real needs of the user even if they don’t know them clearly. During
analysisitisessential thatacomplete andconsistentsetof specificationsemerge for the system. Here it is
essential to resolve the contradictions that could emerge from information got from various parties.
This is essential to ensure that the final specifications are consistent.
It may be divided into 5 areas of effort.
 Problem recognition
 Evaluation and synthesis
 Modeling
 Specification
4.2 REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION
Specification Principles:
Software Requirements Specification plays an important role in creating quality software solutions.
Specification is basically a representation process. Requirements are represented in a manner that
ultimately leads to successful software implementation.
Requirementsmaybe specifiedinavarietyof ways. Howeverthere are some guidelinesworthfollowing: -
 Representation format and content should be relevant to the problem
 Information contained within the specification should be nested
 Diagrams and other notational forms should be restricted in number and consistent in use.
 Representations should be revisable.
Software Requirements Specifications:
The software requirements specification is produced at the culmination of the analysis task. The
function and performance allocated to the software as a part of system engineering are refined by
establishing a complete information description, a detailed functional and behavioral description, and
indicationof performance requirements and design constraints, appropriate validation criteria and other
data pertinent to requirements.
An outline of the Software Requirements Specification:
A simplified outline can be given for the framework of the specifications. This is according to the IEEE
Standards.
SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION
5. SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION
5.1 MODULES DESCRIPTION :
No of Modules:
The systemaftercareful analysishasbeenidentifiedtobe presentedwiththe followingmodules:
1. LOGIN
2. ADMINISTRATOR
3. PRODUCTION
4. QUALITY ASSURANCE
Descriptionfor Modules:
LOGIN:
Thismodule isusedbyvariousemployeestologinintotheirrespective departments.Every employee is
providedwiththeirrespected user id and passwords through which they can login in. In login field we
have following fields
1. Administrator Login
2. Production Department
3. Quality Assurance
ADMINISTRATOR:
This module provides the complete information related to organization. All this has to be
provided and maintained by the admin. It has to verify the details given by the employees,
The administrator module is responsible for following activities
1. Add member
2. Update member
3. Delete member
4. View employee details
5. View product values
6. View products
7. Check quality assurance
Production department:
Productiondepartmentisresponsibleforproducingraw materialsandsolarcomponentsandtestingof
solarcomponents
Theywil addthe raw materialsandsolarcomponentstothe productionlistandtheywill checkthe
qualityof thatproducts,the functionsare
1. Producingraw materials
2.Producingsolarcomponents
3. Testingsolarcomponents
4. Record productionvalues
Quality assurance:
Qualityassurance teamisresponsible fortestingthe qualityof the products producedbyproduction
department
Theywill checksthe qualityfactorsof the productsif theyare uptonormsthentheywill acceptif not
theywill rejectthe product
The functionsof qualityassurance are
1. Qualityassurance of Raw materials
2.Quality assurance of solarcomponents
3.Qualityassurance fortesting
5.2 PROCESS FLOW:
The Model 2 architecture fordesigningJSPpagesisinreality,Model View Controller(MVC) appliedto
web applications. Hence the two terms can be used interchangeably in the web world. MVC
originatedinSmall Talkandhas since made itswayintoJava community.Model 2architecture and its
derivativesare the cornerstones for all serious and industrial strength web applications designed in
the real world.Hence itis essential foryouunderstandthisparadigmthoroughly.The maindifference
between Model 1 and Model 2 is that in Model 2, a controller handles the user request instead of
anotherJSP.The controllerisimplemented as a Servlet. The following steps are executed when the
user submits the request.
 The ControllerServlethandlesthe user’srequest.(Thismeansthe hyperlinkin the JSP should
point to the controller servlet).
 The Controller Servlet then instantiates appropriate JavaBeans based on the request
parameters (and optionally also based on session attributes).
 The Controller Servlet then by itself or through a controller helper communicates with the
middle tier or directly to the database to fetch the required data.
 The Controllersetsthe resultantJavaBeans(eithersame ora new one) inone of the following
contexts – request, session or application.
 The controller then dispatches the request to the next view based on the request URL.
 The View uses the resultant JavaBeans from Step 4 to display data. Note that there is no
presentationlogicinthe JSP.The sole functionof the JSPin Model 2 architecture is to display
the data from the JavaBeans set in the request, session or application scopes.
FIG:4.1
5.3 SDLC METHDOLOGIES
This document play a vital role in the development of life cycle (SDLC) as it describes the complete
requirementof the system. It means for use by developers and will be the basic during testing phase.
Any changes made to the requirements in the future will have to go through formal change approval
process.SPIRAL MODEL was defined by Barry Boehm in his 1988 article, “A spiral Model of Software
DevelopmentandEnhancement. Thismodel wasnotthe first model to discuss iterative development,
but it was the first model to explain why the iteration models.As originally envisioned, the iterations
were typically 6 months to 2 years long. Each phase starts with a design goal and ends with a client
reviewing the progress thus far. Analysis and engineering efforts are applied at each phase of the
project, with an eye toward the end goal of the project.
The steps for Spiral Model can be generalized as follows:
 The new system requirements are defined in as much details as possible. This usually
involvesinterviewinga number of users representing all the external or internal users and
other aspects of the existing system.
 A preliminary design is created for the new system.
 A first prototype of the new system is constructed from the preliminary design. This is
usuallyascaled-downsystem, andrepresentsanapproximationof the characteristicsof the
final product.
 A second prototype is evolved by a fourfold procedure:
Evaluatingthe first prototype intermsof itsstrengths,weakness,andrisks.Definingthe requirements of
the secondprototype.Planningandesigningthe second prototype.Constructing and testing the second
prototype.Atthe customeroption,the entire projectcanbe abortedif the riskis deemedtoo great. Risk
factors might involved development cost overruns, operating-cost miscalculation, or any other factor
that could, in the customer’s judgment, result in a less-than-satisfactory final product.The existing
prototype is evaluated in the same manner as was the previous prototype, and if necessary, another
prototype isdevelopedfromitaccordingtothe fourfoldprocedure outlinedabove.The preceding steps
are iterated until the customer is satisfied that the refined prototype represents the final product
desired.Thefinal system is constructed, based on the refinedprototype.The final system is thoroughly
evaluated and tested. Routine maintenance is carried on a continuing basis to prevent large scale
failures and to minimize down time.
Spiral Model
FIG:4.2
ADVANTAGES:
• The process will check the purpose and quality of the product development process
• The alignment of the qualifications with the values, purposes and principles of
Curriculum for Excellence and agreed qualifications design principles
• The roles, responsibilities and remits are clear
• Effective engagement has taken place
• Feasibility and practicality of implementation
5.4 SOFTWAREREQUIREMENTAND HARDWAREREQUIREMENT
Software Requirements:
 Operating System : Windows XP/2003 or Linux
 User Interface : HTML, CSS
 Client-side Scripting : JavaScript
 Programming Language : Java
 Web Applications : JDBC, Servlets, JSP
 IDE/Workbench : My Eclipse 8.0
 Database : DB2
 Server Deployment : Tomcat 7.0
Hardware Requirements:
 Processor : Pentium IV or higher.
 Hard Disk : 50GB
 RAM : 512 Mb or higher.
High Level Requirements:
1. Maintain list of products, respective Bill of material, suppliers
2. Maintain a list of production stages, parameters for control, acceptable deviations,
terminate reasons.
3. The line staff in production should be able to record in time and out time of a product
in a particular stage.
4. Record values of parameters to be checked by QA.
5. The system to raise alerts when the thresholds are met for rejects during
production
6. The system allows QA user to access the quality queue data and define the next steps.
7. A report is generated for Defects recorded during production.
8. Analysis is done to segregate the defect’s root cause i.e. process issue, quality of part,
operational issue
SYSTEM DESIGN
6. SYSTEM DESIGN
6.1 UML DIAGRAMS
The Unified Modeling Language allows the software engineer to express an analysis model using the
modelingnotationthatisgovernedbya set of syntactic semantic and pragmatic rules. A UML system is
representedusing five different views that describe the system from distinctly different perspective.
Each view is defined by a set of diagram, which is as follows.
User Model View:
i. This view represents the system from the users perspective.
ii. The analysisrepresentationdescribesausage scenariofromthe end-users perspective.
Structural model view:
i. In this model the data and functionality are arrived from inside the system.
ii. This model view models the static structures.
Behavioral Model View:
It representsthe dynamic of behavioral as parts of the system, depicting the interactions of collection
between various structural elements described in the user model and structural model view.
Implementation Model View:
In this the structural and behavioral as parts of the system are represented as they are to be built.
Environmental Model View:
In this the structural and behavioral aspects of the environment in which the system is to be
implemented are represented.
UML is specifically constructed through two different domains they are:
>UML Analysis modeling, this focuses on the user model and structural model views of the system.
>UML design modeling, which focuses on the behavioral modeling, implementation modeling and
environmental model views.
Use case Diagrams representthe functionality of the system from a user’s point of view. Use cases are
usedduringrequirementselicitationandanalysistorepresentthe functionalityof the system.Use cases
focus on the behavior of the system from external point of view. Actors are external entities that
interact with the system. Examples of actors include users like administrator, staff etc., or another
system like central database.
USE CASE DIAGRAMS:
AdminUse Case Diagram:
FIG:6.1.1
Employee Use Case Diagram:
PRODUCTION:
FIG:6.1.2
QUALITY ASURANCE:
FIG:6.1.3
CLASSDIAGRAM:
Class diagrams to describe the structure of the system. Classes Are abstraction that specify the
common structure and behavior of a set class diagrams describe the system in terms of objects,
classes, attributes, operations and their associations.A Class diagram gives an overview of a
system by showing its classes and the relationships among them.Class diagrams are static. They
display what interacts but not what happens when they do interact.
Notations:
UML class notation is a rectangle divided into three parts: class name, attributes, and operations.
Names of abstract classes are in italics. [example: Payment]
Relationships between classes are the connecting links.
Purpose:
The purpose of the class diagram is to model the static view of an application. The class
diagrams are the only diagrams which can be directly mapped with object oriented languages and
thus widely used at the time of construction.
The UML diagrams like activity diagram, sequence diagram can only give the sequence flow of the
application but class diagram is a bit different. So it is the most popular UML diagram in the coder
community.
So the purpose of the class diagram can be summarized as:
 Analysis and design of the static view of an application.
 Describe responsibilities of a system.
 Base for component and deployment diagrams.
 Forward and reverse engineering.
(CLASS DIAGRAMFOR QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR SOLAR COMPONENTS)
FIG:6. 2
ACTIVITY DIAGRAM:
An activity diagram is essentially a fancy flowchart. Activity diagrams and statechart diagrams
are related. While a state chart diagram focuses attention on an object undergoing a process (or
on a process as an object), an activity diagram focuses on the flow of activities involved in a
single process.
The activity diagram shows the how those activities depend on one another.
Notations:
The process begins at the black start circle at the top and ends at the concentric white/black stop
circles at the bottom. The activities are rounded rectangles.
Activity diagrams can be divided into object swimlanes that determine which object is
responsible for which activity. A single transition comes out of each activity, connecting it to
the next activity.
A transition may branch into two or more mutually exclusive transitions. Guard expressions
(inside [ ]) label the transitions coming out of a branch. A branch and its subsequent merge
marking the end of the branch appear in the diagram as hollow diamonds.
A transition may fork into two or more parallel activities. The fork an
The subsequent join of the threads coming out of the fork appear in the diagram as solid bars.
An activity diagram describes a system in terms of activities. Activities are states that represent
the execution of a set of operations. Activity diagrams are similar to flowchart diagram and data
flow.
Purpose:
The basic purposes of activity diagrams are similar to other four diagrams. It captures the dynamic
behavior of the system. Other four diagrams are used to show the message flow from one object to
another but activity diagram is used to show message flow from one activity to another.
Activity is a particular operation of the system. Activity diagrams are not only used for visualizing
dynamicnature of a systembut theyare also usedtoconstruct the executable system by using forward
and reverse engineering techniques. The only missing thing in activity diagram is the message part.
It does not show any message flow from one activity to another. Activity diagram is some time
considered as the flow chart. Although the diagrams looks like a flow chart but it is not. It shows
different flow like parallel, branched, concurrent and single.
So the purposes can be described as:
 Draw the activity flow of a system.
 Describe the sequence from one activity to another.
 Describe the parallel, branched and concurrent flow of the system.
(ACTIVITY DIAGRAMFOR QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR SOLAR COMPONENTS)
FIG:6.3
SEQUENCE DIAGRAM:
Class and object diagrams are static model views. Interaction diagrams are dynamic. They
describe how objects collaborate.
A sequence diagram is an interaction diagram that details how operations are carried out -- what
messages are sent and when.
Sequence diagrams are organized according to time. The time progresses as you go down the
page.
The objects involved in the operation are listed from left to right according to when they take
part in the message sequence. Sequence diagrams are used to formalize the behavior of the
system and to visualize the communication among objects. They are useful for identifying
additional objects that participate in the use cases. A Sequence diagram represents the interaction
that take place among these objects.
Purpose:
The purposes of interaction diagrams are to visualize the interactive behavior of the system. Now
visualizinginteractionisadifficulttask.Sothe solutionistouse differenttypesof modelsto capture the
different aspects of the interaction.
That is why sequence and collaboration diagrams are used to capture dynamic nature but from a
different angle.
So the purposes of interaction diagram can be describes as:
 To capture dynamic behavior of a system.
 To describe the message flow in the system.
 To describe structural organization of the objects.
 To describe interaction among objects.
Login sequence diagram:
FIG:6.4
CollaborationDiagram:
The second interaction diagram is collaboration diagram. It shows the object organization as shown
below. Here in collaboration diagram the method call sequence is indicated by some numbering
Admin Login Owner Of The
System
Registered
Bidders
Login
Validate
ValidLogin
Login
ValidLogin
Login
validLogin
validate
validate
technique as shown below. The number indicates how the methods are called one after another. We
have taken the same order management system to describe the collaboration diagram.
The method calls are similar to that of a sequence diagram. But the difference is that the sequence
diagramdoesnot describe the objectorganizationwhereasthe collaborationdiagramshowsthe object
organization.
Nowto choose betweenthese twodiagramsthe mainemphasis is given on the type of requirement. If
the time sequence is important then sequence diagram is used and if organization is required then
collaboration diagram is used.
Purpose:
The purposes of interaction diagrams are to visualize the interactive behavior of the system. Now
visualizinginteractionisadifficulttask.Sothe solutionistouse differenttypesof modelsto capture the
different aspects of the interaction.
That is why sequence and collaboration diagrams are used to capture dynamic nature but from a
different angle.
So the purposes of interaction diagram can be describes as:
To capture dynamic behavior of a system.
 To describe the message flow in the system.
 To describe structural organization of the objects.
 To describe interaction among objects.
Collaborationdiagram
Login collaborationdiagram:
Admin
Login
2: Validate
Owner Of The
System
Registered
Bidders
5: validate
8: validate
1: Login
3: ValidLogin
4: Login6: ValidLogin
7: Login
9: validLogin
FIG:6.5
Component Diagrams:
Component diagrams are different in terms of nature and behavior. Component diagrams are used to
model physical aspects of a system.
Nowthe questioniswhatare these physical aspects?Physicalaspectsare the elementslikeexecutables,
libraries, files, documents etc which resides in a node.
So componentdiagramsare usedtovisualize the organizationandrelationshipsamongcomponentsina
system. These diagrams are also used to make executable systems.
Purpose:
Component diagram is a special kind of diagram in UML. The purpose is also different from all other
diagrams discussed so far. It does not describe the functionality of the system but it describes the
components used to make those functionalities.
So from that point component diagrams are used to visualize the physical components in a system.
These components are libraries, packages, files etc.
Component diagrams can also be described as a static implementation view of a system. Static
implementation represents the organization of the components at a particular moment.
A single componentdiagramcannotrepresentthe entire systembutacollectionof diagramsare usedto
represent the whole.
(COMPONENT DIAGRAMFOR QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR SOLAR COMPONENTS)
FIG:6.6
Deployment Diagram:
Deploymentdiagramsare usedto visualize the topologyof the physical components of a system where
the software components are deployed. So deployment diagrams are used to describe the static
deployment view of a system. Deployment diagrams consist of nodes and their relationships.
Purpose:
The name Deploymentitself describes the purpose of the diagram. Deployment diagrams are used for
describingthe hardware componentswhere software componentsare deployed. Component diagrams
and deployment diagrams are closely related.
Componentdiagramsare usedtodescribe the components and deployment diagrams shows how they
are deployed in hardware.
UML is mainly designed to focus on software artifacts of a system. But these two diagrams are special
diagrams used to focus on software components and hardware components.
So most of the UML diagrams are used to handle logical components but deployment diagrams are
made to focus on hardware topology of a system. Deployment diagrams are used by the system
engineers.
The purpose of deployment diagrams can be described as:
 Visualize hardware topology of a system.
 Describe the hardware components used to deploy software components.
(DEPLOYMENT DIAGRAMFOR QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR SOLAR COMPONENTS)
FIG:6.7
3 ER-diagrams
Data Dictionary
ADMIN:
REGISTER:
EMPLOYEES:
PRODUCTS:
PRODUCTION VALUES:
PRODUCTION:
TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION
TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION
HTML
HTML, an initialization of Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web
pages. It provides a means to describe the structure of text-based information in a document — by
denoting certain text as headings, paragraphs, lists, and so on and to supplement that text with
interactive forms,embeddedimages,andotherobjects.HTML iswrittenin the form of labels (known as
tags), surrounded by angle brackets. HTML can also describe, to some degree, the appearance and
semantics of a document, and can include embedded scripting language code which can affect the
behavior of web browsers and other HTML processors.
HTML is also often used to refer to content of the MIME type text/html or even more broadly as a
generic term for HTML whether in its XML-descended form (such as XHTML 1.0 and later) or its form
descended directly from SGML
Hyper Text Markup Language
HypertextMarkupLanguage(HTML), the languages of the World Wide Web (WWW), allows users to
producesWebpagesthat includetext, graphics and pointer to other Web pages (Hyperlinks).HTML is
not a programming language but it is an application of ISO Standard 8879, SGML (Standard
GeneralizedMarkupLanguage),butspecializedto hypertextandadaptedto the Web. The idea behind
Hypertextis that insteadof readingtext in rigidlinear structure, we can easily jump from one point to
another point. We can navigate through the information based on our interest and preference. A
markup languageissimplya seriesofelements,each delimited withspecialcharacters thatdefine how
text or other items enclosed within the elements should be displayed. Hyperlinks are underlined or
emphasizedworksthatloadto otherdocuments or someportionsof the same document.HTML can be
usedto displayany typeof documenton the hostcomputer, which can be geographically at a different
location. It is a versatile language and can be used on any platform or desktop.HTML provides tags
(special codes) to make the document look attractive. HTML tags are not case-sensitive. Using
graphics,fonts,different sizes,color,etc., can enhance thepresentationofthe document.Anything that
is not a tag is part of the document itself.
Basic HTML Tags:
<! -- --> specifies comments
<A>……….</A> Creates hypertext links
<B>……….</B> Formats text as bold
<BIG>……….</BIG> Formats text in large font.
<BODY>…</BODY> Contains all tags and text in the HTML document
<CENTER>...</CENTER> Creates text
<DD>…</DD> Definition of a term
<DL>...</DL> Creates definition list
<FONT>…</FONT> Formats text with a particular font
<FORM>...</FORM> Encloses a fill-out form
<FRAME>...</FRAME> Defines a particular frame in a set of frames
<H#>…</H#> Creates headings of different levels( 1 – 6 )
<HEAD>...</HEAD> Contains tags that specify information about a document
<HR>...</HR> Creates a horizontal rule
<HTML>…</HTML> Contains all other HTML tags
<META>...</META> Provides meta-information about a document
<SCRIPT>…</SCRIPT> Contains client-side or server-side script
<TABLE>…</TABLE> Creates a table
<TD>…</TD> Indicates table data in a table
<TR>…</TR> Designates a table row
<TH>…</TH> Creates a heading in a table
Attributes:
The attributesof an elementare name-value pairs, separated by "=", and written within the start label
of an element, after the element's name. The value should be enclosed in single or double quotes,
althoughvaluesconsistingof certain characters can be left unquoted in HTML (but not XHTML).Leaving
attribute valuesunquotedisconsideredunsafe.Mostelements take any of several common attributes:
id,class,style andtitle.Mostalsotake language-relatedattributes:langanddir.The idattribute provides
a document-wide unique identifier for an element. This can be used by stylesheets to provide
presentationalproperties, by browsers to focus attention on the specific element or by scripts to alter
the contents or presentation of an element. The class attribute provides a way of classifying similar
elementsforpresentationpurposes.Forexample, an HTML document (or a set of documents) may use
the designationclass="notation"toindicate thatall elementswiththisclassvalue are all subordinate to
the main text of the document (or documents). Such notation classes of elements might be gathered
togetherandpresentedasfootnotesonapage,ratherthan appearinginthe place where theyappearin
the source HTML.An author may use the style non-attributal codes presentational properties to a
particular element. It is considered better practice to use an element’s son- id page and select the
element with a stylesheet, though sometimes this can be too cumbersome for a simple ad hoc
applicationof styledproperties.The title isusedtoattachsubtextual explanationtoanelement.Inmost
browsersthistitle attribute isdisplayedaswhatisoftenreferredtoas a tooltip. The generic inline span
element can be used to demonstrate these various non-attributes.The preceding displays as HTML
(pointing the cursor at the abbreviation should display the title text in most browsers).
Advantages
 A HTML document is small and hence easy to send over the net. It is small because it does
not include formatted information.
 HTML is platform independent.
 HTML tags are not case-sensitive.
JavaScript
JavaScript is a script-based programming language that was developed by Netscape Communication
Corporation. JavaScript was originally called Live Script and renamed as JavaScript to indicate its
relationship with Java. JavaScript supports the development of bothclient and server components of
Web-basedapplications.Onthe clientside,itcanbe usedtowrite programsthat are executedbyaWeb
browser within the context of a Web page. On the server side, it can be used to write Web server
programs that can process information submitted by a Web browser and then update the browser’s
display accordingly.Even though JavaScript supports both client and server Web programming, we
preferJavaScriptatClientside programmingsince mostof the browserssupportsit.JavaScript is almost
as easy to learn as HTML, and JavaScript statements can be included in HTML documents by enclosing
the statements between a pair of scripting tags
<SCRIPTS>..</SCRIPT>.
<SCRIPT LANGUAGE = “JavaScript”>
JavaScript statements
</SCRIPT>
Here are a few things we can do with JavaScript:
 Validate the contents of a form and make calculations.
 Add scrolling or changing messages to the Browser’s status line.
 Animate images or rotate images that change when we move the mouse over them.
 Detect the browser in use and display different content for different browsers.
 Detect installed plug-ins and notify the user if a plug-in is required.
We can do much more with JavaScript, including creating entire application.
JavaScript Vs Java
JavaScript and Java are entirely different languages. A few of the most glaring differences are:
 Java applets are generally displayed in a box within the web document; JavaScript can
affect any part of the Web document itself.
 While JavaScript is best suited to simple applications and adding interactive features to Web
pages; Java can be used for incredibly complex applications.
There are manyotherdifferencesbut the important thing to remember is that JavaScript and Java are
separate languages. They are both useful for different things; in fact they can be used together to
combine their advantages.
Java Technology
Initiallythe language was called as “oak” but it was renamed as “Java” in 1995. The primary motivation
of thislanguage wasthe needfora platform-independent(i.e.,architecture neutral) languagethatcould
be used to create software to be embedded in various consumer electronic devices.
 Java is a programmer’s language.
 Java is cohesive and consistent.
 Except for those constraints imposed by the Internet environment, Java gives the
programmer, full control.
 Finally, Java is to Internet programming where C was to system programming.
Importance of Java to the Internet
Java has had a profound effect on the Internet. This is because; Java expands the Universe of
objects that can move about freely in Cyberspace. In a network, two categories of objects are
transmitted between the Server and the Personal computer. They are: Passive information and
Dynamic active programs. The Dynamic, Self-executing programs cause serious problems in the
areas of Security and probability. But, Java addresses those concerns and by doing so, has
opened the door to an exciting new form of program called the Applet.
Java can be used to create two types of programs
Applications and Applets:
An applicationisaprogramthat runs on our Computerunderthe operating system of that computer. It
is more or less like one creating using C orC++. Java’s ability to create Applets makes it important. An
Applet is an application designed to be transmitted over the Internet and executed by a Java –
compatible webbrowser.Anappletisactuallyatiny Java program, dynamically downloaded across the
network,justlike an image.Butthe difference is,itisanintelligentprogram, not just a media file. It can
react to the user input and dynamically changethem for viruses prior to execution. Most users still
worried about the possibility of infecting their systems with a virus. In addition, another type of
malicious program exists that must be guarded against. This type of program can gather private
information, such as credit card numbers.
Features of Java Security:
Every time you that you download a “normal” program, you are risking a viral infection. Prior to Java,
mostusersdidnot downloadexecutableprogramsfrequently,andthose who did scan them for viruses
priorto execution.Mostusersstill worriedaboutthe possibilityof infectingtheirsystemswithavirus.In
addition,anothertype of malicious program exists that must be guarded against. This type of program
can gather private information, such as credit card numbers, bank account balances, and passwords.
Java answers both these concerns by providing a “firewall” between a network application and your
computer.Whenyouuse aJava-compatibleWebbrowser,youcansafelydownloadJavaappletswithout
fear of virus infection or malicious intent.
Portability
For programs to be dynamically downloaded to all the various types of platforms connected to the
Internet, some means of generating portable executable code is needed .As you will see, the same
mechanismthathelpsensure securityalsohelpscreate portability.Indeed, Java’s solution to these two
problems is both elegant and efficient.
The Byte code
The key that allows the Java to solve the security and portability problems is that the output of Java
compilerisByte code.Byte code isa highlyoptimizedsetof instructionsdesignedtobe executed by the
Java run-time system, which is called the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). That is, in its standard form, the
JVM is an interpreter for byte code.Translating a Java program into byte code helps makes it much
easier to run a program in a wide variety of environments. The reason is, once the run-time package
existsfora givensystem,anyJavaprogramcan run on it.AlthoughJavawasdesignedfor interpretation,
there is technically nothing about Java that prevents on-the-fly compilation of byte code into native
code.Sunhas justcompleteditsJustInTime (JIT) compilerforbyte code.Whenthe JIT compiler is a part
of JVM,it compilesbyte code intoexecutable code inreal time,onapiece-by-piece, demand basis. It is
not possible tocompileanentire Javaprogramintoexecutable code all at once, because Java performs
variousrun-time checksthatcan be done onlyat run time.The JITcompilescode,asitis needed, during
execution.
Java Virtual Machine (JVM)
Beyond the language, there is the Java virtual machine. The Java virtual machine is an important
element of the Java technology. The virtual machine can be embedded within a web browser or an
operating system. Once a piece of Java code is loaded onto a machine, it is verified. As part of the
loading process, a class loader is invoked and does byte code verification makes sure that the code
that’s has been generated by the compiler will not corrupt the machine that it’s loaded on. Byte code
verification takes place at the end of the compilation process to make sure that is all accurate and
correct. So byte code verification is integral to the compiling and executing of Java code. Java
programming uses to produce byte codes and executes them. The first box indicates that the Java
source code is located in a. Java file that is processed with a Java compiler called javac. The Java
compilerproducesafile calleda. class file, which contains the byte code. The .Class file is then loaded
across the networkor loadedlocallyonyourmachine intothe executionenvironment is the Java virtual
machine, which interprets and executes the byte code.
Overall Description
Picture showing the development process of JAVA Program
Java Architecture
Java architecture provides a portable, robust, high performing environment for development. Java
provides portability by compiling the byte codes for the Java Virtual Machine, which is
then interpreted on each platform by the run-time environment. Java is a dynamic system, able to
load code when needed from a machine in the same room or across the planet.
Compilation of code
When you compile the code, the Java compiler creates machine code (called byte code) for a
hypothetical machine called Java Virtual Machine (JVM). The JVM is supposed to execute the
byte code. The JVM is created for overcoming the issue of portability. The code is written and
compiled for one machine and interpreted on all machines. This machine is called Java Virtual
Machine.As part of the loading process, a class loader is invoked and does byte code verification
Java Source Java byte code JavaVM
Java .Class
makes sure that the code that’s has been generated by the compiler will not corrupt the machine
that it’s loaded on.
Simple
Java was designed to be easy for the Professional programmer to learn and to use effectively. If
you are an experienced C++ programmer, learning Java will be even easier. Because Java
inherits the C/C++ syntax and many of the object oriented features of C++. Most of the
confusing concepts from C++ are either left out of Java or implemented in a cleaner,
moreapproachable manner. In Java there are a small number of clearly defined ways to
accomplish a given task.
Object-Oriented
Java was not designed to be source-code compatible with any other language. This allowed the
Java team the freedom to design with a blank slate. One outcome of this was a clean usable,
pragmatic approach to objects. The object model in Java is simple and easy to extend, while
simple types, such as integers, are kept as high-performance non-objects.
Source
Code
………..
………..
………..
…………
PC Compiler
Macintosh
Compiler
SPARC
Compiler
Java
Byte code
(Platform
Independe
nt)
Java
Interpreter
(PC)
Java
Interpreter
(Macintosh)
Java
Interpreter
(Spare)
Robust
The multi-platform environment of the Web places extraordinary demands on a program,
because the program must execute reliably in a variety of systems. The ability to create robust
programs was given a high priority in the design of Java. Java is strictly typed language it
checks your code at compile time and run time.Java virtually eliminates the problems of memory
management and de-allocation, which is completely automatic. In a well-written Java program,
all run time errors can and should be managed by your program.
Java Database Connectivity
What Is JDBC?
JDBC isa JavaAPIfor executingSQLstatements.(Asapointof interest,JDBCisa trademarkedname and
isnot an acronym; nevertheless, JDBCisoften thought of as standing for Java Database Connectivity. It
consists of a set of classes and interfaces written in the Java programming language.JDBC provides a
standardAPIfor tool/database developersandmakesit possible to write database applications using a
pure Java API.
UsingJDBC, it iseasyto sendSQL statementstovirtuallyanyrelational database. One can write a single
program using the JDBC API, and the program will be able to send SQL statements to the appropriate
database. The combinations of Java and JDBC lets a programmer write it once and run it anywhere.
What Does JDBC Do?
Simply put, JDBC makes it possible to do three things:
 Establish a connection with a database
 Send SQL statements
 Process the results.
JDBC versus ODBC and other APIs
At thispoint,Microsoft'sODBC(OpenDatabase Connectivity) APIisthatprobablythe most widely used
programming interface for accessing relational databases. It offers the ability to connect to almost all
databasesonalmostall platforms.So why not just use ODBC from Java? The answer is that you can use
ODBC fromJava, butthisis bestdone withthe helpof JDBCin the formof the JDBC-ODBC Bridge, which
we will covershortly.The questionnow becomes "Why do you need JDBC?" There are several answers
to this question:
 ODBC is not appropriate for direct use from Java because it uses a C interface. Calls
from Java to native C code have a number of drawbacks in the security, implementation,
robustness, and automatic portability of applications.
 A literal translation of the ODBC C API into a Java API would not be desirable. For
example, Java has no pointers, and ODBC makes copious use of them, including the
notoriously error-prone generic pointer "void *". You can think of JDBC as ODBC
translated into an object-oriented interface that is natural for Java programmers.
 ODBC is hard to learn. It mixes simple and advanced features together, and it has
complex options even for simple queries. JDBC, on the other hand, was designed to keep
simple things simple while allowing more advanced capabilities where required.
 A Java API like JDBC is needed in order to enable a "pure Java" solution. When ODBC
is used, the ODBC driver manager and drivers must be manually installed on every client
machine. When the JDBC driver is written completely in Java, however, JDBC code is
automatically installable, portable, and secure on all Java platforms from network
computers to mainframes.
Two-tier and Three-tier Models
The JDBC APIsupportsbothtwo-tierandthree-tiermodelsfordatabase access.Inthe two-tier model, a
Java applet or application talks directly to the database. This requires a JDBC driver that can
communicate with the particular database management system being accessed. A user's SQL
statementsare deliveredtothe database,andthe resultsof thosestatements are sent back to the user.
The database may be locatedon another machine to which the user is connected via a network. This is
referred to as a client/server configuration,with the user's machine as the client, and the machine
housing the database as the server. The network can be an Intranet, which, for example, connects
employees within a corporation, or it can be the Internet.
In the three-tier model, commands are sent to a "middle tier" of services, which then send SQL
statementstothe database. The database processes the SQL statements and sends the results back to
the middle tier, which then sends them to the user. MIS directors find thEethree-tier model very
attractive because the middle tier makes it possible to maintain control over access and the kinds of
updatesthatcan be made to corporate data. Anotheradvantage isthatwhen there is a middle tier, the
JAVA
Application
JDBC
DBMS
Client machine
DBMS-proprietary protocol
Database server
user can employ an easy-to-use higher-level API which is translated by the middle tier into the
appropriate low-levelcalls. Finally, in many cases the three-tier architecture can provide performance
advantages.Until now the middle tier has typically been written in languages such as C or C++, which
offerfastperformance.However,withthe introductionof optimizingcompilers that translate Java byte
code intoefficientmachine-specificcode,itis becoming practical to implement the middle tier in Java.
Thisis a bigplus,makingitpossible totake advantage of Java'srobustness,multithreading, and security
features. JDBC is important to allow database access from a Java middle tier.
JDBC Driver Types
The JDBC drivers that we are aware of at this time fit into one of four categories:
 JDBC-ODBC bridge plus ODBC driver
 Native-API partly-Java driver
 JDBC-Net pure Java driver
 Native-protocol pure Java driver
JDBC-ODBC Bridge
If possible, use a Pure Java JDBC driver instead of the Bridge and an ODBC driver. This
completely eliminates the client configuration required by ODBC. It also eliminates the potential
that the Java VM could be corrupted by an error in the native code brought in by the Bridge (that
is, the Bridge native library, the ODBC driver manager library, the ODBC driver library, and the
database client library).
What Is the JDBC- ODBC Bridge?
The JDBC-ODBC Bridge is a JDBC driver, which implements JDBC operations by translating them into
ODBC operations.To ODBCitappearsas a normal application program. The Bridge implements JDBC
for any database for which an ODBC driver is available. The Bridge is implemented as the
Sun.jdbc.odbc Java package and contains a native library used to access ODBC. The Bridge is a joint
development of Innersole and Java Soft.
JDBC connectivity
The JDBC provides database-independent connectivity between the J2EE platform and a wide
range of tabular data sources. JDBC technology allows an Application Component Provider to:
 Perform connection and authentication to a database server
 Manager transactions
 Move SQL statements to a database engine for preprocessing and execution
 Execute stored procedures
 Inspect and modify the results from Select statements
Database:
A database management system (DBMS) is computer software designed for the purpose of managing
databases,a large setof structureddata, and runoperationsonthe data requested by numerous users.
Typical examples of DBMSs include Oracle, DB2, Microsoft Access, Microsoft SQL Server, Firebird,
PostgreSQL,MySQL,SQLite,FileMakerandSybase Adaptive ServerEnterprise.DBMSs are typically used
by Database administratorsinthe creationof Database systems.Typical examples of DBMS use include
accounting, human resources and customer support systems.
Originallyfoundonlyinlarge companieswiththe computerhardware neededtosupportlarge datasets,
DBMSs have more recently emerged as a fairly standard part of any company back office.
Description
A DBMS is a complex set of software programs that controls the organization, storage, management,
and retrieval of dataina database.A DBMS includes:A modelinglanguage todefine the schema of each
database hosted in the DBMS, according to the DBMS data model.
The four most common types of organizations are the hierarchical, network, relational and object
models. Inverted lists and other methods are also used. A given database management system may
provide one ormore of the four models. The optimal structure depends on the natural organization of
the application's data, and on the application's requirements (which include transaction rate (speed),
reliability, maintainability, scalability, and cost).The dominant model in use today is the ad hoc one
embedded in SQL, despite the objections of purists who believe this model is a corruption of the
relational model, since it violates several of its fundamental principles for the sake of practicality and
performance. Many DBMSs also support the Open Database Connectivity API that supports a standard
wayfor programmersto accessthe DBMS.Data structures(fields,records,filesandobjects) optimizedto
deal with very large amounts of data stored on a permanent data storage device (which implies
relativelyslowaccesscomparedtovolatilemainmemory).A database query language and report writer
to allowuserstointeractively interrogate the database, analyze its data and update it according to the
users privileges on data. It also controls the security of the database.Data security prevents
unauthorizedusersfromviewing or updating the database. Using passwords, users are allowed access
to the entire database or subsets of it called subschemas. For example, an employee database can
contain all the data about an individual employee, but one group of users may be authorized to
viewonly payroll data, while others are allowed access to only work history and medical data.If the
DBMS provides a way to interactively enter and update the database, as well as interrogate it, this
capabilityallowsformanagingpersonal databases.However,itmaynotleave an audit trail of actions or
provide the kinds of controls necessary in a multi-user organization. These controls are only available
when a set of application programs are customized for each data entry and updating function.A
transaction mechanism, that ideally would guarantee the ACID properties, in order to ensure data
integrity, despite concurrent user accesses (concurrency control), and faults (fault tolerance).
SQL :StructuredQueryLanguage (SQL) isthe language usedtomanipulate relationaldatabases.SQL is
tied very closely with the relational model. In the relational model, data is stored in structures called
relations or tables.
SQL statements are issued for the purpose of:
Data definition: Defining tables and structures in the database (DDL used to create, alter and drop
schema objects such as tables and indexes).
Data manipulation:Used to manipulate the datawithinthose schemaobjects(DMLInserting,Updating,
Deleting the data, and Querying the Database).
A schema is a collection of database objects that can include: tables, views, indexes and sequences
List of SQL statements that can be issued against an Oracle database schema are:
 ALTER - Change an existing table, view or index definition (DDL)
 AUDIT - Track the changes made to a table (DDL)
 COMMENT - Add a comment to a table or column in a table (DDL)
 COMMIT - Make all recent changes permanent (DML - transactional)
 CREATE - Create new database objects such as tables or views (DDL)
 DELETE- Delete rows from a database table (DML)
 DROP - Drop a database object such as a table, view or index (DDL)
 GRANT - Allow another user to access database objects such as tables or views (DDL)
 INSERT - Insert new data into a database table (DML)
 No AUDIT - Turn off the auditing function (DDL)
 REVOKE - Disallow a user access to database objects such as tables and views (DDL)
 ROLLBACK - Undo any recent changes to the database (DML - Transactional)
 SELECT - Retrieve data from a database table (DML)
 TRUNCATE - Delete all rows from a database table (can not be rolled back) (DML)
 UPDATE- Change the values of some data items in a database table (DML)
Eclipse IDE:
Eclipse is an open-source software framework written primarily in Java. In its default form it is an
Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for Java developers, consisting of the Java Development
Tools(JDT) and the Eclipse CompilerforJava(ECJ).Userscan extenditscapabilitiesbyinstalling plug-ins
written for the Eclipse software framework, such as development toolkits for other programming
languages, and can write and contribute their own plug-in modules. Language packs are available for
over a dozen languages.
Architecture:
The basis for Eclipse is the Rich Client Platform (RCP). The following components constitute the rich
client platform:
 OSGi - a standard bundling framework
 Core platform - boot Eclipse, run plug-ins
 the Standard Widget Toolkit (SWT) - a portable widget toolkit
 JFace - viewer classes to bring model view controller programming to SWT, file buffers, text
handling, text editors
 the Eclipse Workbench - views, editors, perspectives, wizards
Eclipse'swidgetsare implementedbyawidgettoolkitforJavacalledSWT,unlike mostJavaapplications,
which use the Java standard Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) or Swing. Eclipse's user interface also
leveragesanintermediateGUIlayercalledJFace,whichsimplifiesthe constructionof applicationsbased
on SWT.
Eclipse employsplug-insinordertoprovide all of itsfunctionalityontopof (andincluding) the richclient
platform,incontrastto some otherapplicationswherefunctionalityistypicallyhard coded. This plug-in
mechanism is a lightweight software componentry framework. In addition to allowing Eclipse to be
extended using other programming languages such as C and Python, the plug-in framework allows
Eclipse to work with typesetting languages like LaTeX, networking applications such as telnet, and
database management systems.
CODING
HOME.JSP:
<%@pagelanguage="java"contentType="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1"
pageEncoding="ISO-8859-1"%>
<!DOCTYPEhtmlPUBLIC"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01
Transitional//EN""http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<metahttp-equiv="Content-Type"content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1">
<title>Insert title here</title>
<linkhref="default.css"rel="stylesheet"type="text/css"/>
</head>
<body>
<divid="header">
<h1>PROACTIVE</h1>
<h2>for Quality in Production </h2>
</div>
<divid="menu">
<ul>
<li><ahref=" "class="active">Home</a></li>
<li><ahref="productlist.jsp">Products</a></li>
<li><ahref="production.jsp">Production</a></li>
<li><ahref="login.jsp">Login</a></li>
<li><ahref="Qalogin.jsp">Quality Assurance</a></li>
<li><ahref="Aboutus.jsp">Suppliers</a></li>
<li><ahref="Suppliers.jsp">Aboutus</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
${msg}
<ahref="mail.jsp">send mail</a>
<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>
<divid="footer">
<p>Copyright &copy; 2006 Sitename.com. Designed by
<ahref="http://www.freecsstemplates.org">FCT</a></p>
</div>
</body>
</html>
ADMINHOME.JSP:
<%@pagelanguage="java"contentType="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1"
pageEncoding="ISO-8859-1"%>
<!DOCTYPEhtmlPUBLIC"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01
Transitional//EN""http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<metahttp-equiv="Content-Type"content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1">
<title>Insert title here</title>
<linkhref="default.css"rel="stylesheet"type="text/css"/>
</head>
<body>
<divid="header">
<h1>PROACTIVE</h1>
<h2>for Quality in Production </h2>
</div>
<divid="menu">
<ul>
<li><ahref="proactivema.jsp"class="active">Home</a></li>
<li><ahref="products.jsp">Products</a>
<li><ahref="prteam.jsp">Production</a></li>
<li><ahref="login.jsp">Login</a></li>
<li><ahref="Quteam.jsp">Quality Assurance</a></li>
<li><ahref="Aboutus.jsp">Aboutus</a></li>
<% String username=(String)session.getAttribute("uname");
if(username!=null)
{%><li><ahref="Logout.jsp">Logout</a></li><% }%>
</ul>
</ul>
</div>
<h2>Welcome to Admin</h2>
</head>
<body>
<tablealign="center">
<br>
<tr>
<td></td>
<td>${msg}</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<ahref="addmembers.jsp"><h1>addmembers</h1></a>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<ahref="LoginUser.jsp"><h1>updatemembers</h1></a>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<ahref="Deleteuser.jsp"><h1>delete members</h1></a>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<ahref="displayemployee.jsp"><h1>view Employeedetails</h1></a>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<ahref="viewproduction.jsp"><h1>view production values</h1></a>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<ahref="productlist.jsp"><h1>view products</h1></a>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<ahref="Quality.jsp"><h1>check quality assurance</h1></a>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
</div>
<divid="footer">
<p>Copyright &copy; 2015 Proactive.com. Designed by
<ahref="http://www.proactive.org">Proactive</a></p>
</div>
</body>
</html>
REGISTER.JSP:
<%@pagelanguage="java"contentType="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1"
pageEncoding="ISO-8859-1"%>
<!DOCTYPEhtmlPUBLIC"-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0
Strict//EN""http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
<htmlxmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<head>
<title>Register a User</title>
<metahttp-equiv="Content-Type"content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"/>
<linkrel="stylesheet"type="text/css"media="screen"href="style.css"/>
</head>
<body>
<scriptsrc="jquery.min.js"></script>
<script>
$(document).ready(function(){
//alert("inside jquery");
varuname=$("#uname");
var pass=$("#pass");
varrpass=$("#rpass");
varfname=$("#fname");
varlname=$("#lname");
var phone=$("#phone");
var address=$("#address");
var dob=$("#dob");
$("#uname").blur(function(){
//alert("This input field has lost its focus."+uname);
varmailformat = /^w+([.-]?w+)*@w+([.-]?w+)*(.w{2,3})+$/; // regExp for Email check
if(uname.val().match(mailformat))
{ $("#un").html("<h3><font color='green'>Good</font></h3>");
}
else{
$("#un").html("<h3><font color='red'>Not a valid Email
Address</font></h3>");
uname.val("");
uname.focus();}
});
$("#pass").blur(function(){
//$("#un").html("");
if(pass.val().length<7)
{ $("#ps").html("<h3><font color='red'>Password length must be more then 6
</font></h3>");
pass.val("");
pass.focus();
}
else{
$("#ps").html("<h3><font color='green'>Good</font></h3>");
}
});
$("#rpass").blur(function(){
//$("#ps").html("");
if(rpass.val().length<7)
{ $("#rps").html("<h3><font color='red'>Password length must be more then 6
</font></h3>");
rpass.val("");
rpass.focus();
}
else{
$("#rps").html("<h3><font color='green'>Good</font></h3>");
}
});
$("#fname").blur(function(){
// $("#rps").html("");
var letters = /^[A-Za-z]+$/; //regExp for All Alphabets
if(fname.val().match(letters))
{ $("#fn").html("<h3><font color='green'>Good</font></h3>");
}
else{
$("#fn").html("<h3><fontcolor='red'>Only Alphabets Allowed</font></h3>");
fname.val("");
fname.focus();}
});
$("#lname").blur(function(){
//$("#fn").html("");
var letters = /^[A-Za-z]+$/; //regExp for All Alphabets
if(lname.val().match(letters))
{ $("#ln").html("<h3><font color='green'>Good</font></h3>");
}
else{
$("#ln").html("<h3><fontcolor='red'>Only Alphabets Allowed</font></h3>");
lname.val("");
lname.focus();}
});
$("#phone").blur(function(){
//$("#ln").html("");
var numbers = /^[0-9]+$/; //regExp for all Numbers
if(phone.val().match(numbers))
{ $("#ph").html("<h3><font color='green'>Good</font></h3>");
}
elseif(phone.val().length < 10)
{
$("#ph").html("<h3><font color='red'>Mobile Number must be 10
digit</font></h3>");
phone.val("");
phone.focus();
}
else{
$("#ph").html("<h3><font color='red'>Only Numeric Values</font></h3>");
phone.val("");
phone.focus();}
});
$("#address").blur(function(){
//$("#ph").html("");
if(address.val().length==0)
{ $("#ad").html("<h3><fontcolor='red'>Address Can't left blank</font></h3>");
address.focus();
}
else{
$("#ad").html("<h3><font color='green'>Good</font></h3>");
}
});
$("#dob").blur(function(){
//$("#ad").html("");
if(dob.val().length==0)
{ $("#dt").html("<h3><font color='red'>DOB Can't left blank</font></h3>");
dob.focus();
}
else{
$("#dt").html("<h3><font color='green'>Good</font></h3>");
}
});
});
</script>
<divid="container">
<divid="header">
<h1>My Sample Project</h1>
</div>
<!--
<div id="sideheader"></div>
-->
<divid="left_column">
<divclass="left_column_boxes">
<h4>Navigation</h4>
<divid="navcontainer">
<ulid="navlist">
<liid="active"><ahref="index.jsp"id="current">Home</a></li>
<li><ahref="Login.jsp">Login </a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<divid="content">
${msg}
${msg1}
<formaction="RegisterServlet"method="post">
<table>
<tr>
<td>UserName</td>
<td><inputtype="text"name="uname"id="uname"/></td>
<td><pid="un"></p></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Password</td>
<td><inputtype="password"name="pass"id="pass"/></td>
<td><pid="ps"></p></td>
</tr>
<tr></tr>
<tr>
<td>Re enter Password</td>
<td><inputtype="password"name="rpass"id="rpass"/></td>
<td><pid="rps"></p></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>First Name</td>
<td><inputtype="text"name="fname"id="fname"/></td>
<td><pid="fn"></p></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Last Name</td>
<td><inputtype="text"name="lname"id="lname"/></td>
<td><pid="ln"></p></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Address</td>
<td><inputtype="text"name="address"id="address"/></td>
<td><pid="ad"></p></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Phone Number</td>
<td><inputtype="text"name="phone"id="phone"/></td>
<td><pid="ph"></p></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>DOB</td>
<td><inputtype="date"name="dob"id="dob"/></td>
<td><pid="dt"></p></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Security Question</td>
<td><selectname="sques">
<optionvalue="What is Your First School Name">What is Your First School Name</option>
<optionvalue="What is Your Favorite Food">What is Your Favorite Food</option>
<optionvalue="What is Your Birth Place">What is Your Birth Place</option>
</select></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Answer</td>
<td><inputtype="text"name="answer"/></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<tdcolspan="2"><imgsrc="http://kiit_mvc.eu-gb.mybluemix.net/CaptchaServlet"/></td>
<!--
<td colspan="2" ><imgsrc="http://localhost:8080/KIIT_MVC/CaptchaServlet"/></td>
-->
<tdcolspan="2"><ahref="Register.jsp">NEW CAPTCHA</a>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<tdcolspan="2"align="center">Captcha Answer:</td>
<tdcolspan="2"align="center"><inputtype="text"name="code"/></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td></td>
<td><inputtype="submit"value="SUBMIT"/></td>
</tr>
</table>
</form>
</div>
</body>
</html>
SERVLET CODE:
package controller;
importjava.io.IOException;
importjava.sql.ResultSet;
importjava.sql.SQLException;
importjavax.servlet.ServletException;
importjavax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;
importjavax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
importjavax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
importjavax.servlet.http.HttpSession;
importmodel.Model;
importdao.Dao;
/**
* Servlet implementation class Adminlogin
*/
publicclassAdminloginextendsHttpServlet {
privatestaticfinallongserialVersionUID = 1L;
/**
* @seeHttpServlet#HttpServlet()
*/
publicAdminlogin() {
super();
// TODO Auto-generated constructor stub
}
/**
* @seeHttpServlet#doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
*/
protectedvoiddoGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
throwsServletException, IOException {
// TODO Auto-generated method stub
}
/**
* @seeHttpServlet#doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
*/
protectedvoiddoPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
throwsServletException, IOException {
// TODO Auto-generated method stub
String uname=request.getParameter("uname");
String pass=request.getParameter("pass");
if(uname.equals(null)||uname==""||pass.equals(null)||pass=="")
{
request.setAttribute("msg", "all field are mandatory");
getServletContext().getRequestDispatcher("/admilogin.jsp").include(request,
response);
}
else
{
Model m = newModel();
m.setUname(uname);
m.setPass(pass);
String sql="select * from admin where uname=? and password=?";
ResultSetrs=Dao.loginUser(m,sql);
HttpSession session = request.getSession();
boolean status;
try {
status = rs.next();
if(status==true)
{
session.setAttribute("uname", rs.getString(1));
session.setAttribute("pass", rs.getString(2));
getServletContext().getRequestDispatcher("/adminhome.jsp").forward(request, response);
}
else
{
request.setAttribute("msg", "Username or password in
correct");
getServletContext().getRequestDispatcher("/admilogin.jsp").include(request, response);
}
} catch (SQLException e) {
// TODO Auto-generated catch block
e.printStackTrace();
}
}
}
}
SYSTEM TESTING
TESTING
Software Testingisthe processusedtohelpidentifythe correctness,completeness,security,andquality
of developedcomputersoftware.Testingisaprocessof technical investigation,performed on behalf of
stakeholders,that is intended to reveal quality-related information about the product with respect to
the context in which it is intended to operate. This includes, but is not limited to, the process of
executingaprogramor applicationwiththe intentof findingerrors.Qualityisnotan absolute;itisvalue
to some person.With that in mind, testing can never completely establish the correctness of arbitrary
computersoftware;testingfurnishesacriticismorcomparisonthat compares the state and behavior of
the product againsta specification.Animportantpointisthat software testing should be distinguished
from the separate discipline of Software Quality Assurance (SQA), which encompasses all business
process areas, not just testing.
There are manyapproachesto software testing,buteffective testingof complex productsisessentiallya
process of investigation, not merely a matter of creating and following routine procedure. One
definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it", where the
"questions" are operations the tester attempts to execute with the product, and the product answers
with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester[citation needed]. Although most of the
intellectual processesof testingare nearly identical to that of review or inspection, the word testing is
connotedtomeanthe dynamicanalysisof the product—puttingthe productthrough its paces. Some of
the common quality attributes include capability, reliability, efficiency, portability, maintainability,
compatibilityandusability.A goodtestissometimesdescribedasone which reveals an error; however,
more recentthinkingsuggeststhatagood testisone whichrevealsinformation of interest to someone
who matters within the project community.
Testing
TestingMethodology:
 Black box Testing:
 White box Testing.
 Gray Box Testing.
Levels of Testing
 Unit Testing.
 Module Testing.
 Integration Testing.
 System Testing.
 User Acceptance Testing.
Types of Testing:
 Smoke Testing.
 Sanitary Testing.
 Regression Testing.
 Re-Testing.
 Static Testing.
 Dynamic Testing.
 Alpha-Testing.
 Beta-Testing.
 Monkey Testing.
 Compatibility Testing.
 Installation Testing.
 AdhocTesting.
TCD (TestCase Documentation)
STLC:
 Test Planning.
 Test Development.
 Test Execution.
 Result Analysis.
 Bug-Tracing.
 Reporting.
Automation Testing(Tools)
 Win Runner.
 Test Director.
Testing:
 The process of executing a system with the intent of finding an error.
 Testing is defined as the process in which defects are identified, isolated, subjected for
rectificationandensuredthatproductisdefectfree inordertoproduce the quality product and
hence customer satisfaction.
 Quality is defined as justification of the requirements
 Defect is nothing but deviation from the requirements
 Defect is nothing but bug.
 Testing --- The presence of bugs
 Testing can demonstrate the presence of bugs, but not their absence
 Debugging and Testing are not the same thing!
 Testing is a systematic attempt to break a program or the AUT
 Debugging is the art or method of uncovering why the script /program did not execute
properly.
Testing Methodologies:
 Black boxTesting: isthe testingprocessinwhichtestercanperformtestingonan application
without having any internal structural knowledge of application.
Usually Test Engineers are involved in the black box testing.
 White box Testing: is the testing process in which tester can perform testing on an
application with having internal structural knowledge.
Usually The Developers are involved in white box testing.
 Gray Box Testing: isthe processinwhichthe combination of black box and white box tonics’
are used.
Test Planning:
1.TestPlan is defined as a strategic document which describes the procedure how to perform various
testing on the total application in the most efficient way.
2. This document involves the scope of testing,
3. Objective of testing,
4. Areas that need to be tested,
5. Areas that should not be tested,
6. Scheduling Resource Planning,
7. Areas to be automated, various testing tools Used….
Test Development:
1. Test case Development (check list)
2. Test Procedure preparation. (Description of the Test cases).
Result Analysis:
1. Expected value: is nothing but expected behavior of application.
2. Actual value: is nothing but actual behavior of application
Bug Tracing: Collect all the failed cases, prepare documents.
Reporting: Prepare document (status of the application)
Types of Testing:
Smoke Testing: is the process of initial testing in which tester looks for the availability of all the
functionalityof the applicationinordertoperformdetailedtestingonthem.(Maincheckisforavailable
forms)
Sanity Testing:isatype of testingthatisconductedonan applicationinitiallytocheckfor the proper
behaviorof an applicationthatistocheck all the functionalityare availablebeforethe detailedtestingis
conducted by on them.
Regression Testing: is one of the best and important testing. Regression testing is the process in
whichthe functionality,whichisalreadytestedbefore,isonce againtestedwheneversome new change
is added in order to check whether the existing functionality remains same.
Re-Testing:isthe processinwhichtestingisperformedonsome functionalitywhichis alreadytested
before tomake sure that the defects are reproducible and to rule out the environments issues if at all
any defects are there.
Static Testing:isthe testing,whichisperformedonan application when it is not been executed.ex:
GUI, Document Testing
Dynamic Testing:isthe testingwhichisperformedon an application when it is being executed.ex:
Functional testing.
AlphaTesting:Itisa type of useracceptance testing,whichisconductedonanapplicationwhen it is
just before released to the customer.
Beta-Testing: it is a type of UAT that is conducted on an application when it is released to the
customer, when deployed in to the real time environment and being accessed by the real time users.
Monkey Testing:isthe processinwhich abnormal operations,beyondcapacityoperationsare done
on the application to check the stability of it in spite of the users abnormal behavior.
Compatibility testing: it is the testing process in which usually the products are tested on the
environments withdifferentcombinationsof databases(application servers, browsers…etc) In order to
check how far the product is compatible with all these environments platform combination.
InstallationTesting:itisthe processof testinginwhich the tester try to install or try to deploy the
module intothe corresponding environment by following the guidelines produced in the deployment
document and check whether the installation is successful or not.
Adhoc Testing:AdhocTestingis the process of testing in which unlike the formal testing where in
testcase documentisused,withoutthattest case documenttesting can be done of an application, to
coverthat testingof the future whichare not covered in that test case document. Also it is intended to
perform GUI testing which may involve the cosmotic issues.
OUTPUT SCREENSHOTS
HOMEPAGE:
LOGIN PAGE:
ADMIN LOGIN PAGE:
ADMIN PAGE:
PRODUCTION:
QUALITY ASSURANCE:
QUALITY ASSURANCEDEPT:
ABOUTUS:
FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS
FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS
To develop a system which fulfills all the Requirements of the user as per user wants? User
requirements keep changing as the new technology emerges It is not possible to develop a
system that makes all the requirements of the user. User requirements keep changing as the
system is being used. Some of the future enhancements that can be done to this system are:
 As the technologyemerges,itispossible toupgrade the systemandcanbe adaptable to desired
environment.
 Because it is based on object-oriented design, any further changes can be easily adaptable.
 Based on the future security issues, security can be improved using emerging technologies.
 sub admin module can be added
 An in-built web browsercan be added
CONCLUSION
CONCLUSION
Work Done:
The “PROACTIVE” was successfully designed and is tested for accuracy and quality.
During this project we have accomplished all the objectives and this project meets the needs of the
organization. The developed will be used in searching, retrieving and generating information for the
concerned requests
CONCLUSION
Remember quality is perishable so avoid nasty surprises... maintain a sustainable control
framework with everyone playing their role in ensuring Quality
Trusting and open environment needed to report issues with obligation to resolve them
Limitations of the system:
 Only the permanent employees can access the system.
 System works in all platforms and its compatible environments.
 Advanced techniques are not used to check the authorization.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBILOGRAPHY
Good Teachers are worth more than thousand books, we have them in Our Department
References Made From:
 Professional Java Network Programming
 Java Complete Reference
 Data Communications and Networking, by Behrouz A Forouzan.
 Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach, by James F. Kurose.
 Operating System Concepts by Abraham Silberschatz.
 Deepak Jain “ Electronic Banking” IBA BULLETIN, Dec 2002
 Mishra A K (2005), “Internet Banking in India Part-I”, 2010.
Sites Referred:
http://java.sun.com
http://www.sourcefordgde.com
http://www.banknetindia.com/

More Related Content

What's hot

Quality engineering in DevOps... Why? How? (TestBusters Day&Night))
Quality engineering in DevOps... Why? How? (TestBusters Day&Night))Quality engineering in DevOps... Why? How? (TestBusters Day&Night))
Quality engineering in DevOps... Why? How? (TestBusters Day&Night))Rik Marselis
 
Hilary Martin CV 07 16
Hilary Martin CV 07 16Hilary Martin CV 07 16
Hilary Martin CV 07 16Hilary Martin
 
Agile software development and challenges
Agile software development and challengesAgile software development and challenges
Agile software development and challengeseSAT Publishing House
 
RCA on Residual defects – Techniques for adaptive Regression testing
RCA on Residual defects – Techniques for adaptive Regression testingRCA on Residual defects – Techniques for adaptive Regression testing
RCA on Residual defects – Techniques for adaptive Regression testingIndium Software
 
White paper quality at the speed of digital
White paper   quality at the speed of digitalWhite paper   quality at the speed of digital
White paper quality at the speed of digitalrajni singh
 
Testing experience no_22_guzman_barrio_martinez
Testing experience no_22_guzman_barrio_martinezTesting experience no_22_guzman_barrio_martinez
Testing experience no_22_guzman_barrio_martinezRaúl Martínez
 
IRJET- Comparative Analysis between Sequential and Iterative Project Manageme...
IRJET- Comparative Analysis between Sequential and Iterative Project Manageme...IRJET- Comparative Analysis between Sequential and Iterative Project Manageme...
IRJET- Comparative Analysis between Sequential and Iterative Project Manageme...IRJET Journal
 
Quality Engineering and Testing with TMAP in DevOps IT delivery
Quality Engineering and Testing with TMAP in DevOps IT deliveryQuality Engineering and Testing with TMAP in DevOps IT delivery
Quality Engineering and Testing with TMAP in DevOps IT deliveryRik Marselis
 
Nguyen, chris expanded resume
Nguyen, chris expanded resumeNguyen, chris expanded resume
Nguyen, chris expanded resumeChris Nguyen
 
Software process &amp; product quality
Software process &amp; product qualitySoftware process &amp; product quality
Software process &amp; product qualityIAEME Publication
 
Unit II Software Testing and Quality Assurance
Unit II Software Testing and Quality AssuranceUnit II Software Testing and Quality Assurance
Unit II Software Testing and Quality AssuranceVinothkumaR Ramu
 
A Radical Challenge in Reliability Dynamic Life Test.pdf; Burn-In program Con...
A Radical Challenge in Reliability Dynamic Life Test.pdf; Burn-In program Con...A Radical Challenge in Reliability Dynamic Life Test.pdf; Burn-In program Con...
A Radical Challenge in Reliability Dynamic Life Test.pdf; Burn-In program Con...Phillip Chan
 
Kanchan Ghangrekar_SrTestingAnalyst
Kanchan Ghangrekar_SrTestingAnalystKanchan Ghangrekar_SrTestingAnalyst
Kanchan Ghangrekar_SrTestingAnalystKanchan Ghangrekar
 
Software engineering 11 software quality assurance plans
Software engineering 11 software quality assurance plansSoftware engineering 11 software quality assurance plans
Software engineering 11 software quality assurance plansVaibhav Khanna
 
Testing Centralization
Testing CentralizationTesting Centralization
Testing CentralizationCognizant
 
Soasta testing inproduction_whitepaper__v1.0
Soasta testing inproduction_whitepaper__v1.0Soasta testing inproduction_whitepaper__v1.0
Soasta testing inproduction_whitepaper__v1.0ezuritac
 
Brian D. Wilson resume 2014
Brian D. Wilson  resume 2014Brian D. Wilson  resume 2014
Brian D. Wilson resume 2014Brian Wilson
 

What's hot (20)

Quality engineering in DevOps... Why? How? (TestBusters Day&Night))
Quality engineering in DevOps... Why? How? (TestBusters Day&Night))Quality engineering in DevOps... Why? How? (TestBusters Day&Night))
Quality engineering in DevOps... Why? How? (TestBusters Day&Night))
 
Hilary Martin CV 07 16
Hilary Martin CV 07 16Hilary Martin CV 07 16
Hilary Martin CV 07 16
 
Agile software development and challenges
Agile software development and challengesAgile software development and challenges
Agile software development and challenges
 
Siddharth Raipure_CV_NEW
Siddharth Raipure_CV_NEWSiddharth Raipure_CV_NEW
Siddharth Raipure_CV_NEW
 
RCA on Residual defects – Techniques for adaptive Regression testing
RCA on Residual defects – Techniques for adaptive Regression testingRCA on Residual defects – Techniques for adaptive Regression testing
RCA on Residual defects – Techniques for adaptive Regression testing
 
White paper quality at the speed of digital
White paper   quality at the speed of digitalWhite paper   quality at the speed of digital
White paper quality at the speed of digital
 
Testing experience no_22_guzman_barrio_martinez
Testing experience no_22_guzman_barrio_martinezTesting experience no_22_guzman_barrio_martinez
Testing experience no_22_guzman_barrio_martinez
 
IRJET- Comparative Analysis between Sequential and Iterative Project Manageme...
IRJET- Comparative Analysis between Sequential and Iterative Project Manageme...IRJET- Comparative Analysis between Sequential and Iterative Project Manageme...
IRJET- Comparative Analysis between Sequential and Iterative Project Manageme...
 
Quality Engineering and Testing with TMAP in DevOps IT delivery
Quality Engineering and Testing with TMAP in DevOps IT deliveryQuality Engineering and Testing with TMAP in DevOps IT delivery
Quality Engineering and Testing with TMAP in DevOps IT delivery
 
Nguyen, chris expanded resume
Nguyen, chris expanded resumeNguyen, chris expanded resume
Nguyen, chris expanded resume
 
Software process &amp; product quality
Software process &amp; product qualitySoftware process &amp; product quality
Software process &amp; product quality
 
Unit II Software Testing and Quality Assurance
Unit II Software Testing and Quality AssuranceUnit II Software Testing and Quality Assurance
Unit II Software Testing and Quality Assurance
 
Res 10-30-15
Res 10-30-15Res 10-30-15
Res 10-30-15
 
A Radical Challenge in Reliability Dynamic Life Test.pdf; Burn-In program Con...
A Radical Challenge in Reliability Dynamic Life Test.pdf; Burn-In program Con...A Radical Challenge in Reliability Dynamic Life Test.pdf; Burn-In program Con...
A Radical Challenge in Reliability Dynamic Life Test.pdf; Burn-In program Con...
 
Kanchan Ghangrekar_SrTestingAnalyst
Kanchan Ghangrekar_SrTestingAnalystKanchan Ghangrekar_SrTestingAnalyst
Kanchan Ghangrekar_SrTestingAnalyst
 
Software engineering 11 software quality assurance plans
Software engineering 11 software quality assurance plansSoftware engineering 11 software quality assurance plans
Software engineering 11 software quality assurance plans
 
Testing Centralization
Testing CentralizationTesting Centralization
Testing Centralization
 
Apply quality standared lecture note by aragaw g medhin +251911080316
Apply quality standared  lecture note by aragaw g medhin +251911080316Apply quality standared  lecture note by aragaw g medhin +251911080316
Apply quality standared lecture note by aragaw g medhin +251911080316
 
Soasta testing inproduction_whitepaper__v1.0
Soasta testing inproduction_whitepaper__v1.0Soasta testing inproduction_whitepaper__v1.0
Soasta testing inproduction_whitepaper__v1.0
 
Brian D. Wilson resume 2014
Brian D. Wilson  resume 2014Brian D. Wilson  resume 2014
Brian D. Wilson resume 2014
 

Similar to PROACTVE

Quality Control Report
Quality Control ReportQuality Control Report
Quality Control ReportEzevillo Zim
 
Ajay_Training_Report[1]
Ajay_Training_Report[1]Ajay_Training_Report[1]
Ajay_Training_Report[1]AJAY KUMAR
 
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORTINDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORTSUYASH TRIVEDI
 
Software quality assurance
Software quality assuranceSoftware quality assurance
Software quality assuranceRajeev Sharan
 
Project Report on Exam Suite/Test Application/Exam App ( JAVA )
Project Report on Exam Suite/Test Application/Exam App ( JAVA )Project Report on Exam Suite/Test Application/Exam App ( JAVA )
Project Report on Exam Suite/Test Application/Exam App ( JAVA )paras91
 
Submission of mba spring 2012
Submission of mba spring 2012Submission of mba spring 2012
Submission of mba spring 2012Shraddha Singh
 
A project report on TQM by Abhinandan Kumar
A project report on TQM by Abhinandan KumarA project report on TQM by Abhinandan Kumar
A project report on TQM by Abhinandan KumarAbhinandan Kumar
 
GAS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM.pdf
GAS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM.pdfGAS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM.pdf
GAS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM.pdfRmsDagi
 
Nilesh More_Project Manager
Nilesh More_Project ManagerNilesh More_Project Manager
Nilesh More_Project ManagerNilesh More
 
HPE ALM Octane | DevOps | Agile
HPE ALM Octane | DevOps | AgileHPE ALM Octane | DevOps | Agile
HPE ALM Octane | DevOps | AgileJeffrey Nunn
 
Application of Six Sigma Methodologyto Reduce Defects of a Gri.docx
Application of Six Sigma Methodologyto Reduce Defects of a Gri.docxApplication of Six Sigma Methodologyto Reduce Defects of a Gri.docx
Application of Six Sigma Methodologyto Reduce Defects of a Gri.docxjustine1simpson78276
 
Ch 7 integrating quality activities in the projectlife cycle
Ch 7 integrating quality activities in the projectlife cycleCh 7 integrating quality activities in the projectlife cycle
Ch 7 integrating quality activities in the projectlife cycleKittitouch Suteeca
 
IOP Conference Series Materials Science and EngineeringPA.docx
IOP Conference Series Materials Science and EngineeringPA.docxIOP Conference Series Materials Science and EngineeringPA.docx
IOP Conference Series Materials Science and EngineeringPA.docxvrickens
 
Quality at the speed of digital
Quality   at the speed of digitalQuality   at the speed of digital
Quality at the speed of digitalrajni singh
 

Similar to PROACTVE (20)

Quality Control Report
Quality Control ReportQuality Control Report
Quality Control Report
 
Ajay_Training_Report[1]
Ajay_Training_Report[1]Ajay_Training_Report[1]
Ajay_Training_Report[1]
 
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORTINDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
 
Software quality assurance
Software quality assuranceSoftware quality assurance
Software quality assurance
 
CS PRACRICLE.docx
CS PRACRICLE.docxCS PRACRICLE.docx
CS PRACRICLE.docx
 
Project Report on Exam Suite/Test Application/Exam App ( JAVA )
Project Report on Exam Suite/Test Application/Exam App ( JAVA )Project Report on Exam Suite/Test Application/Exam App ( JAVA )
Project Report on Exam Suite/Test Application/Exam App ( JAVA )
 
Resume
ResumeResume
Resume
 
Submission of mba spring 2012
Submission of mba spring 2012Submission of mba spring 2012
Submission of mba spring 2012
 
A project report on TQM by Abhinandan Kumar
A project report on TQM by Abhinandan KumarA project report on TQM by Abhinandan Kumar
A project report on TQM by Abhinandan Kumar
 
Softwaretesting
SoftwaretestingSoftwaretesting
Softwaretesting
 
GAS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM.pdf
GAS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM.pdfGAS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM.pdf
GAS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM.pdf
 
Lean Construction Management
Lean Construction Management Lean Construction Management
Lean Construction Management
 
Nilesh More_Project Manager
Nilesh More_Project ManagerNilesh More_Project Manager
Nilesh More_Project Manager
 
HPE ALM Octane | DevOps | Agile
HPE ALM Octane | DevOps | AgileHPE ALM Octane | DevOps | Agile
HPE ALM Octane | DevOps | Agile
 
Rohit new resume
Rohit new resumeRohit new resume
Rohit new resume
 
Test performance indicators
Test performance indicatorsTest performance indicators
Test performance indicators
 
Application of Six Sigma Methodologyto Reduce Defects of a Gri.docx
Application of Six Sigma Methodologyto Reduce Defects of a Gri.docxApplication of Six Sigma Methodologyto Reduce Defects of a Gri.docx
Application of Six Sigma Methodologyto Reduce Defects of a Gri.docx
 
Ch 7 integrating quality activities in the projectlife cycle
Ch 7 integrating quality activities in the projectlife cycleCh 7 integrating quality activities in the projectlife cycle
Ch 7 integrating quality activities in the projectlife cycle
 
IOP Conference Series Materials Science and EngineeringPA.docx
IOP Conference Series Materials Science and EngineeringPA.docxIOP Conference Series Materials Science and EngineeringPA.docx
IOP Conference Series Materials Science and EngineeringPA.docx
 
Quality at the speed of digital
Quality   at the speed of digitalQuality   at the speed of digital
Quality at the speed of digital
 

PROACTVE

  • 1. A Main Project Report On PROACTIVE Submitted in partial fulfillment for the Requirement of the award of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY In COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING From JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD By CH.SAI CHARAN 11E41A05B9 Under the guidance of Mr.G.V.N.K.V SUBBARAO Professor& H.O.D DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING SREE DATTHA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & SCIENCE (Accredited by NBA, New DelhiApproved by AICTE, New Delhi & Affiliated to JNTU, Hyderabad) SHERIGUDA (V), IBRAHIMPATNAM (M), RANGAREDDY (DT). A.P. INDIA -501510 Ph: 08414- 320919 www.sreedattha.ac.in 2014-2015
  • 2. SREE DATTHA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & SCIENCE DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING CERTIFICATE This is to Certify that the Project report on “PROACTIVE” is a bonafide work done by CH.SAI CHARAN (11E41A05B9), in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the award for the degree of Bachelorof Technologyin“ComputerScience andEngineering” J.N.T.U., Hyderabad during 2011-2015. INTERNALGUIDE HEAD OF THE DEPT Mrs.HASITHA REDDY Prof.G.V.N.K.V SUBBARAO EXTERNAL EXAMINER
  • 3. DECLARATION I hereby declare that the entitled “PROACTIVE “submitted for the B.Tech in Computer Science and Engineering. This Dissertation is my original work and the main project has not formed the basis for the award of any degree, associate ship, fellowship or any other similar titles and no part of it has been published or sent for the publication at the time of submission. CH.SAI CHARAN (11E41A05B9)
  • 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This report will certainly not be completed without due acknowledgements paid to all those who have helped me in doing my Project Work. I express my sincere thanks to our supervisor Mrs.HASITHA REDDY, Senior Professor for giving moral support for me, kind attention and valuable guidance to me throughout this Project Work. It is my privilege to thank Mr. G.V.N.K.V SUBBARAO, Professor & Head of the Department, C.S.E. for his encouragement during the progress of this Project Work. It is my privilege to thank Mr. MD SAMEERUDDIN KHAN, DIRECTOR for his support during the progress of this Project Work. I would like to express my gratitude to our COLLEGEMANAGEMENT for providing required infrastructure during this Project Work. I am thankful to both teaching and non-teaching staff members of DEPARTMENT OF CSE for their kind cooperation and all sorts of help to bring out this work successfully. I also thank my parents and friends for being supportive all the time, and I am very much obliged to them. CH.SAI CHARAN (11E41A05B9)
  • 5. ABSTRACT An international manufacturer produces high-performance materials for the semiconductor Industry. The company needed to balance a need for high throughput in its manufacturing Processes with the imperative for quality control of the Solar module components. It sought a turnkey manufacturing execution system to track and monitor the performance of its manufacturing equipment that would also detect and intelligently respond to even small variances in product quality. The solution should be designed to analyze the data to detect trends or shifts in quality based on Product and process parameters. The purpose of the quality assurance and validation processes is to ensure that the next generation of National Qualifications is fit for purpose. The process will check:  the purpose, quality and rigour of the qualifications development process  the alignment of the qualifications with the values, purposes and principles of Curriculum for Excellence and agreed qualifications design principles  that roles, responsibilities and remits are clear  that effective engagement has taken place  the feasibility and practicality of implementation Positive and proactive engagement with stakeholders is a critical factor in ensuring the quality of the new and revised qualifications and their acceptance, adoption and implementation. The development process focuses on producing qualifications which are fit for purpose. The process of developing qualifications has to be open and transparent, and have proactive quality assurance built-in as an intrinsic part of the process.
  • 6. LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO TITLE PAGE NO FIG: 6.1 USE CASE DIAGRAM 22 FIG: :6.2 CLASS DIAGRAM 26 FIG: 6.3 ACTIVITY DIAGRAM 28 FIG:6.4 SEQUENCE DIAGRAM 30 FIG: 6.5 COLLABORATION DIAGRAM 32 FIG: 6.6 COMPONENT DIAGRAM 34 FIG.6.7 OBJECT DIAGRAM 35 FIG.6.9 E-R DIAGRAM 36 FIG: 7.1 J2EE APPLICATION 16
  • 7. LIST OF SYMBOLS Use case Actor Activity Class Initial state Final state Swim lane Control flow Object flow
  • 9. 1. INTRODUCTION Over the years, quality control has evolved from practicesfocused on final product inspection by a qualityinspector topractices that rely more on in‐process self‐inspection by theproduction technician and a much smallerauditingrole forthe inspector. Most quality professionals agree that it ismuch less expensive andmore effective to design qualityinto the process rather than test and fix products at the endof the process.
  • 10. Inspectionof the productafteritis made resultsincostlyrework,scrapanddelays.Quality professionals mustconsider how to best control potentially problematic processes during manufacturing to ensure acceptablequality at the end. Today’s manufacturing technicians manage their own quality as part of their work processes; inspectionrequirements are built right into the manufacturing work instructions; and verification mechanisms are built intotooling fixtures and work procedures. These additional inspection requirementsforthe techniciancanbesimplified and automated by a Manufacturing Execution System (MES). For example, an MES can reduce the needfor 100 percent verification on some processes, and insteadenforce skippingorsamplingrules that willautomatically prompt the technician as needed. An MES can also keep track of when auditing is required by aninspector. These rules could even vary according to each technician’s experience level on different types of jobs.This level of efficiency in dispatchingverificationscannotbe achievedwithconfidence using manual methods; itrequires an MES to track and enforce the rules automatically. An international manufacturer produces high-performance materials for the semiconductor industry. The company needed to balance a need for high throughput in its manufacturing processes with the imperative for quality control of the solar module components. It sought a turnkey manufacturing executionsystemtotrack and monitorthe performance of itsmanufacturingequipmentthatwouldalso detect and intelligently respond to even small variances in product quality. The solution should be designed to analyze the data to detect trends or shifts inQuality based on product and process parameters. For virtuallyeverybusiness,anongoingquality improvement process is a key component to improving operations and employee morale. Businesses that make a concerted effort to continuously improve operations ultimately gain a competitive edge. Market dynamicsconstantlychange andclearlydefinedQIP(Quality Improvement Program) forces key personnel to take an objective look at business processes that are essential to keeping your company profitable. More importantly,qualityimprovementisanongoingprocessaimedatkeepingyour company ahead of the competition.Thisprocessincludes continuously reviewing and improving business operations and implementing incremental changes as they develop to promote ongoing quality improvements.
  • 11. Incremental changes are easier to implement and measure. Incremental quality improvement efforts can include finding ways to reduce production and/or operating costs or improve time efficiency in a single business process. Font-line employees can be a great source for incremental quality improvements. Try this: Put a suggestionbox inthe breakroomand youmay be surprised with the quality improvement suggestions employees come up with. A simple suggestion box empowers employees to make suggestions on improving the quality of their workand is perhapsone of the smartest moves business owners can make to build cohesion between managers and their subordinates.
  • 13. 2. SYSTEM ANALYSIS 2.1 Purpose of the System: As alreadymentioned,the introductionof qualityassurance forsolarcomponents isthe most important part of our portal. The analytical ability of customers comes in handy in complicated diagnosis. In business,asinlife,it’softenwise toseizethe initiative.Reacting to problems after they occur is usually more expensive than addressing them proactively. It also usually means that the problem gets bigger than it would have been if it got nipped in the bud. In general the term Proactive refers to :- “creating or controlling a situation rather than just responding to it after it has happened.”
  • 14. 2.2. EXISTING SYSTEM: QA applicationslike FRACAS(Failure Reporting,AnalysisandCorrectiveActionSystem),are focusedon reactive practicesincluding: • Final ProductInspectionPlans • DocumentingProblemsandFailures • Corrective Actions • Failure andCorrectionMetrics These traditional stand‐alonequalityapplicationsare reactingtoerrorsand managingthe results of poorquality.. 2.4 PROPOSED SYSTEM: The development of this new system contains the following activities, which try to develop the web- application entire process keeping in the view of database integration approach.  clearvision,purpose andvalues  opencommunicationandengagement  collaborative workingandknowledgemanagement  Thissystemwill generateteamprogressandalsoprovidessecure registrationandprofile managementof the users.  Advance ProductInspectionPlans  DocumentingProblemsandFailuresaccuratly  Failure andCorrectionMetricsusingproactive methods  Maintainingqualityvaluesfordeviceswhichhave tofollow byproductionteam
  • 15.  Moderate initial setupcostsbothhardware andsoftware.  Standardizednetworkprotocol TCP/IP,documentprotocol HTML andfile transferprotocol FTP.
  • 17. 3. FEASIBILITY REPORT 3.1TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY: Evaluating the technical feasibility is the trickiest part of a feasibility study. This is because, at this point in time, not too many detailed design of the system, making it difficult to access issues like performance, costs on (on account of the kind of technology to be deployed) etc. A number of issues have to be considered while doing a technical analysis.
  • 18.  Understand the different technologies involved in the proposed system: Before commencing the project, we have to be very clear about what are the technologies that are to be required for the development of the new system.  Find out whether the organization currently possesses the required technologies:  Is the required technology available with the organization?  If so is the capacity sufficient? For instance “Will the current customers be able to handle the new timetable and forms required for the new course?” 3.2OPERATIONAL FEASIBILITY: Proposed project is beneficial only if it can be turned into information systems that will meet the organizationsoperatingrequirements.Simplystated,thistest of feasibility asks if the system will work whenitis developedandinstalled.Are there majorbarrierstoImplementation?Here are questions that will help test the operational feasibility of a project:Is there sufficient support for the project from managementfromusers?If the currentsystemiswell likedandusedtothe extent that persons will not be able to see reasonsforchange,there maybe resistance.Are the currentbusinessmethodsacceptable to the user?If they are not, Users may welcome a change that will bring about a more operational and useful systems.Have the user been involved in the planning and development of the project? Early involvementreducesthe chancesof resistance tothe systemandingeneral andincreasesthe likelihood of successful project.Since the proposed system was to help reduce the hardshipsencountered. In the existing manual system, the new system was considered to be operational feasibility. 3.3ECONOMICAL FEASIBILITY: Economical feasibility attempts 2 weigh the costs of developing and implementing a new system, against the benefits that would assure from having the new system in place. This feasibility study gives the top management the economical justification for the new system.A simple economical
  • 19. analysis which gives the actual comparison of costs and benefits are much more meaningful in this case. In addition, this proves to be a useful point of reference to compare actual costs as the project progresses. There could be various types of intangible benefits on account of automation. These could include increased customer satisfaction, improvement in product quality better decision making timeliness of information, expediting activities, improved accuracy of operations, better documentation and record keeping, faster retrieval of information, better employee morale.
  • 21. 4 REQURIEMENT PHASE The requirement phase basically consists of three activities: 1.Requirement Analysis 2.Requirement Specification 3.Requirement Validation 4.1 Requirement Analysis: RequirementAnalysisisasoftware engineeringtaskthatbridgesthe gapbetweensystemlevelsoftware allocation and software design. It provides the system engineer to specify software function and performance,indicatesoftware’sinterface with the other system elements and establish constraints that software must meet. The basic aimof thisstage isto obtaina clearpicture of the needsandrequirementsof the end-userand alsothe organization.Analysisinvolves interaction between the clients and the analysis. Usually analysts research a problem from any questions asked and reading existing documents.
  • 22. The analysts have to uncover the real needs of the user even if they don’t know them clearly. During analysisitisessential thatacomplete andconsistentsetof specificationsemerge for the system. Here it is essential to resolve the contradictions that could emerge from information got from various parties. This is essential to ensure that the final specifications are consistent. It may be divided into 5 areas of effort.  Problem recognition  Evaluation and synthesis  Modeling  Specification 4.2 REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION Specification Principles: Software Requirements Specification plays an important role in creating quality software solutions. Specification is basically a representation process. Requirements are represented in a manner that ultimately leads to successful software implementation. Requirementsmaybe specifiedinavarietyof ways. Howeverthere are some guidelinesworthfollowing: -  Representation format and content should be relevant to the problem  Information contained within the specification should be nested  Diagrams and other notational forms should be restricted in number and consistent in use.  Representations should be revisable. Software Requirements Specifications: The software requirements specification is produced at the culmination of the analysis task. The function and performance allocated to the software as a part of system engineering are refined by establishing a complete information description, a detailed functional and behavioral description, and indicationof performance requirements and design constraints, appropriate validation criteria and other data pertinent to requirements.
  • 23. An outline of the Software Requirements Specification: A simplified outline can be given for the framework of the specifications. This is according to the IEEE Standards.
  • 25. 5. SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION 5.1 MODULES DESCRIPTION : No of Modules: The systemaftercareful analysishasbeenidentifiedtobe presentedwiththe followingmodules: 1. LOGIN 2. ADMINISTRATOR 3. PRODUCTION 4. QUALITY ASSURANCE Descriptionfor Modules: LOGIN:
  • 26. Thismodule isusedbyvariousemployeestologinintotheirrespective departments.Every employee is providedwiththeirrespected user id and passwords through which they can login in. In login field we have following fields 1. Administrator Login 2. Production Department 3. Quality Assurance ADMINISTRATOR: This module provides the complete information related to organization. All this has to be provided and maintained by the admin. It has to verify the details given by the employees, The administrator module is responsible for following activities 1. Add member 2. Update member 3. Delete member 4. View employee details 5. View product values 6. View products 7. Check quality assurance Production department: Productiondepartmentisresponsibleforproducingraw materialsandsolarcomponentsandtestingof solarcomponents Theywil addthe raw materialsandsolarcomponentstothe productionlistandtheywill checkthe qualityof thatproducts,the functionsare 1. Producingraw materials 2.Producingsolarcomponents
  • 27. 3. Testingsolarcomponents 4. Record productionvalues Quality assurance: Qualityassurance teamisresponsible fortestingthe qualityof the products producedbyproduction department Theywill checksthe qualityfactorsof the productsif theyare uptonormsthentheywill acceptif not theywill rejectthe product The functionsof qualityassurance are 1. Qualityassurance of Raw materials 2.Quality assurance of solarcomponents 3.Qualityassurance fortesting 5.2 PROCESS FLOW: The Model 2 architecture fordesigningJSPpagesisinreality,Model View Controller(MVC) appliedto web applications. Hence the two terms can be used interchangeably in the web world. MVC originatedinSmall Talkandhas since made itswayintoJava community.Model 2architecture and its derivativesare the cornerstones for all serious and industrial strength web applications designed in the real world.Hence itis essential foryouunderstandthisparadigmthoroughly.The maindifference between Model 1 and Model 2 is that in Model 2, a controller handles the user request instead of anotherJSP.The controllerisimplemented as a Servlet. The following steps are executed when the user submits the request.  The ControllerServlethandlesthe user’srequest.(Thismeansthe hyperlinkin the JSP should point to the controller servlet).
  • 28.  The Controller Servlet then instantiates appropriate JavaBeans based on the request parameters (and optionally also based on session attributes).  The Controller Servlet then by itself or through a controller helper communicates with the middle tier or directly to the database to fetch the required data.  The Controllersetsthe resultantJavaBeans(eithersame ora new one) inone of the following contexts – request, session or application.  The controller then dispatches the request to the next view based on the request URL.  The View uses the resultant JavaBeans from Step 4 to display data. Note that there is no presentationlogicinthe JSP.The sole functionof the JSPin Model 2 architecture is to display the data from the JavaBeans set in the request, session or application scopes. FIG:4.1 5.3 SDLC METHDOLOGIES This document play a vital role in the development of life cycle (SDLC) as it describes the complete requirementof the system. It means for use by developers and will be the basic during testing phase. Any changes made to the requirements in the future will have to go through formal change approval process.SPIRAL MODEL was defined by Barry Boehm in his 1988 article, “A spiral Model of Software DevelopmentandEnhancement. Thismodel wasnotthe first model to discuss iterative development, but it was the first model to explain why the iteration models.As originally envisioned, the iterations
  • 29. were typically 6 months to 2 years long. Each phase starts with a design goal and ends with a client reviewing the progress thus far. Analysis and engineering efforts are applied at each phase of the project, with an eye toward the end goal of the project. The steps for Spiral Model can be generalized as follows:  The new system requirements are defined in as much details as possible. This usually involvesinterviewinga number of users representing all the external or internal users and other aspects of the existing system.  A preliminary design is created for the new system.  A first prototype of the new system is constructed from the preliminary design. This is usuallyascaled-downsystem, andrepresentsanapproximationof the characteristicsof the final product.  A second prototype is evolved by a fourfold procedure: Evaluatingthe first prototype intermsof itsstrengths,weakness,andrisks.Definingthe requirements of the secondprototype.Planningandesigningthe second prototype.Constructing and testing the second prototype.Atthe customeroption,the entire projectcanbe abortedif the riskis deemedtoo great. Risk factors might involved development cost overruns, operating-cost miscalculation, or any other factor that could, in the customer’s judgment, result in a less-than-satisfactory final product.The existing prototype is evaluated in the same manner as was the previous prototype, and if necessary, another prototype isdevelopedfromitaccordingtothe fourfoldprocedure outlinedabove.The preceding steps are iterated until the customer is satisfied that the refined prototype represents the final product desired.Thefinal system is constructed, based on the refinedprototype.The final system is thoroughly evaluated and tested. Routine maintenance is carried on a continuing basis to prevent large scale failures and to minimize down time.
  • 30. Spiral Model FIG:4.2 ADVANTAGES: • The process will check the purpose and quality of the product development process • The alignment of the qualifications with the values, purposes and principles of Curriculum for Excellence and agreed qualifications design principles • The roles, responsibilities and remits are clear • Effective engagement has taken place • Feasibility and practicality of implementation
  • 31. 5.4 SOFTWAREREQUIREMENTAND HARDWAREREQUIREMENT Software Requirements:  Operating System : Windows XP/2003 or Linux  User Interface : HTML, CSS  Client-side Scripting : JavaScript  Programming Language : Java  Web Applications : JDBC, Servlets, JSP  IDE/Workbench : My Eclipse 8.0  Database : DB2  Server Deployment : Tomcat 7.0 Hardware Requirements:  Processor : Pentium IV or higher.  Hard Disk : 50GB  RAM : 512 Mb or higher. High Level Requirements: 1. Maintain list of products, respective Bill of material, suppliers 2. Maintain a list of production stages, parameters for control, acceptable deviations, terminate reasons. 3. The line staff in production should be able to record in time and out time of a product in a particular stage. 4. Record values of parameters to be checked by QA.
  • 32. 5. The system to raise alerts when the thresholds are met for rejects during production 6. The system allows QA user to access the quality queue data and define the next steps. 7. A report is generated for Defects recorded during production. 8. Analysis is done to segregate the defect’s root cause i.e. process issue, quality of part, operational issue SYSTEM DESIGN
  • 33. 6. SYSTEM DESIGN 6.1 UML DIAGRAMS The Unified Modeling Language allows the software engineer to express an analysis model using the modelingnotationthatisgovernedbya set of syntactic semantic and pragmatic rules. A UML system is representedusing five different views that describe the system from distinctly different perspective. Each view is defined by a set of diagram, which is as follows.
  • 34. User Model View: i. This view represents the system from the users perspective. ii. The analysisrepresentationdescribesausage scenariofromthe end-users perspective. Structural model view: i. In this model the data and functionality are arrived from inside the system. ii. This model view models the static structures. Behavioral Model View: It representsthe dynamic of behavioral as parts of the system, depicting the interactions of collection between various structural elements described in the user model and structural model view. Implementation Model View: In this the structural and behavioral as parts of the system are represented as they are to be built. Environmental Model View: In this the structural and behavioral aspects of the environment in which the system is to be implemented are represented. UML is specifically constructed through two different domains they are: >UML Analysis modeling, this focuses on the user model and structural model views of the system. >UML design modeling, which focuses on the behavioral modeling, implementation modeling and environmental model views. Use case Diagrams representthe functionality of the system from a user’s point of view. Use cases are usedduringrequirementselicitationandanalysistorepresentthe functionalityof the system.Use cases focus on the behavior of the system from external point of view. Actors are external entities that interact with the system. Examples of actors include users like administrator, staff etc., or another system like central database.
  • 35. USE CASE DIAGRAMS: AdminUse Case Diagram: FIG:6.1.1
  • 36. Employee Use Case Diagram: PRODUCTION: FIG:6.1.2
  • 38. FIG:6.1.3 CLASSDIAGRAM: Class diagrams to describe the structure of the system. Classes Are abstraction that specify the common structure and behavior of a set class diagrams describe the system in terms of objects, classes, attributes, operations and their associations.A Class diagram gives an overview of a system by showing its classes and the relationships among them.Class diagrams are static. They display what interacts but not what happens when they do interact. Notations: UML class notation is a rectangle divided into three parts: class name, attributes, and operations. Names of abstract classes are in italics. [example: Payment]
  • 39. Relationships between classes are the connecting links. Purpose: The purpose of the class diagram is to model the static view of an application. The class diagrams are the only diagrams which can be directly mapped with object oriented languages and thus widely used at the time of construction. The UML diagrams like activity diagram, sequence diagram can only give the sequence flow of the application but class diagram is a bit different. So it is the most popular UML diagram in the coder community. So the purpose of the class diagram can be summarized as:  Analysis and design of the static view of an application.  Describe responsibilities of a system.  Base for component and deployment diagrams.  Forward and reverse engineering. (CLASS DIAGRAMFOR QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR SOLAR COMPONENTS)
  • 40. FIG:6. 2 ACTIVITY DIAGRAM: An activity diagram is essentially a fancy flowchart. Activity diagrams and statechart diagrams are related. While a state chart diagram focuses attention on an object undergoing a process (or on a process as an object), an activity diagram focuses on the flow of activities involved in a single process. The activity diagram shows the how those activities depend on one another. Notations:
  • 41. The process begins at the black start circle at the top and ends at the concentric white/black stop circles at the bottom. The activities are rounded rectangles. Activity diagrams can be divided into object swimlanes that determine which object is responsible for which activity. A single transition comes out of each activity, connecting it to the next activity. A transition may branch into two or more mutually exclusive transitions. Guard expressions (inside [ ]) label the transitions coming out of a branch. A branch and its subsequent merge marking the end of the branch appear in the diagram as hollow diamonds. A transition may fork into two or more parallel activities. The fork an The subsequent join of the threads coming out of the fork appear in the diagram as solid bars. An activity diagram describes a system in terms of activities. Activities are states that represent the execution of a set of operations. Activity diagrams are similar to flowchart diagram and data flow. Purpose: The basic purposes of activity diagrams are similar to other four diagrams. It captures the dynamic behavior of the system. Other four diagrams are used to show the message flow from one object to another but activity diagram is used to show message flow from one activity to another. Activity is a particular operation of the system. Activity diagrams are not only used for visualizing dynamicnature of a systembut theyare also usedtoconstruct the executable system by using forward and reverse engineering techniques. The only missing thing in activity diagram is the message part. It does not show any message flow from one activity to another. Activity diagram is some time considered as the flow chart. Although the diagrams looks like a flow chart but it is not. It shows different flow like parallel, branched, concurrent and single. So the purposes can be described as:  Draw the activity flow of a system.  Describe the sequence from one activity to another.  Describe the parallel, branched and concurrent flow of the system.
  • 42. (ACTIVITY DIAGRAMFOR QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR SOLAR COMPONENTS)
  • 43. FIG:6.3 SEQUENCE DIAGRAM: Class and object diagrams are static model views. Interaction diagrams are dynamic. They describe how objects collaborate. A sequence diagram is an interaction diagram that details how operations are carried out -- what messages are sent and when. Sequence diagrams are organized according to time. The time progresses as you go down the page. The objects involved in the operation are listed from left to right according to when they take part in the message sequence. Sequence diagrams are used to formalize the behavior of the system and to visualize the communication among objects. They are useful for identifying additional objects that participate in the use cases. A Sequence diagram represents the interaction that take place among these objects. Purpose: The purposes of interaction diagrams are to visualize the interactive behavior of the system. Now visualizinginteractionisadifficulttask.Sothe solutionistouse differenttypesof modelsto capture the different aspects of the interaction. That is why sequence and collaboration diagrams are used to capture dynamic nature but from a different angle. So the purposes of interaction diagram can be describes as:
  • 44.  To capture dynamic behavior of a system.  To describe the message flow in the system.  To describe structural organization of the objects.  To describe interaction among objects. Login sequence diagram:
  • 45. FIG:6.4 CollaborationDiagram: The second interaction diagram is collaboration diagram. It shows the object organization as shown below. Here in collaboration diagram the method call sequence is indicated by some numbering Admin Login Owner Of The System Registered Bidders Login Validate ValidLogin Login ValidLogin Login validLogin validate validate
  • 46. technique as shown below. The number indicates how the methods are called one after another. We have taken the same order management system to describe the collaboration diagram. The method calls are similar to that of a sequence diagram. But the difference is that the sequence diagramdoesnot describe the objectorganizationwhereasthe collaborationdiagramshowsthe object organization. Nowto choose betweenthese twodiagramsthe mainemphasis is given on the type of requirement. If the time sequence is important then sequence diagram is used and if organization is required then collaboration diagram is used. Purpose: The purposes of interaction diagrams are to visualize the interactive behavior of the system. Now visualizinginteractionisadifficulttask.Sothe solutionistouse differenttypesof modelsto capture the different aspects of the interaction. That is why sequence and collaboration diagrams are used to capture dynamic nature but from a different angle. So the purposes of interaction diagram can be describes as: To capture dynamic behavior of a system.  To describe the message flow in the system.  To describe structural organization of the objects.  To describe interaction among objects.
  • 47. Collaborationdiagram Login collaborationdiagram: Admin Login 2: Validate Owner Of The System Registered Bidders 5: validate 8: validate 1: Login 3: ValidLogin 4: Login6: ValidLogin 7: Login 9: validLogin
  • 48. FIG:6.5 Component Diagrams: Component diagrams are different in terms of nature and behavior. Component diagrams are used to model physical aspects of a system. Nowthe questioniswhatare these physical aspects?Physicalaspectsare the elementslikeexecutables, libraries, files, documents etc which resides in a node. So componentdiagramsare usedtovisualize the organizationandrelationshipsamongcomponentsina system. These diagrams are also used to make executable systems. Purpose: Component diagram is a special kind of diagram in UML. The purpose is also different from all other diagrams discussed so far. It does not describe the functionality of the system but it describes the components used to make those functionalities. So from that point component diagrams are used to visualize the physical components in a system. These components are libraries, packages, files etc. Component diagrams can also be described as a static implementation view of a system. Static implementation represents the organization of the components at a particular moment. A single componentdiagramcannotrepresentthe entire systembutacollectionof diagramsare usedto represent the whole.
  • 49. (COMPONENT DIAGRAMFOR QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR SOLAR COMPONENTS) FIG:6.6 Deployment Diagram: Deploymentdiagramsare usedto visualize the topologyof the physical components of a system where the software components are deployed. So deployment diagrams are used to describe the static deployment view of a system. Deployment diagrams consist of nodes and their relationships.
  • 50. Purpose: The name Deploymentitself describes the purpose of the diagram. Deployment diagrams are used for describingthe hardware componentswhere software componentsare deployed. Component diagrams and deployment diagrams are closely related. Componentdiagramsare usedtodescribe the components and deployment diagrams shows how they are deployed in hardware. UML is mainly designed to focus on software artifacts of a system. But these two diagrams are special diagrams used to focus on software components and hardware components. So most of the UML diagrams are used to handle logical components but deployment diagrams are made to focus on hardware topology of a system. Deployment diagrams are used by the system engineers. The purpose of deployment diagrams can be described as:  Visualize hardware topology of a system.  Describe the hardware components used to deploy software components. (DEPLOYMENT DIAGRAMFOR QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR SOLAR COMPONENTS)
  • 52.
  • 53.
  • 58. TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION HTML HTML, an initialization of Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. It provides a means to describe the structure of text-based information in a document — by
  • 59. denoting certain text as headings, paragraphs, lists, and so on and to supplement that text with interactive forms,embeddedimages,andotherobjects.HTML iswrittenin the form of labels (known as tags), surrounded by angle brackets. HTML can also describe, to some degree, the appearance and semantics of a document, and can include embedded scripting language code which can affect the behavior of web browsers and other HTML processors. HTML is also often used to refer to content of the MIME type text/html or even more broadly as a generic term for HTML whether in its XML-descended form (such as XHTML 1.0 and later) or its form descended directly from SGML Hyper Text Markup Language HypertextMarkupLanguage(HTML), the languages of the World Wide Web (WWW), allows users to producesWebpagesthat includetext, graphics and pointer to other Web pages (Hyperlinks).HTML is not a programming language but it is an application of ISO Standard 8879, SGML (Standard GeneralizedMarkupLanguage),butspecializedto hypertextandadaptedto the Web. The idea behind Hypertextis that insteadof readingtext in rigidlinear structure, we can easily jump from one point to another point. We can navigate through the information based on our interest and preference. A markup languageissimplya seriesofelements,each delimited withspecialcharacters thatdefine how text or other items enclosed within the elements should be displayed. Hyperlinks are underlined or emphasizedworksthatloadto otherdocuments or someportionsof the same document.HTML can be usedto displayany typeof documenton the hostcomputer, which can be geographically at a different location. It is a versatile language and can be used on any platform or desktop.HTML provides tags (special codes) to make the document look attractive. HTML tags are not case-sensitive. Using graphics,fonts,different sizes,color,etc., can enhance thepresentationofthe document.Anything that is not a tag is part of the document itself. Basic HTML Tags: <! -- --> specifies comments <A>……….</A> Creates hypertext links <B>……….</B> Formats text as bold
  • 60. <BIG>……….</BIG> Formats text in large font. <BODY>…</BODY> Contains all tags and text in the HTML document <CENTER>...</CENTER> Creates text <DD>…</DD> Definition of a term <DL>...</DL> Creates definition list <FONT>…</FONT> Formats text with a particular font <FORM>...</FORM> Encloses a fill-out form <FRAME>...</FRAME> Defines a particular frame in a set of frames <H#>…</H#> Creates headings of different levels( 1 – 6 ) <HEAD>...</HEAD> Contains tags that specify information about a document <HR>...</HR> Creates a horizontal rule <HTML>…</HTML> Contains all other HTML tags <META>...</META> Provides meta-information about a document <SCRIPT>…</SCRIPT> Contains client-side or server-side script <TABLE>…</TABLE> Creates a table <TD>…</TD> Indicates table data in a table <TR>…</TR> Designates a table row <TH>…</TH> Creates a heading in a table Attributes: The attributesof an elementare name-value pairs, separated by "=", and written within the start label of an element, after the element's name. The value should be enclosed in single or double quotes, althoughvaluesconsistingof certain characters can be left unquoted in HTML (but not XHTML).Leaving
  • 61. attribute valuesunquotedisconsideredunsafe.Mostelements take any of several common attributes: id,class,style andtitle.Mostalsotake language-relatedattributes:langanddir.The idattribute provides a document-wide unique identifier for an element. This can be used by stylesheets to provide presentationalproperties, by browsers to focus attention on the specific element or by scripts to alter the contents or presentation of an element. The class attribute provides a way of classifying similar elementsforpresentationpurposes.Forexample, an HTML document (or a set of documents) may use the designationclass="notation"toindicate thatall elementswiththisclassvalue are all subordinate to the main text of the document (or documents). Such notation classes of elements might be gathered togetherandpresentedasfootnotesonapage,ratherthan appearinginthe place where theyappearin the source HTML.An author may use the style non-attributal codes presentational properties to a particular element. It is considered better practice to use an element’s son- id page and select the element with a stylesheet, though sometimes this can be too cumbersome for a simple ad hoc applicationof styledproperties.The title isusedtoattachsubtextual explanationtoanelement.Inmost browsersthistitle attribute isdisplayedaswhatisoftenreferredtoas a tooltip. The generic inline span element can be used to demonstrate these various non-attributes.The preceding displays as HTML (pointing the cursor at the abbreviation should display the title text in most browsers). Advantages  A HTML document is small and hence easy to send over the net. It is small because it does not include formatted information.  HTML is platform independent.  HTML tags are not case-sensitive. JavaScript JavaScript is a script-based programming language that was developed by Netscape Communication Corporation. JavaScript was originally called Live Script and renamed as JavaScript to indicate its relationship with Java. JavaScript supports the development of bothclient and server components of Web-basedapplications.Onthe clientside,itcanbe usedtowrite programsthat are executedbyaWeb browser within the context of a Web page. On the server side, it can be used to write Web server programs that can process information submitted by a Web browser and then update the browser’s
  • 62. display accordingly.Even though JavaScript supports both client and server Web programming, we preferJavaScriptatClientside programmingsince mostof the browserssupportsit.JavaScript is almost as easy to learn as HTML, and JavaScript statements can be included in HTML documents by enclosing the statements between a pair of scripting tags <SCRIPTS>..</SCRIPT>. <SCRIPT LANGUAGE = “JavaScript”> JavaScript statements </SCRIPT> Here are a few things we can do with JavaScript:  Validate the contents of a form and make calculations.  Add scrolling or changing messages to the Browser’s status line.  Animate images or rotate images that change when we move the mouse over them.  Detect the browser in use and display different content for different browsers.  Detect installed plug-ins and notify the user if a plug-in is required. We can do much more with JavaScript, including creating entire application. JavaScript Vs Java JavaScript and Java are entirely different languages. A few of the most glaring differences are:  Java applets are generally displayed in a box within the web document; JavaScript can affect any part of the Web document itself.  While JavaScript is best suited to simple applications and adding interactive features to Web pages; Java can be used for incredibly complex applications. There are manyotherdifferencesbut the important thing to remember is that JavaScript and Java are separate languages. They are both useful for different things; in fact they can be used together to combine their advantages. Java Technology
  • 63. Initiallythe language was called as “oak” but it was renamed as “Java” in 1995. The primary motivation of thislanguage wasthe needfora platform-independent(i.e.,architecture neutral) languagethatcould be used to create software to be embedded in various consumer electronic devices.  Java is a programmer’s language.  Java is cohesive and consistent.  Except for those constraints imposed by the Internet environment, Java gives the programmer, full control.  Finally, Java is to Internet programming where C was to system programming. Importance of Java to the Internet Java has had a profound effect on the Internet. This is because; Java expands the Universe of objects that can move about freely in Cyberspace. In a network, two categories of objects are transmitted between the Server and the Personal computer. They are: Passive information and Dynamic active programs. The Dynamic, Self-executing programs cause serious problems in the areas of Security and probability. But, Java addresses those concerns and by doing so, has opened the door to an exciting new form of program called the Applet. Java can be used to create two types of programs Applications and Applets: An applicationisaprogramthat runs on our Computerunderthe operating system of that computer. It is more or less like one creating using C orC++. Java’s ability to create Applets makes it important. An Applet is an application designed to be transmitted over the Internet and executed by a Java – compatible webbrowser.Anappletisactuallyatiny Java program, dynamically downloaded across the network,justlike an image.Butthe difference is,itisanintelligentprogram, not just a media file. It can react to the user input and dynamically changethem for viruses prior to execution. Most users still worried about the possibility of infecting their systems with a virus. In addition, another type of
  • 64. malicious program exists that must be guarded against. This type of program can gather private information, such as credit card numbers. Features of Java Security: Every time you that you download a “normal” program, you are risking a viral infection. Prior to Java, mostusersdidnot downloadexecutableprogramsfrequently,andthose who did scan them for viruses priorto execution.Mostusersstill worriedaboutthe possibilityof infectingtheirsystemswithavirus.In addition,anothertype of malicious program exists that must be guarded against. This type of program can gather private information, such as credit card numbers, bank account balances, and passwords. Java answers both these concerns by providing a “firewall” between a network application and your computer.Whenyouuse aJava-compatibleWebbrowser,youcansafelydownloadJavaappletswithout fear of virus infection or malicious intent. Portability For programs to be dynamically downloaded to all the various types of platforms connected to the Internet, some means of generating portable executable code is needed .As you will see, the same mechanismthathelpsensure securityalsohelpscreate portability.Indeed, Java’s solution to these two problems is both elegant and efficient. The Byte code The key that allows the Java to solve the security and portability problems is that the output of Java compilerisByte code.Byte code isa highlyoptimizedsetof instructionsdesignedtobe executed by the Java run-time system, which is called the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). That is, in its standard form, the JVM is an interpreter for byte code.Translating a Java program into byte code helps makes it much easier to run a program in a wide variety of environments. The reason is, once the run-time package existsfora givensystem,anyJavaprogramcan run on it.AlthoughJavawasdesignedfor interpretation, there is technically nothing about Java that prevents on-the-fly compilation of byte code into native code.Sunhas justcompleteditsJustInTime (JIT) compilerforbyte code.Whenthe JIT compiler is a part of JVM,it compilesbyte code intoexecutable code inreal time,onapiece-by-piece, demand basis. It is not possible tocompileanentire Javaprogramintoexecutable code all at once, because Java performs variousrun-time checksthatcan be done onlyat run time.The JITcompilescode,asitis needed, during execution.
  • 65. Java Virtual Machine (JVM) Beyond the language, there is the Java virtual machine. The Java virtual machine is an important element of the Java technology. The virtual machine can be embedded within a web browser or an operating system. Once a piece of Java code is loaded onto a machine, it is verified. As part of the loading process, a class loader is invoked and does byte code verification makes sure that the code that’s has been generated by the compiler will not corrupt the machine that it’s loaded on. Byte code verification takes place at the end of the compilation process to make sure that is all accurate and correct. So byte code verification is integral to the compiling and executing of Java code. Java programming uses to produce byte codes and executes them. The first box indicates that the Java source code is located in a. Java file that is processed with a Java compiler called javac. The Java compilerproducesafile calleda. class file, which contains the byte code. The .Class file is then loaded across the networkor loadedlocallyonyourmachine intothe executionenvironment is the Java virtual machine, which interprets and executes the byte code. Overall Description Picture showing the development process of JAVA Program Java Architecture Java architecture provides a portable, robust, high performing environment for development. Java provides portability by compiling the byte codes for the Java Virtual Machine, which is then interpreted on each platform by the run-time environment. Java is a dynamic system, able to load code when needed from a machine in the same room or across the planet. Compilation of code When you compile the code, the Java compiler creates machine code (called byte code) for a hypothetical machine called Java Virtual Machine (JVM). The JVM is supposed to execute the byte code. The JVM is created for overcoming the issue of portability. The code is written and compiled for one machine and interpreted on all machines. This machine is called Java Virtual Machine.As part of the loading process, a class loader is invoked and does byte code verification Java Source Java byte code JavaVM Java .Class
  • 66. makes sure that the code that’s has been generated by the compiler will not corrupt the machine that it’s loaded on. Simple Java was designed to be easy for the Professional programmer to learn and to use effectively. If you are an experienced C++ programmer, learning Java will be even easier. Because Java inherits the C/C++ syntax and many of the object oriented features of C++. Most of the confusing concepts from C++ are either left out of Java or implemented in a cleaner, moreapproachable manner. In Java there are a small number of clearly defined ways to accomplish a given task. Object-Oriented Java was not designed to be source-code compatible with any other language. This allowed the Java team the freedom to design with a blank slate. One outcome of this was a clean usable, pragmatic approach to objects. The object model in Java is simple and easy to extend, while simple types, such as integers, are kept as high-performance non-objects. Source Code ……….. ……….. ……….. ………… PC Compiler Macintosh Compiler SPARC Compiler Java Byte code (Platform Independe nt) Java Interpreter (PC) Java Interpreter (Macintosh) Java Interpreter (Spare)
  • 67. Robust The multi-platform environment of the Web places extraordinary demands on a program, because the program must execute reliably in a variety of systems. The ability to create robust programs was given a high priority in the design of Java. Java is strictly typed language it checks your code at compile time and run time.Java virtually eliminates the problems of memory management and de-allocation, which is completely automatic. In a well-written Java program, all run time errors can and should be managed by your program. Java Database Connectivity What Is JDBC? JDBC isa JavaAPIfor executingSQLstatements.(Asapointof interest,JDBCisa trademarkedname and isnot an acronym; nevertheless, JDBCisoften thought of as standing for Java Database Connectivity. It consists of a set of classes and interfaces written in the Java programming language.JDBC provides a standardAPIfor tool/database developersandmakesit possible to write database applications using a pure Java API. UsingJDBC, it iseasyto sendSQL statementstovirtuallyanyrelational database. One can write a single program using the JDBC API, and the program will be able to send SQL statements to the appropriate database. The combinations of Java and JDBC lets a programmer write it once and run it anywhere. What Does JDBC Do? Simply put, JDBC makes it possible to do three things:  Establish a connection with a database  Send SQL statements  Process the results. JDBC versus ODBC and other APIs At thispoint,Microsoft'sODBC(OpenDatabase Connectivity) APIisthatprobablythe most widely used programming interface for accessing relational databases. It offers the ability to connect to almost all
  • 68. databasesonalmostall platforms.So why not just use ODBC from Java? The answer is that you can use ODBC fromJava, butthisis bestdone withthe helpof JDBCin the formof the JDBC-ODBC Bridge, which we will covershortly.The questionnow becomes "Why do you need JDBC?" There are several answers to this question:  ODBC is not appropriate for direct use from Java because it uses a C interface. Calls from Java to native C code have a number of drawbacks in the security, implementation, robustness, and automatic portability of applications.  A literal translation of the ODBC C API into a Java API would not be desirable. For example, Java has no pointers, and ODBC makes copious use of them, including the notoriously error-prone generic pointer "void *". You can think of JDBC as ODBC translated into an object-oriented interface that is natural for Java programmers.  ODBC is hard to learn. It mixes simple and advanced features together, and it has complex options even for simple queries. JDBC, on the other hand, was designed to keep simple things simple while allowing more advanced capabilities where required.  A Java API like JDBC is needed in order to enable a "pure Java" solution. When ODBC is used, the ODBC driver manager and drivers must be manually installed on every client machine. When the JDBC driver is written completely in Java, however, JDBC code is automatically installable, portable, and secure on all Java platforms from network computers to mainframes.
  • 69. Two-tier and Three-tier Models The JDBC APIsupportsbothtwo-tierandthree-tiermodelsfordatabase access.Inthe two-tier model, a Java applet or application talks directly to the database. This requires a JDBC driver that can communicate with the particular database management system being accessed. A user's SQL statementsare deliveredtothe database,andthe resultsof thosestatements are sent back to the user. The database may be locatedon another machine to which the user is connected via a network. This is referred to as a client/server configuration,with the user's machine as the client, and the machine housing the database as the server. The network can be an Intranet, which, for example, connects employees within a corporation, or it can be the Internet. In the three-tier model, commands are sent to a "middle tier" of services, which then send SQL statementstothe database. The database processes the SQL statements and sends the results back to the middle tier, which then sends them to the user. MIS directors find thEethree-tier model very attractive because the middle tier makes it possible to maintain control over access and the kinds of updatesthatcan be made to corporate data. Anotheradvantage isthatwhen there is a middle tier, the JAVA Application JDBC DBMS Client machine DBMS-proprietary protocol Database server
  • 70. user can employ an easy-to-use higher-level API which is translated by the middle tier into the appropriate low-levelcalls. Finally, in many cases the three-tier architecture can provide performance advantages.Until now the middle tier has typically been written in languages such as C or C++, which offerfastperformance.However,withthe introductionof optimizingcompilers that translate Java byte code intoefficientmachine-specificcode,itis becoming practical to implement the middle tier in Java. Thisis a bigplus,makingitpossible totake advantage of Java'srobustness,multithreading, and security features. JDBC is important to allow database access from a Java middle tier. JDBC Driver Types The JDBC drivers that we are aware of at this time fit into one of four categories:  JDBC-ODBC bridge plus ODBC driver  Native-API partly-Java driver  JDBC-Net pure Java driver  Native-protocol pure Java driver JDBC-ODBC Bridge If possible, use a Pure Java JDBC driver instead of the Bridge and an ODBC driver. This completely eliminates the client configuration required by ODBC. It also eliminates the potential that the Java VM could be corrupted by an error in the native code brought in by the Bridge (that is, the Bridge native library, the ODBC driver manager library, the ODBC driver library, and the database client library). What Is the JDBC- ODBC Bridge?
  • 71. The JDBC-ODBC Bridge is a JDBC driver, which implements JDBC operations by translating them into ODBC operations.To ODBCitappearsas a normal application program. The Bridge implements JDBC for any database for which an ODBC driver is available. The Bridge is implemented as the Sun.jdbc.odbc Java package and contains a native library used to access ODBC. The Bridge is a joint development of Innersole and Java Soft. JDBC connectivity The JDBC provides database-independent connectivity between the J2EE platform and a wide range of tabular data sources. JDBC technology allows an Application Component Provider to:  Perform connection and authentication to a database server  Manager transactions  Move SQL statements to a database engine for preprocessing and execution  Execute stored procedures  Inspect and modify the results from Select statements Database: A database management system (DBMS) is computer software designed for the purpose of managing databases,a large setof structureddata, and runoperationsonthe data requested by numerous users. Typical examples of DBMSs include Oracle, DB2, Microsoft Access, Microsoft SQL Server, Firebird, PostgreSQL,MySQL,SQLite,FileMakerandSybase Adaptive ServerEnterprise.DBMSs are typically used by Database administratorsinthe creationof Database systems.Typical examples of DBMS use include accounting, human resources and customer support systems. Originallyfoundonlyinlarge companieswiththe computerhardware neededtosupportlarge datasets, DBMSs have more recently emerged as a fairly standard part of any company back office. Description A DBMS is a complex set of software programs that controls the organization, storage, management, and retrieval of dataina database.A DBMS includes:A modelinglanguage todefine the schema of each database hosted in the DBMS, according to the DBMS data model. The four most common types of organizations are the hierarchical, network, relational and object models. Inverted lists and other methods are also used. A given database management system may
  • 72. provide one ormore of the four models. The optimal structure depends on the natural organization of the application's data, and on the application's requirements (which include transaction rate (speed), reliability, maintainability, scalability, and cost).The dominant model in use today is the ad hoc one embedded in SQL, despite the objections of purists who believe this model is a corruption of the relational model, since it violates several of its fundamental principles for the sake of practicality and performance. Many DBMSs also support the Open Database Connectivity API that supports a standard wayfor programmersto accessthe DBMS.Data structures(fields,records,filesandobjects) optimizedto deal with very large amounts of data stored on a permanent data storage device (which implies relativelyslowaccesscomparedtovolatilemainmemory).A database query language and report writer to allowuserstointeractively interrogate the database, analyze its data and update it according to the users privileges on data. It also controls the security of the database.Data security prevents unauthorizedusersfromviewing or updating the database. Using passwords, users are allowed access to the entire database or subsets of it called subschemas. For example, an employee database can contain all the data about an individual employee, but one group of users may be authorized to viewonly payroll data, while others are allowed access to only work history and medical data.If the DBMS provides a way to interactively enter and update the database, as well as interrogate it, this capabilityallowsformanagingpersonal databases.However,itmaynotleave an audit trail of actions or provide the kinds of controls necessary in a multi-user organization. These controls are only available when a set of application programs are customized for each data entry and updating function.A transaction mechanism, that ideally would guarantee the ACID properties, in order to ensure data integrity, despite concurrent user accesses (concurrency control), and faults (fault tolerance). SQL :StructuredQueryLanguage (SQL) isthe language usedtomanipulate relationaldatabases.SQL is tied very closely with the relational model. In the relational model, data is stored in structures called relations or tables. SQL statements are issued for the purpose of: Data definition: Defining tables and structures in the database (DDL used to create, alter and drop schema objects such as tables and indexes). Data manipulation:Used to manipulate the datawithinthose schemaobjects(DMLInserting,Updating, Deleting the data, and Querying the Database).
  • 73. A schema is a collection of database objects that can include: tables, views, indexes and sequences List of SQL statements that can be issued against an Oracle database schema are:  ALTER - Change an existing table, view or index definition (DDL)  AUDIT - Track the changes made to a table (DDL)  COMMENT - Add a comment to a table or column in a table (DDL)  COMMIT - Make all recent changes permanent (DML - transactional)  CREATE - Create new database objects such as tables or views (DDL)  DELETE- Delete rows from a database table (DML)  DROP - Drop a database object such as a table, view or index (DDL)  GRANT - Allow another user to access database objects such as tables or views (DDL)  INSERT - Insert new data into a database table (DML)  No AUDIT - Turn off the auditing function (DDL)  REVOKE - Disallow a user access to database objects such as tables and views (DDL)  ROLLBACK - Undo any recent changes to the database (DML - Transactional)  SELECT - Retrieve data from a database table (DML)  TRUNCATE - Delete all rows from a database table (can not be rolled back) (DML)  UPDATE- Change the values of some data items in a database table (DML) Eclipse IDE: Eclipse is an open-source software framework written primarily in Java. In its default form it is an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for Java developers, consisting of the Java Development Tools(JDT) and the Eclipse CompilerforJava(ECJ).Userscan extenditscapabilitiesbyinstalling plug-ins written for the Eclipse software framework, such as development toolkits for other programming languages, and can write and contribute their own plug-in modules. Language packs are available for over a dozen languages. Architecture:
  • 74. The basis for Eclipse is the Rich Client Platform (RCP). The following components constitute the rich client platform:  OSGi - a standard bundling framework  Core platform - boot Eclipse, run plug-ins  the Standard Widget Toolkit (SWT) - a portable widget toolkit  JFace - viewer classes to bring model view controller programming to SWT, file buffers, text handling, text editors  the Eclipse Workbench - views, editors, perspectives, wizards Eclipse'swidgetsare implementedbyawidgettoolkitforJavacalledSWT,unlike mostJavaapplications, which use the Java standard Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) or Swing. Eclipse's user interface also leveragesanintermediateGUIlayercalledJFace,whichsimplifiesthe constructionof applicationsbased on SWT. Eclipse employsplug-insinordertoprovide all of itsfunctionalityontopof (andincluding) the richclient platform,incontrastto some otherapplicationswherefunctionalityistypicallyhard coded. This plug-in mechanism is a lightweight software componentry framework. In addition to allowing Eclipse to be extended using other programming languages such as C and Python, the plug-in framework allows Eclipse to work with typesetting languages like LaTeX, networking applications such as telnet, and database management systems.
  • 77. <!DOCTYPEhtmlPUBLIC"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN""http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <metahttp-equiv="Content-Type"content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1"> <title>Insert title here</title> <linkhref="default.css"rel="stylesheet"type="text/css"/> </head> <body> <divid="header"> <h1>PROACTIVE</h1> <h2>for Quality in Production </h2> </div> <divid="menu"> <ul> <li><ahref=" "class="active">Home</a></li> <li><ahref="productlist.jsp">Products</a></li> <li><ahref="production.jsp">Production</a></li> <li><ahref="login.jsp">Login</a></li> <li><ahref="Qalogin.jsp">Quality Assurance</a></li> <li><ahref="Aboutus.jsp">Suppliers</a></li> <li><ahref="Suppliers.jsp">Aboutus</a></li>
  • 78. </ul> </div> ${msg} <ahref="mail.jsp">send mail</a> <br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br> <divid="footer"> <p>Copyright &copy; 2006 Sitename.com. Designed by <ahref="http://www.freecsstemplates.org">FCT</a></p> </div> </body> </html> ADMINHOME.JSP: <%@pagelanguage="java"contentType="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1" pageEncoding="ISO-8859-1"%> <!DOCTYPEhtmlPUBLIC"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN""http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <metahttp-equiv="Content-Type"content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1"> <title>Insert title here</title> <linkhref="default.css"rel="stylesheet"type="text/css"/>
  • 79. </head> <body> <divid="header"> <h1>PROACTIVE</h1> <h2>for Quality in Production </h2> </div> <divid="menu"> <ul> <li><ahref="proactivema.jsp"class="active">Home</a></li> <li><ahref="products.jsp">Products</a> <li><ahref="prteam.jsp">Production</a></li> <li><ahref="login.jsp">Login</a></li> <li><ahref="Quteam.jsp">Quality Assurance</a></li> <li><ahref="Aboutus.jsp">Aboutus</a></li> <% String username=(String)session.getAttribute("uname"); if(username!=null) {%><li><ahref="Logout.jsp">Logout</a></li><% }%> </ul> </ul> </div> <h2>Welcome to Admin</h2>
  • 81. </tr> <tr> <td> <ahref="displayemployee.jsp"><h1>view Employeedetails</h1></a> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <ahref="viewproduction.jsp"><h1>view production values</h1></a> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <ahref="productlist.jsp"><h1>view products</h1></a> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <ahref="Quality.jsp"><h1>check quality assurance</h1></a> </td> </tr> </table>
  • 82. <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> </div> <divid="footer"> <p>Copyright &copy; 2015 Proactive.com. Designed by <ahref="http://www.proactive.org">Proactive</a></p> </div> </body> </html>
  • 83. REGISTER.JSP: <%@pagelanguage="java"contentType="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1" pageEncoding="ISO-8859-1"%> <!DOCTYPEhtmlPUBLIC"-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN""http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd"> <htmlxmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <title>Register a User</title> <metahttp-equiv="Content-Type"content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"/> <linkrel="stylesheet"type="text/css"media="screen"href="style.css"/> </head> <body> <scriptsrc="jquery.min.js"></script> <script> $(document).ready(function(){ //alert("inside jquery"); varuname=$("#uname"); var pass=$("#pass"); varrpass=$("#rpass"); varfname=$("#fname");
  • 84. varlname=$("#lname"); var phone=$("#phone"); var address=$("#address"); var dob=$("#dob"); $("#uname").blur(function(){ //alert("This input field has lost its focus."+uname); varmailformat = /^w+([.-]?w+)*@w+([.-]?w+)*(.w{2,3})+$/; // regExp for Email check if(uname.val().match(mailformat)) { $("#un").html("<h3><font color='green'>Good</font></h3>"); } else{ $("#un").html("<h3><font color='red'>Not a valid Email Address</font></h3>"); uname.val(""); uname.focus();} }); $("#pass").blur(function(){ //$("#un").html(""); if(pass.val().length<7)
  • 85. { $("#ps").html("<h3><font color='red'>Password length must be more then 6 </font></h3>"); pass.val(""); pass.focus(); } else{ $("#ps").html("<h3><font color='green'>Good</font></h3>"); } }); $("#rpass").blur(function(){ //$("#ps").html(""); if(rpass.val().length<7) { $("#rps").html("<h3><font color='red'>Password length must be more then 6 </font></h3>"); rpass.val(""); rpass.focus(); } else{ $("#rps").html("<h3><font color='green'>Good</font></h3>"); } }); $("#fname").blur(function(){
  • 86. // $("#rps").html(""); var letters = /^[A-Za-z]+$/; //regExp for All Alphabets if(fname.val().match(letters)) { $("#fn").html("<h3><font color='green'>Good</font></h3>"); } else{ $("#fn").html("<h3><fontcolor='red'>Only Alphabets Allowed</font></h3>"); fname.val(""); fname.focus();} }); $("#lname").blur(function(){ //$("#fn").html(""); var letters = /^[A-Za-z]+$/; //regExp for All Alphabets if(lname.val().match(letters)) { $("#ln").html("<h3><font color='green'>Good</font></h3>"); } else{ $("#ln").html("<h3><fontcolor='red'>Only Alphabets Allowed</font></h3>"); lname.val(""); lname.focus();} }); $("#phone").blur(function(){
  • 87. //$("#ln").html(""); var numbers = /^[0-9]+$/; //regExp for all Numbers if(phone.val().match(numbers)) { $("#ph").html("<h3><font color='green'>Good</font></h3>"); } elseif(phone.val().length < 10) { $("#ph").html("<h3><font color='red'>Mobile Number must be 10 digit</font></h3>"); phone.val(""); phone.focus(); } else{ $("#ph").html("<h3><font color='red'>Only Numeric Values</font></h3>"); phone.val(""); phone.focus();} }); $("#address").blur(function(){ //$("#ph").html(""); if(address.val().length==0) { $("#ad").html("<h3><fontcolor='red'>Address Can't left blank</font></h3>"); address.focus();
  • 88. } else{ $("#ad").html("<h3><font color='green'>Good</font></h3>"); } }); $("#dob").blur(function(){ //$("#ad").html(""); if(dob.val().length==0) { $("#dt").html("<h3><font color='red'>DOB Can't left blank</font></h3>"); dob.focus(); } else{ $("#dt").html("<h3><font color='green'>Good</font></h3>"); } }); }); </script> <divid="container"> <divid="header"> <h1>My Sample Project</h1> </div>
  • 92. <optionvalue="What is Your Birth Place">What is Your Birth Place</option> </select></td> </tr> <tr> <td>Answer</td> <td><inputtype="text"name="answer"/></td> </tr> <tr> <tdcolspan="2"><imgsrc="http://kiit_mvc.eu-gb.mybluemix.net/CaptchaServlet"/></td> <!-- <td colspan="2" ><imgsrc="http://localhost:8080/KIIT_MVC/CaptchaServlet"/></td> --> <tdcolspan="2"><ahref="Register.jsp">NEW CAPTCHA</a> </td> </tr> <tr> <tdcolspan="2"align="center">Captcha Answer:</td> <tdcolspan="2"align="center"><inputtype="text"name="code"/></td> </tr> <tr> <td></td>
  • 95. // TODO Auto-generated constructor stub } /** * @seeHttpServlet#doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) */ protectedvoiddoGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throwsServletException, IOException { // TODO Auto-generated method stub } /** * @seeHttpServlet#doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) */ protectedvoiddoPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throwsServletException, IOException { // TODO Auto-generated method stub String uname=request.getParameter("uname"); String pass=request.getParameter("pass"); if(uname.equals(null)||uname==""||pass.equals(null)||pass=="") {
  • 96. request.setAttribute("msg", "all field are mandatory"); getServletContext().getRequestDispatcher("/admilogin.jsp").include(request, response); } else { Model m = newModel(); m.setUname(uname); m.setPass(pass); String sql="select * from admin where uname=? and password=?"; ResultSetrs=Dao.loginUser(m,sql); HttpSession session = request.getSession(); boolean status; try { status = rs.next(); if(status==true) { session.setAttribute("uname", rs.getString(1)); session.setAttribute("pass", rs.getString(2));
  • 97. getServletContext().getRequestDispatcher("/adminhome.jsp").forward(request, response); } else { request.setAttribute("msg", "Username or password in correct"); getServletContext().getRequestDispatcher("/admilogin.jsp").include(request, response); } } catch (SQLException e) { // TODO Auto-generated catch block e.printStackTrace(); } } } }
  • 99. TESTING Software Testingisthe processusedtohelpidentifythe correctness,completeness,security,andquality of developedcomputersoftware.Testingisaprocessof technical investigation,performed on behalf of stakeholders,that is intended to reveal quality-related information about the product with respect to the context in which it is intended to operate. This includes, but is not limited to, the process of executingaprogramor applicationwiththe intentof findingerrors.Qualityisnotan absolute;itisvalue to some person.With that in mind, testing can never completely establish the correctness of arbitrary computersoftware;testingfurnishesacriticismorcomparisonthat compares the state and behavior of the product againsta specification.Animportantpointisthat software testing should be distinguished from the separate discipline of Software Quality Assurance (SQA), which encompasses all business process areas, not just testing. There are manyapproachesto software testing,buteffective testingof complex productsisessentiallya process of investigation, not merely a matter of creating and following routine procedure. One
  • 100. definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it", where the "questions" are operations the tester attempts to execute with the product, and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester[citation needed]. Although most of the intellectual processesof testingare nearly identical to that of review or inspection, the word testing is connotedtomeanthe dynamicanalysisof the product—puttingthe productthrough its paces. Some of the common quality attributes include capability, reliability, efficiency, portability, maintainability, compatibilityandusability.A goodtestissometimesdescribedasone which reveals an error; however, more recentthinkingsuggeststhatagood testisone whichrevealsinformation of interest to someone who matters within the project community. Testing TestingMethodology:  Black box Testing:  White box Testing.  Gray Box Testing. Levels of Testing  Unit Testing.  Module Testing.  Integration Testing.  System Testing.  User Acceptance Testing. Types of Testing:  Smoke Testing.  Sanitary Testing.  Regression Testing.  Re-Testing.  Static Testing.  Dynamic Testing.  Alpha-Testing.
  • 101.  Beta-Testing.  Monkey Testing.  Compatibility Testing.  Installation Testing.  AdhocTesting. TCD (TestCase Documentation) STLC:  Test Planning.  Test Development.  Test Execution.  Result Analysis.  Bug-Tracing.  Reporting. Automation Testing(Tools)  Win Runner.  Test Director. Testing:  The process of executing a system with the intent of finding an error.  Testing is defined as the process in which defects are identified, isolated, subjected for rectificationandensuredthatproductisdefectfree inordertoproduce the quality product and hence customer satisfaction.  Quality is defined as justification of the requirements  Defect is nothing but deviation from the requirements  Defect is nothing but bug.  Testing --- The presence of bugs  Testing can demonstrate the presence of bugs, but not their absence  Debugging and Testing are not the same thing!
  • 102.  Testing is a systematic attempt to break a program or the AUT  Debugging is the art or method of uncovering why the script /program did not execute properly. Testing Methodologies:  Black boxTesting: isthe testingprocessinwhichtestercanperformtestingonan application without having any internal structural knowledge of application. Usually Test Engineers are involved in the black box testing.  White box Testing: is the testing process in which tester can perform testing on an application with having internal structural knowledge. Usually The Developers are involved in white box testing.  Gray Box Testing: isthe processinwhichthe combination of black box and white box tonics’ are used. Test Planning: 1.TestPlan is defined as a strategic document which describes the procedure how to perform various testing on the total application in the most efficient way. 2. This document involves the scope of testing, 3. Objective of testing, 4. Areas that need to be tested, 5. Areas that should not be tested, 6. Scheduling Resource Planning, 7. Areas to be automated, various testing tools Used…. Test Development:
  • 103. 1. Test case Development (check list) 2. Test Procedure preparation. (Description of the Test cases). Result Analysis: 1. Expected value: is nothing but expected behavior of application. 2. Actual value: is nothing but actual behavior of application Bug Tracing: Collect all the failed cases, prepare documents. Reporting: Prepare document (status of the application) Types of Testing: Smoke Testing: is the process of initial testing in which tester looks for the availability of all the functionalityof the applicationinordertoperformdetailedtestingonthem.(Maincheckisforavailable forms) Sanity Testing:isatype of testingthatisconductedonan applicationinitiallytocheckfor the proper behaviorof an applicationthatistocheck all the functionalityare availablebeforethe detailedtestingis conducted by on them. Regression Testing: is one of the best and important testing. Regression testing is the process in whichthe functionality,whichisalreadytestedbefore,isonce againtestedwheneversome new change is added in order to check whether the existing functionality remains same.
  • 104. Re-Testing:isthe processinwhichtestingisperformedonsome functionalitywhichis alreadytested before tomake sure that the defects are reproducible and to rule out the environments issues if at all any defects are there. Static Testing:isthe testing,whichisperformedonan application when it is not been executed.ex: GUI, Document Testing Dynamic Testing:isthe testingwhichisperformedon an application when it is being executed.ex: Functional testing. AlphaTesting:Itisa type of useracceptance testing,whichisconductedonanapplicationwhen it is just before released to the customer. Beta-Testing: it is a type of UAT that is conducted on an application when it is released to the customer, when deployed in to the real time environment and being accessed by the real time users. Monkey Testing:isthe processinwhich abnormal operations,beyondcapacityoperationsare done on the application to check the stability of it in spite of the users abnormal behavior. Compatibility testing: it is the testing process in which usually the products are tested on the environments withdifferentcombinationsof databases(application servers, browsers…etc) In order to check how far the product is compatible with all these environments platform combination.
  • 105. InstallationTesting:itisthe processof testinginwhich the tester try to install or try to deploy the module intothe corresponding environment by following the guidelines produced in the deployment document and check whether the installation is successful or not. Adhoc Testing:AdhocTestingis the process of testing in which unlike the formal testing where in testcase documentisused,withoutthattest case documenttesting can be done of an application, to coverthat testingof the future whichare not covered in that test case document. Also it is intended to perform GUI testing which may involve the cosmotic issues.
  • 108.
  • 110.
  • 113.
  • 116.
  • 118. FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS To develop a system which fulfills all the Requirements of the user as per user wants? User requirements keep changing as the new technology emerges It is not possible to develop a system that makes all the requirements of the user. User requirements keep changing as the system is being used. Some of the future enhancements that can be done to this system are:  As the technologyemerges,itispossible toupgrade the systemandcanbe adaptable to desired environment.  Because it is based on object-oriented design, any further changes can be easily adaptable.  Based on the future security issues, security can be improved using emerging technologies.  sub admin module can be added  An in-built web browsercan be added
  • 119.
  • 121. CONCLUSION Work Done: The “PROACTIVE” was successfully designed and is tested for accuracy and quality. During this project we have accomplished all the objectives and this project meets the needs of the organization. The developed will be used in searching, retrieving and generating information for the concerned requests CONCLUSION Remember quality is perishable so avoid nasty surprises... maintain a sustainable control framework with everyone playing their role in ensuring Quality Trusting and open environment needed to report issues with obligation to resolve them Limitations of the system:  Only the permanent employees can access the system.  System works in all platforms and its compatible environments.  Advanced techniques are not used to check the authorization.
  • 123. BIBILOGRAPHY Good Teachers are worth more than thousand books, we have them in Our Department References Made From:  Professional Java Network Programming  Java Complete Reference  Data Communications and Networking, by Behrouz A Forouzan.
  • 124.  Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach, by James F. Kurose.  Operating System Concepts by Abraham Silberschatz.  Deepak Jain “ Electronic Banking” IBA BULLETIN, Dec 2002  Mishra A K (2005), “Internet Banking in India Part-I”, 2010. Sites Referred: http://java.sun.com http://www.sourcefordgde.com http://www.banknetindia.com/