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Project Report TAFE final

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Project Report TAFE final

  1. 1. A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 1 ST.JOSEPH’S COLLEGE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTARATION 18, Residency Road, Bangalore 560 025 A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Limited Project Report Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of The Post Graduate Diploma in Management (A TWO YEAR FULL TIME PROGRAM IN MANAGEMENT) Submitted by Polisetty Sai Chaitanya Roll No. 14023 PGDM 2014-16
  2. 2. A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 2 ST.JOSEPH’S COLLEGE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTARATION 18, Residency Road, Bangalore 560 025 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project report entitled “A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd.,” is an authentic record of the project carried out by Mr.Polisetty Sai Chaitanya (Reg.No.14023) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of The Post Graduate Diploma in Management. Prof. V.J.Lawrence Associate Professor Rev.Dr.S.Peter S.J. Prof.Edwin L Castelino Director Dean
  3. 3. A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 3
  4. 4. A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 4 DECLARATION I hereby declare that the project report entitled “A Study on effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Limited” has been prepared by me during the period from 15 April 2015 to 30 May 2015 under the guidance or Mr.Kumaresan Deputy Manager, TAFE Limited and Prof. Lawrance, Faculty Member, St.Joseph’s College of Business Administration, Bangalore. I also declare that this project has not been submitted nor shall it be submitted in future to any other University or Institution for the award of any other Degree or diploma. Signature ………………………………….. Polisetty Sai Chaitanya Dated the 30th May, 2015
  5. 5. A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Words are only representations of our regards and gratitude that we have towards our actions and their inherent associations. As a matter of fact, without co- operation, no thought could be coined into real action. Consistent motivation and invaluable support throughout any project is an issue that cannot be quantitatively measured. These acknowledgements are only a fraction of regards towards their gestures. “Vital to every operation is co-operation”. We really agree to this wonderful quotation put forth by Mr. Frank Tyger. This project was successful due to the co- operation extended by people who have truly contributed towards it. We gratefully acknowledge Mr.Lawrence, St. Joseph’s College of Business Administration Bangalore who’s deep sharing and synergy has moved us many levels beyond our own thinking. We express our deep sense of gratitude to ma`am who has been a source of inspiration throughout the course of this work with her inestimable advice and moral encouragement. We are thankful to following persons for their valuable inputs and their kind co-operation and guidance which helped us in carrying out this project study. • Mr. Prem Ramesh, Deputy General Manager, Production Engineering Department TAFE Ltd., • Mr. Kumaresan, Deputy Manager, Production Engineering Department TAFE Ltd., • Mr. Nirmal Kumar, SeniorEngineer, Production Engineering Department TAFE Ltd., We take this responsibility to express our profound and sincere gratitude to St. Joseph’s College of Business Administration, Bangalore for providing us with the opportunity to explore the corridors of the corporate world and gather invaluable knowledge and practical experience via the Production and Operations Management project. Finally, we would like to thanks those people who all are attached to this Project directly or indirectly.
  6. 6. A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 6 Table of content S.No. Description Page No. 1 Executive Summary …………………………………………………. 8 2 Company Profile ……………………………………………………. • AGCO …………………………………………………………. • Warwick Manufacturing Group, UK …………….………….. • Nature of Business ………………………………………….. • Nature of Products ………………………………………….. • Other Information about the Plant ………………………… 9 11 11 11 12 13 3 Introduction to the project ………………………………………….. • Topic of Study ………………………………………………. • Background of the research topic …………………………. • Review of Literature in the area of study …………………. • Existing practices of the organization in the area of study.. 14 14 14 15 16 4 Design of Study ……………………………………………………… • Objectives of the Study ……………………………………... • Scope of the Study ………………………………………….. • Tools and Techniques for collection of data ………………. • Operational definition of concepts ………………………….. 19 19 19 20 26 5 Analysis of Data ……………………………………………………… • Data Collection ……………………………………………….. • Man activity chart …………………………………………….. • Cell Ergonomics ……………………………………………… 29 29 33 33 6 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………. 57 7 Bibliography ………………………………………………………….. 58
  7. 7. A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 7 List of Tables and Graphs SNo. Description Page No. 1 Table -1 Cycle time details for machines …………………………. 29 2 Graph - 1 Cycle time ………………………………………………… 30 3. Table - 2 Production volume details for machines ………………. 30 4. Graph - 2 Production Volume ……………………………………... 31 5. Graph - 3 Comparison of Cycle time and Production Volume …. 32 6. OIB Axle Housing Assembly ………………………………………... 34 7. OIB Wheel Axle Bolt Press …………………………………………. 38 8. Axle Housing Sleeve Press …………………………………………. 40 9. Turkey End Cover Assembly ……………………………………….. 42 10. End Cover Assembly ………………………………………………… 45 11. HLC Cylinder Sub Assembly ……………………………………….. 59 12. HLC Assembly ………………………………………………………... 52
  8. 8. A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 8 Executive summary Now-a-days there is a tremendous growth in the industrial sector, particularly the manufacturing sector. The project is about how effectively the plant layout is performing at the TAFE ltd., who is the 3rd largest manufacture of tractors. In the current scenario, the fast growing needs the company have to deliver the products on the due date or earlier to the due date to gain the customers and increase the market share. In order to achieve the peak of the production the company have to design the layout according to the some standards which would help the company to meet the target. In this project, it presents about how effectively the company is performing, to find the performance of the company there are several parameters are to be considered. They are operator movements, ergonomics of operator by using these parameter we can find the efficiency of the plant layout. The organization and education institution should keep on research on the plant layout design and find the easier way for high production and new technology which should benefit for the company and the customers.
  9. 9. Company Profile A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 9 COMPANY PROFILE Tractors and Farm Equipment Limited (TAFE), is an Indian tractor major incorporated in 1960 at Chennai, with an annual turnover of INR 96 billion (2013-14). The third-largest tractor manufacturer in the world and the second largest in India by volumes, TAFE wields 25% market share of the Indian tractor industry with a sale of over 170,000 tractors (domestic and international) annually. TAFE's partnership with AGCO Corporation and the Massey Ferguson brand for 53 years is a stellar example of its commitment to building long-term relationships with its stakeholders, through fair and ethical business practices. TAFE has earned the trust of customers through its range of products that are widely acclaimed for its quality and low cost of operation. A strong distribution network of over 1000 dealers effectively backs TAFE's three iconic tractor brands of Massey Ferguson, TAFE and Eicher. TAFE exports tractors, both in partnership with AGCO and independently, powering farms in over 75 countries which includes developed countries in Europe and the Americas. From a humble beginning with just one tractor model in 1961, TAFE today is recognized as a high quality mass-manufacturer with an extensive product range to meet the expectations of every farmer and every farm mechanization need. TAFE's R&D facilities are centers of excellence renowned for their innovative design and engineering expertise and have been recognized by the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Government of India. Extensive research and testing ensures that TAFE's products meet its exacting performance standards. TAFE's plant at Turkey manufactures a range of tractors for distribution in Turkey through AGCO's dealer network, while another new facility has been setup at China to cater to TAFE's ever growing global sourcing needs and value addition to its Indian and worldwide operations. TAFE acquired Eicher's tractors, gears and transmission components and engines business in 2005 through a wholly owned subsidiary, TAFE Motors and Tractors Limited (TMTL).
  10. 10. Company Profile A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 10 With six tractor plants, an engine’s plant, two gears and transmission components plants, two engineering plastics units, two facilities for hydraulic pumps and cylinders and one batteries plant besides other facilities, TAFE employs over 2500 engineers apart from a number of specialists in other disciplines. TAFE believes in sound corporate governance and is reputed for being a consistent profit-making company and ethical business practices. TAFE's commitment to CSR involves contribution to the environment and society while facilitating growth of all stakeholders with equal fervor, embodying the role of a responsible corporate citizen. TAFE's social focus has been significant since inception and it contributes towards education, healthcare, agriculture, community development and supporting traditional art forms. TAFE is committed to the Total Quality Movement (TQM). In the recent past various plants of TAFE have garnered, three 'TPM Excellence Awards' from the Japan Institute of Plant Management, the 'Frost & Sullivan - IMEA Award' for significant progress towards reliable processes, the 'Regional Contributor Award' for quality supplies from Toyota Motor Company, Japan, and the 'Manufacturing Supply Chain Operational Excellence - Automobiles Award' at the second Asia Manufacturing Supply Chain Summit for its supply chain transformation, as well as a number of other regional awards for TPM excellence. Its tractor plants are certified under ISO 9001 and under ISO 14001 for their environment friendly operations. In 2008, Business Standard awarded TAFE the 'Star Award for Unlisted Companies' and in 2013the Public Relations Council of India conferred TAFE with the 'Corporate Citizen of the Year' TAFE is a part of the Amalgamations Group based at Chennai, one of India's largest light engineering groups, comprising of 41 companies, involved in the design, development and manufacture of diesel engines, automobile components, light engineering goods, plantations and services. TAFE has a number of associations with industry and technology leaders such as AVL of Austria, Warwick Manufacturing Group of the UK, Carraro and Ricardo from Europe and from Massey Ferguson in its pursuance of product quality and overall excellence. TAFE Motors and Tractors Limited has technology transfer
  11. 11. Company Profile A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 11 agreements with Ricardo of UK for engines and with SISU of Finland for higher HP tractors. AGCO TAFE has an ongoing collaboration with AGCO Corporation, Duluth, Georgia. AGCO is one of the world's largest manufacturer and distributor of Agricultural Equipment, selling its products in over 140 countries. The collaboration has lasted for 50 years and is built on mutual trust and respect for each other's competencies. These competencies are individually and collectively leveraged for mutual benefit across geographies through innovative arrangements for specific markets. Warwick Manufacturing Group, UK At TAFE we have been working with the Warwick manufacturing Group now known as WMG since the late nineties in managing change at TAFE through company wide initiatives. With their wide exposure to manufacturing technologies, materials and sustainability and operations and business management, they have facilitated TAFE to manage the changing environment in our industry through collaboratively devised approaches to our business that have helped ensure sustainable success despite its cyclic nature. Nature of Business 1. TAFE Motors and Tractors Limited (TMTL) 2. Application Business 3. Engineering Plastics 4. Power Sources 5. TAFE Access 6. TAFE Reach 7. Southern Tree Farms
  12. 12. Company Profile A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 12 Nature of Products 1. Tractors 2. Harvesters 3. Engines &Gensets 4. Gears & Transmission System 5. Batteries 6. Hydraulic Pumps Players in the Industry along with the Market Share The study conducted in the Tractor Division, where assembly of tractor and painting is done. Here two brand name tractors are assembled. They are 1. TAFE 2. Massey Ferguson M&M 46% TAFE 23% Escorts 13% John Deere 11% Sonalika 2% HMT 3% Others 2% Market Shares
  13. 13. Company Profile A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 13 Other Information about the Plant Current operation = 200 Tractors per day Capacity operation = 230 Tractors per day Time Taken to assemble a tractor is 4 minutes Product Range = 25 HP to 100 HP Models National = 70 Models and 45 variants Export = 55 Models and 275 variants No.of Components = 9932 No.of Employees = 1200 persons
  14. 14. Introduction to the project A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 14 Introduction to the Project Topic of Study Facility layout means planning for the location of all machines, utilities, employee workstations, customer service areas, material storage areas, offices and computer rooms and for the flow pattern of materials and people around into and within the buildings. Through facilities layouts, the physical arrangement of these process within and around the buildings, the space necessary for the operation of these process and provided the space required for support functions. As process planning and facility layout planning information continuous interchange between the two planning activities, because each affects the other objective of the facility layout study is to minimize the total cost, the cost comprises of construction cost, installation cost, material handling cost, ease of future expansion, production cost, machine down time cost, in-process storage cost, safety cost, ease of supervision. Operation layout design criteria 1. Efficient loading and unloading 2. Ease of inventory counts 3. Effective stocking 4. Effective use of layout 5. Increase the productivity Background of the research topic Facilities should be designed so that they can be easily expended or adjusted to meet changing production needs. Flexible manufacturing system most often are highly automated facilities having intermediate-volume production of a variety of products. Their goals to minimize changeover and setup times for producing the different products while still achieving close to assembly line production rates. Objectives of a good layout 1. Movement of people and material 2. Production capacity 3. Labour efficiency in terms of ergonomics
  15. 15. Introduction to the project A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 15 4. Space utilization 5. Ease of supervision and maintenance Principles for Ideal Layout 1. Minimum travel 2. Sequence 3. Usage and flexibility 4. Safety and satisfaction 5. Compactness and minimum investments Provide optimum space to organize equipment and facilitate of goods and to create safe and comfortable work environment. To promote order in production towards a single objective and optimum use of work force and equipment. Review of Literature in the area of study Efficiency of a plant layout can be increased by redesigning the plant layout using string diagram and layout planning. It provide basic details about the flow of material through shop floor and the interrelation of various activities. One such research explain about the planning methods and procedures for various types of production facilities. The type of layout design to be adopted and implemented during layout design and has also provided the key elements for the layout design. The type of flow of material and requirement of basic process is also explained. Many industries use Activity Relationship Charts (ARC) and diagrams for layout redesign and layout planning. The use of activity relationship charts in designing the layout as provided a basic steps for layout planning. A research conducted to identify and improve the plant layout of pulley’s factory to eliminate obstructions in material flow and thus obtain maximum productivity. Another research focuses on the problems occurred during designing flexible plant layout for manufacturing facilities were product demands are subjected to variability. A flexible layout is one that maintains low material handling cost despite fluctuations in the product demand levels.
  16. 16. Introduction to the project A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 16 A research conducted in the industry explains about the warehouse redesign of a manufacturing plant layout and also problems faced during the redesign of layouts. A case study explains in detailed redesign of an existing production facility the design of production differs from that of manufacturing layout and the analysis done using group technology. Existing practices of the organization in the area of study 1. Poka - Yoke 2. Cellular Manufacturing 3. Process layout Poka – Yoke • Poka – Yoke that help operators avoid mistakes in their work caused by choosing the wrong part, leaving out a part , installing a part backwards etc., • It involve the implementation of fail – safe ways methods that detect or prevent human machine error. • It provides instant feedback and prevention of quality problems. • It helps the operator and process work right the first time. • Poka – Yoke refers to techniques that make it impossible to make mistake and it also helps to drive defects out of product and process and substantially improve quality and reliability. • It helps the company of simple Poka – Yoke ideas and methods in product and process design can eliminate both human and mechanical errors.
  17. 17. Introduction to the project A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 17 Cellular Manufacturing Cellular manufacturing is a lean manufacturing approach that helps company’s build a variety of products as little waste as possible. Equipment and workstations arranged in a sequence that supports smooth material flow through process with minimal transport or delay. A manufacturing cell consists of people and machines of workstations required for performing the process steps. For example : If a process for a product requires cutting, followed by drilling and finishing, the cell could include the equipment for performing steps arranged in that order. It helps the company achieve to important goals of lean they are One-piece flow and High-variety production. One-piece flow One-piece flow is the state that exists when products move through a manufacturing process one unit at a time at a rate determined the needs of customer. High-variety production By grouping similar products into families that can be processed on same equipment in the same sequence. It helps to shorten change over time between products.
  18. 18. Introduction to the project A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 18 Process layout This type is generally used in systems where a product has to be manufactured or assemble in large quantities. In process layout the machinery and auxiliary services are located according to the processing sequence of the product without any buffer storage within the line itself.
  19. 19. Design of the Study A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 19 Design of the Study 1. Objectives of the study 2. Scope of the Study 3. Tools and Techniques for collection of data 4. Operation definition of concepts Objectives of the Study To study the current flow pattern and relation of overall plant layout Relocating the workstations for simpler flow and reduction in check points. To improve the efficiency of the plant layout using facility layout planning To increase production capacity of the plant. To ensure optimum utilization of workforce and equipment. To reduce movement of workers, raw materials and equipment. Scope of the Study Production and operations management concern with the conversion of inputs into outputs, using physical resources, so as to provide the desired utilities to the customer while meeting the other organizational objectives of effectiveness, efficiency and adoptability. It distinguishes itself from other functions such as personnel, marketing, finance etc., by its primary concern for conversion by using physical resources. Plant layout deals with the arrangement of machines and plant facilities. The machines should be arrange that the flow of production remains smooth. There should not be overlapping, duplication or interruption in production flow. Product layout, where machines are arranged in a sequence required for the processing of a particular product and in process layout, where machines performing the similar process are group together are two popular methods of layout. The departments are laid out in such a way that the cost of material handling is reduced. They should be proper choice of material handling equipment. There are many software for planning the process layout. Group Technology, cellular manufacturing systems and flexible manufacturing have made our concepts of layout planning undergo a tremendous change.
  20. 20. Design of the Study A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 20 In short, manufacturing facilities must be able to exhibit high levels of flexibility and robustness despite significant changes in the operating requirements. However the plant layout improvement, could be one of the tools to response to increasing industrial productivity. Plant layout has became a fundamental basis of today’s industrial plants which can influence parts of work efficiency. It is needed to approximately plan and position employees, materials, machines, equipment and other manufacturing supports and facilities to create the most effective plant layout. Tools and Techniques for collection of data 1. Time study 2. String diagram Time Study Time study methods were originally proposed by Frederick Taylor and were later modified two include a performance rating adjustments. They have now became one of the most widely used means of work measurement. Basically by using time study an analyst is taking a small sample of one worker’s activity and using it to derive a standard for tasks of that nature time study or stopwatch, time study is performed by timing a worker as the job is performed, summing the times for the necessary element of the job, adjusting if an abnormal workspace was observed, and then adding time for personal and rest breaks.
  21. 21. Design of the Study A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 21 The time study approach to work measurement use a stopwatch are other timing device to determine the time required to complete given tasks. Assuming a standard is being set the worker must be trained and must use the prescribed method while the study is being conducted. String Diagram The string diagram is one of the simplest techniques of method study for recording and examining movement of workers and materials. It is a tool for analyzing the designing workspace in a such a way that the movement of material, men, equipment etc., During a specified sequence of events the string diagram is thus a form of flow diagram. In this a thread is used to measure distance it is necessary that the string diagram be drawn correctly to scale. It is most often used to supplement the flow process chart. A string diagram can be used to plot the movement of material and is done especially when a work study person wants to find out easily just how far the materials travelled. The complete plan containing all the equipments, doorways, pillars and partitions, which affect path of movement, are drawn to scale. A measured length of thread is then taken and tide around the pins at the string points of movement thus the string diagram is useful aid in explaining proposed changes to company management, problem supervisors and employees. 1. Location of facilities 2. Plant layouts and material handling 3. Product design 4. Process design 5. Production and planning control 6. Quality control
  22. 22. Design of the Study A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 22 7. Materials management 8. Maintenance management. LOCATION OF FACILITIES Location of facilities for operations is a long-term capacity decision which involves a long term commitment about the geographically static factors that affect a business organization. It is an important strategic level decision-making for an organization. It deals with the questions such as ‘where our main operations should be based?’ The selection of location is a key-decision as large investment is made in building plant and machinery. An improper location of plant may lead to waste of all the investments made in plant and machinery equipments. Hence, location of plant should be based on the company’s expansion plan and policy, diversification plan for the products, changing sources of raw materials and many other factors. The purpose of the location study is to find the optimal location that will results in the greatest advantage to the organization. PLANT LAYOUT AND MATERIAL HANDLING Plant layout refers to the physical arrangement of facilities. It is the configuration of departments, workcentres and equipment in the conversion process. The overall objective of the plant layout is to design a physical arrangement that meets the required output quality and quantity most economically. According to James Moore, “Plant layout is a plan of an optimum arrangement of facilities including personnel, operating equipment, storage space, material handling equipments and all other supporting services along with the design of best structure to contain all these facilities”. ‘Material Handling’ refers to the ‘moving of materials from the store room to the machine and from one machine to the next during the process of manufacture’. It is also defined as the ‘art and science of moving, packing and storing of products in any form’. It is a specialized activity for a modern manufacturing concern, with 50 to 75% of the cost of production. This cost can be reduced by proper section, operation and maintenance of material handling devices. Material handling devices increases the output, improves quality, speeds up the deliveries and decreases the cost of production. Hence, material handling is a prime consideration in the designing new plant and several existing plants.
  23. 23. Design of the Study A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 23 PRODUCT DESIGN Product design deals with conversion of ideas into reality. Every business organization have to design, develop and introduce new products as a survival and growth strategy. Developing the new products and launching them in the market is the biggest challenge faced by the organizations. The entire process of need identification to physical manufactures of product involves three functions: marketing, product development, manufacturing. Product development translates the needs of customers given by marketing into technical specifications and designing the various features into the product to these specifications. Manufacturing has the responsibility of selecting the processes by which the product can be manufactured. Product design and development provides link between marketing, customer needs and expectations and the activities required to manufacture the product. PROCESS DESIGN Process design is a macroscopic decision-making of an overall process route for converting the raw material into finished goods. These decisions encompass the selection of a process, choice of technology, process flow analysis and layout of the facilities. Hence, the important decisions in process design are to analyse the workflow for converting raw material into finished product and to select the workstation for each included in the workflow. PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL Production planning and control can be defined as the process of planning the production in advance, setting the exact route of each item, fixing the starting and finishing dates for each item, to give production orders to shops and to follow up the progress of products according to orders. The principle of production planning and control lies in the statement ‘First Plan Your Work and then Work on Your Plan’. Main functions of production planning and control includes planning, routing, scheduling, dispatching and follow-up. Planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do it, when to do it and who is to do it. Planning bridges the gap from where we are, to where we want to go. It makes it possible for things to occur which would not otherwise happen.
  24. 24. Design of the Study A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 24 Routing may be defined as the selection of path which each part of the product will follow, which being transformed from raw material to finished products. Routing determines the most advantageous path to be followed from department to department and machine to machine till raw material gets its final shape. Scheduling determines the programme for the operations. Scheduling may be defined as ‘the fixation of time and date for each operation’ as well as it determines the sequence of operations to be followed. Dispatching is concerned with the starting the processes. It gives necessary authority so as to start a particular work, which has already been planned under ‘Routing’ and ‘Scheduling’. Therefore, dispatching is ‘release of orders and instruction for the starting of production for any item in acceptance with the route sheet and schedule charts’. The function to report daily the progress of work in each shop in a prescribed proforma and to of follow-up is investigate the causes of deviations from the planned performance. QUALITY CONTROL Quality Control (QC) may be defined as ‘a system that is used to maintain a desired level of quality in a product or service’. It is a systematic control of various factors that affect the quality of the product. Quality control aims at prevention of defects at the source, relies on effective feed back system and corrective action procedure. Quality control can also be defined as ‘that industrial management technique by means of which product of uniform acceptable quality is manufactured’. It is the entire collection of activities which ensures that the operation will produce the optimum quality products at minimum cost. • The main objectives of quality control are: • To improve the companies income by making the production more acceptable to the customers i.e., by providing long life, greater usefulness, maintainability, etc. • To reduce companies cost through reduction of losses due to defects.
  25. 25. Design of the Study A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 25 • To achieve interchangeability of manufacture in large scale production. • To produce optimal quality at reduced price. • To ensure satisfaction of customers with productions or services or high quality level, to build customer goodwill, confidence and reputation of manufacturer. • To make inspection prompt to ensure quality control. • To check the variation during manufacturing. MATERIALS MANAGEMENT Materials management is that aspect of management function which is primarily concerned with the acquisition, control and use of materials needed and flow of goods and services connected with the production process having some predetermined objectives in view. The main objectives of materials management are: • To minimize material cost. • To purchase, receive, transport and store materials efficiently and to reduce the related cost. • To cut down costs through simplification, standardisation, value analysis, import substitution, etc. • To trace new sources of supply and to develop cordial relations with them in order to ensure continuous supply at reasonable rates. • To reduce investment tied in the inventories for use in other productive purposes and to develop high inventory turnover ratios. MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT In modern industry, equipment and machinery are a very important part of the total productive effort. Therefore, their idleness or downtime becomes are very expensive. Hence, it is very important that the plant machinery should be properly maintained.
  26. 26. Design of the Study A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 26 The main objectives of maintenance management are: 1. To achieve minimum breakdown and to keep the plant in good working condition at the lowest possible cost. 2. To keep the machines and other facilities in such a condition that permits them to be used at their optimal capacity without interruption. 3. To ensure the availability of the machines, buildings and services required by other sections of the factory for the performance of their functions at optimal return on investment. Operational definition of concepts 1. Job shop production 2. Batch production 3. Mass production 4. Continuous production 5. Effectiveness 6. Efficiency 7. Productivity 8. Lead-time 9. Work station 10.Material Handling 11.Benchmarking 12.Brainstorming Job shop production Job shop production are categories by manufacturing of one or few quantity of products designed and products as per the specification of customers within prefixed time and cost. A job shop comprises of general purpose machines arranged into different departments. Each job demands unique technology requirements, demands processing on machines in a certain sequence.
  27. 27. Design of the Study A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 27 Batch production Batch production is a form of manufacturing in which the job process through the function departments or batches and each lot may have a different routing. It is characterized by the manufacture of limited number of products produced at regular intervals and stocked awaiting. Mass Production Manufacture of discrete parts or assemblies using a continuous process are called Mass production. This production system is justified by very large volume of production. The machines are arranged in a line or product layout. Product layout and process standardization exists and all outputs follow the same path. Continuous production Production facilities are arranged as per the sequence of production operations from the first operation to the finished product. The items are made to flow through the sequence of operation through material handling devices such as conveyors, transfer devices etc., Definition of key terms Effectiveness Effectiveness means doing the right things to create the most value for the company. It can be measured by the actual outputdivided with the expected output. Efficiency Efficiency means doing something at the lowest possible cost. It can be measured by dividing resources planned to be used with resources actually used. Productivity Productivity is a common measure of how well a country, industry, or business unit is using its resources. This can be measured by dividing the outputs with the inputs.
  28. 28. Design of the Study A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 28 Lead-time This is the time between placing an order and receiving the finished goods or service. Workstation The space or area of a facility in which individuals or operators perform tasks. This ranges from an assembly station in a factory to a cube in an office. Material handing Material handing is defined as providing the right amount of the right material, in the right condition, at the right place, at the right time, in the right position, in the right sequence, and for the right cost, by using the right methods. Benchmarking A tool to improve business processes by looking what other companies are doing. It is often beneficial to observe firms in other branches. Brainstorming Brainstorming is one of the simplest and familiar creativity techniques. It helps to generate the ideas for a solution of the problem. The outcome of brainstorming can be a list of ideas, which lead to an approach or the solution itself.
  29. 29. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 29 Analysis of Data Data Collection To determine the effectiveness of the layout, the details regarding the performance of the cell or needed. So by doing the times study, information is collected. Time study was conducted by taking number or trails. The complete cycle of events have been divided into work elements. The time required for carrying out each element is measured using a stop watch in continuous mode. Trails were taken in different periods to have a good accuracy. The results of the time study are shown all the details regarding, the cell layout and ergonomics like loading and unloading points were collected and presented. The table below shows the cycle time of each station for the final product of their respective parts. Cycle time details for machines : S. No. Work Element Machines Machining Time (Sec) Loading Time (Sec) Unloading Time (Sec) Cleaning Time (Sec) Cycle Time (Sec) 1 PTO shaft press 110 5 5 4 124 2 Center Housing assembly 200 15 60 NA 275 3 OIB wheel axle bolt press 300 17 10 5 332 4 OIB axle housing assembly 150 12 7 NA 169 5 Axle housing sleeve press 360 7 10 NA 377 6 Turkey end cover assembly 240 8 5 NA 253 7 End cover assembly 170 5 5 6 186 8 HLC cylinder sub assembly 270 20 10 7 307 9 HLC assembly 650 10 15 NA 675 Table – 1 Cycle time details for machines
  30. 30. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 30 Production volume details for machines : S. No. Parts Cycle Time (sec) Output per cycle Total time available (sec) Production volume per month (Nos.) 1 PTO shaft press 124 1 1310400 10565 2 Center Housing assembly 275 1 1310400 4765 3 OIB wheel axle bolt press 332 1 1310400 3947 4 OIB axle housing assembly 169 1 1310400 7754 5 Axle housing sleeve press 337 1 1310400 3476 6 Turkey end cover assembly 256 1 1310400 5180 7 End cover assembly 186 1 1310400 7045 8 HLC cylinder sub assembly 307 1 1310400 4268 9 HLC assembly 675 1 1310400 1941 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Cycle Time (Sec)
  31. 31. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 31 Calculation of cycle time and production volume Cycle time = machining time + loading time + unloading time + cleaning time = 110 + 5 + 5 + 4 = 124 seconds. Production volume = Total time available (sec) cycle time (sec) = 1310400 124 = 10568 parts 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 PTO shaft press Center Housing assembly OIB wheel axle bolt press OIB axle housing assembly Axle housing sleeve press Turkey end cover assembly End cover assembly HLC cylinder sub assembly HLC assembly Production volume per month (Nos.)
  32. 32. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 32 Comparison of Cycle time (sec) and Production volume per month (Nos.) From the data collection phase, information are collected directly by observing shop floor and it indicates performance of the shop floor (viz., man and machine, utilization, part travel, production volume etc.,) Hence they have to be further process to obtain the performance of cell. Any manufacturing cell includes, all the resources needed for product manufacturing. The resources have to be utilized to maximum extent to obtain the desired output from the cell. Hence to evaluate the performance of cells, the utilization of resources, along with the factors that affects the utilization of the resources. In order to do so, the following factors have to be considered to know about the performance of the cell. 1. Man activity chart 2. Cell Ergonomics 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 PTO shaft press Center Housing assembly OIB wheel axle bolt press OIB axle housing assembly Axle housing sleeve press Turkey end cover assembly End cover assembly HLC cylinder sub assembly HLC assembly Cycle Time (Sec) Production volume per month (Nos.)
  33. 33. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 33 Man activity chart In the man activity chart we will look at the following stations, how they were efficient and it also represent the ergonomics, movements of operator, distance travelled and production volume. The data collected using the stop watch study and string diagram. Cell Ergonomics The job of the operator is primary loading and unloading parts. Hence ergonomics concern with lifting and placing parts in machines and operating work holding devices. In this system, human performance in detecting and correcting cell malfunctions will establish utilization and thus the production efficiency. The existing cell has been studied and the ergonomics of a worker is designed. There are no unnecessary movements and operator fatigue is less, when working continuously. As far as the ergonomic concern in the company, they have been following the standards which is feasible to the workers with less fatigue and strain. They were following some techniques in order to enhance the productivity. They are 1. Machinery and controls, so as to minimize mental and physical strain on the worker to enable the improvement in efficiency. 2. They were maintaining a peaceful environment for performing the task most affectively and conducive. 3. They have designed the working environment in such a way that lighting, ventilation, temperature, noise, vibrations, color, safety etc.,
  34. 34. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 34 OIB AXLE HOUSING ASSEMBLY ( in mts.,) Operations Sequence Tools used Forward Backward Right Left Bending Down Stretching up Remarks To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro Taking OIB from TOD Scanning the sticker on the moniter Barcode Scanner 0.5 0.5 Stretching forward to pick up the barcode scanner Taking axle shaft from the trolley 0.5 0.5 Turning back to pick up the axle shaft Taking friction plate and intermediate plate from the trolley 0.5 0.5 Turning back Checking disc length Disc guage 0.5 0.5 Stretching forward to pick up the guage Taking reaction pin from the storage rack 0.5 0.5 0.75 0.75 Stretching forward to pick up the reaction pin Taking accutator from the trolley 0.5 0.5 Turning back to take the accelator Cont…
  35. 35. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 35 Taking friction plate and intermediate plate from the trolley 0.5 0.5 Turning back Putting grease and 'O' ring and again applying grease 0.75 0.75 1.00 1.00 Stretching towards left for taking 'O' ring Taking brake boot bracket from the trolley 1.5 1.5 1.00 1.00 Operator is bending down to pick up boot bracket in the trolley Scanning the brake boot bracket for checking hours (4 hrs) curing time Barcode Scanner 0.5 0.5 Putting Gasket 0.5 0.5 Applying loctite 0.5 0.5 Bending down to pick up loctite Cont…
  36. 36. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 36 Putting brake lever from the trolley 0.5 0.5 Putting fasteners and washers from the storage rack 0.5 0.5 Tightening fasterners using Nut runner Nut runner (Power tool) 0.5 0.5 Bending down to pick up the Nut runner Tightening the stud using torque wrench Torque wrench 0.6 0.6 Putting Nut and cotter pin 0.5 0.5 Taking carrier plate from the pressing machine 1.5 1.5 Travel back to carry tip carrier (heavy weight) Putting screw and tightening Power screw driver 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 Stretching up to catch the power screw driver Cont…
  37. 37. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 37 Punching the screw Hammer and rod 0.5 0.5 Checking the gap with filler gauge Filler gauge Moving to the trolley for main assembly line Cycle time = 169 seconds Production volume = 7754 parts Distance travelled by the operator = 31.2 meters
  38. 38. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 38 OIB WHEEL AXLE BOLT PRESS ( in mts.,) Operations Sequence Tools used Forward Backward Right Left Bending Down Stretching up Remarks To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro Wheel Axle Pressing Taking wheel axle from trolley 2 2 0.5 0.5 Operater is bending down Taking seal labrith plate from storage rack 0.5 0.5 1 1 Stretching upward towards left Taking Bolt from storage rack and putting on wheel axle 0.5 0.5 Taking bearing from the trolley and inserting on the wheel axle 0.75 0.75 Travelling towards right side to pick up bearing Operating Hydraulic machine for pressing bolt Taking drive cover from right side Bearing press tool 2 2 Carring heavy weight Pressing the bearing with machine Putting half ring from storage rack Using hammer and screw driver 0.5 0.5 Cont…
  39. 39. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 39 Checking the half ring Adjusting the half ring Filler gauge tool 0.5 0.5 Putting 'O' ring from storage bin 0.5 0.5 Locating 'O' ring Spanner Putting wheet axle in carrier press Taking carrier from trolley using hoist 1.5 1.5 Putting bearing Taking bearing from bearing stand 1 1 Pressing the carrier and bearing using pressing machine Forwarded to the shim size stickering 1 1 0.5 0.5 Stretching upward to pick up the sticker Cycle time = 332 seconds Production volume = 3947 parts Distance travelled by the operator = 24.00 meters
  40. 40. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 40 AXLE HOUSING SLEEVE PRESS ( in mts.,) Operations Sequence Tools used Forward Backward Right Left Bending Down Stretching up Remarks To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro Scanning the shim using scanner Using barcode scanner travelling to shimming gauge Barcode Scanner 1.5 1.5 Moving backward diagonally Putting shim on axle according to the size mentioned 0.5 0.5 Putting 'O' ring from the storage rack and locating Spanner 0.5 0.5 Moving to the sleeve press machine 0.5 0.5 Pushing the wheel axle and carrier to left Pressing the axle sleeve with 40kg/cm2 Mounting Ring gear Taking ring gear from trolley 2 2 Travelling in backward direction Cont…
  41. 41. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 41 Mounting Carrier on Ring gear Taking Carrier from carrier press trolley Hoist 1 1 Turning back to pick up the carrier Putting washers and bolts from storage rack 0.5 0.5 Tightening stud with Nut runner Nut runner (Power tool) 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 Bending down to pick up the Nut runner Locking the bolt with Torque wrench from storage rack Torque wrench 0.5 0.5 Cycle time = 377 seconds Production volume = 3476 parts Distance travelled by the operator = 16.00 meters
  42. 42. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 42 Turkey end cover assembly ( in mts.,) Operations Sequence Tools used Forward Backward Right Left Bending Down Stretching up Remarks To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro Turkey end cover assembly Picking end cover from the trolley and keeping on the pressing machine 0.5 0.5 Operator carrying heavy weight picking bearing from stroage rack and inserting on the end cover 0.5 0.5 Streching forward to pick up the bearing Picking lock tool and pressing bearing using pressing machine End cover lock tool 0.5 0.5 Picking end cover lock from storage rack and inserting in the end cover over bearing 0.5 0.5 Taking bearing pressing guide tool and keeping over the bearing Bearing pressing guide tool 0.5 0.5 Picking heavy weight of bearing press tool Cont…
  43. 43. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 43 Turning back side of the end cover Picking end cover oil seal from storage rack 0.5 0.5 Applying loctite (603) inside the oil seal 0.25 0.25 Bending down to pick up the loctite Inserting oil seal in the end cover and pressing with oil seal pressing tool Oil seal pressing tool Pasting the barcode sticker and waiting for to dry the loctite (15 minutes) 0.5 0.5 Streching forward to pickup the barcode sticker Picking shaft from the trolley Hoist 0.5 0.5 Turning back to pick up the shaft Inserting shaft into the end cover and pressing with machine Cont…
  44. 44. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 44 Removing the end cover from pressing machine and putting into TOD 0.5 0.5 Operator is carrying heavy weight of end cover Putting lock washer into the shaft 0.25 0.25 Bending down to pick up lock washer Cycle time = 253 seconds Production volume = 5180 parts Distance travelled by the operator = 10.00 meters
  45. 45. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 45 END COVER ASSEMBLY ( in mts.,) Operator 1 Operations Sequence Tools used Forward Backward Right Left Bending Down Stretching up Remarks To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro End cover assembly Collecting end cover from the washing machine using conveyor 1.5 1.5 Pulling the end cover from the right side to the pressing machine Putting end cover in the pressing machine 0.5 0.5 Putting bearning over the green oil seal over the end cover from the trolley 0.5 0.5 Putting shim over the bearing from the storage rack 0.25 0.25 0.75 0.75 Putting circlip guide tool over the end cover Putting circlip from the trolley 0.5 0.5 Turning back to pick up the circlip Pressing the bearing Bearing press tool 0.25 0.25 Cont…
  46. 46. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 46 Putting green oil seal from the trolley 0.5 0.5 Turning back to pick up the green oil seal Pressing using the machine Oil seal guide tool 0.25 0.25 Stretching forward to pick up the oil seal guide tool Turning backside of the end cover Putting mud block after turning the end cover Bearing press tool 0.25 0.25 0.5 0.5 Turning back to pick up the mud block from the trolley Taking shaft from the trolley putting on the end cover Hoist 0.5 0.5 Turning back to collect the shaft from the trolley Pressing the shaft using press machine 0.25 0.25 Pusing end cover with shaft into the pressing machine Forwarded to TOD Cont…
  47. 47. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 47 Operator 2 Operations Sequence Tools used Forward Backward Right Left Bending Down Stretching up Remarks To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro End cover sub assembly Collecting from the TOD 0.5 0.5 Pulling end cover with shaft from the TOD Taking 'O' ring from storage rack 0.75 0.75 Stretching forward towards right to pick up 'O' ring Taking sleeve from the storage rack and putting over the shaft 0.75 0.75 Stretching forward to pick up the sleeve Applying loctite from the storage rack 0.5 0.5 Stretching forward to pick up the loctite Putting sleeve over the shaft and tightening the sleeve Nut tighter tool 0.5 0.5 0.75 0.75 Stretching up to catch the nut tighter tool Taking sleeve nut from the storage rack 0.5 0.5 Stretching forward to collect the sleeve nut Cont…
  48. 48. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 48 Tightening the Sleeve nut Nut tighter tool 0.5 0.5 0.75 0.75 Stretching up to pick up the tool Moving end cover to the main assembly line Cycle time = 186 seconds Production volume = 7045 parts Distance travelled by the operator = 24.00 meters
  49. 49. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 49 HLC CYLINDER SUB ASSEMBLY ( in mts.,) Operations Sequence Tools used Forward Backward Right Left Bending Down Stretching up Remarks To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro HLC cylinder sub assembly Taking piston from the trolley 0.75 0.75 Turning back to pick up the piston Taking piston seal ring and inserting over the piston 0.5 0.5 Taking seal ring guide tool and putting over the piston 0.6 0.6 Bending down to pick up the tool Taking seal ring from storage rack and putting over piston Fitting the piston using seal ring guide tool Seal ring guide tool 0.5 0.5 Taking cylinder (outer body) from the trolley 0.5 0.5 Carring heavy weight Cont…
  50. 50. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 50 Apply grease 0.5 0.5 Inserting piston into the cylinder Piston guide tool and insert tool 0.5 0.5 Putting stud into cylinder from storage rack 0.5 0.5 Stretching forward Tightening the stud Nut runner (Power tool) 0.5 0.5 Stretching forward Taking setting bracket 0.5 0.5 Turning back to correct the setting bracket Taking fasterners from the storage rack 0.5 0.5 Stretching forward Putting fasterners over setting bracket from the storage rack 0.5 0.5 Cont…
  51. 51. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 51 Tightening the Fasterners Nut runner (Power tool) 0.5 0.5 Stretching forward to pick up Nut runner Taking PC and DC lever from the trolley 0.5 0.5 Turning back Tightening fasterners of PC and DC levers Nut runner (Power tool) 0.5 0.5 Stretching forward to pick up Nut runner Moving to HLC main assembly Cycle time = 307 seconds Production volume = 4268 parts Distance travelled by the operator = 15.7 meters
  52. 52. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 52 HLC ASSEMBLY ( in mts.,) Operator 1 Operations Sequence Tools used Forward Backward Right Left Bending Down Stretching up Remarks To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro HLC assembly Taking HLC from the trolley using hoist 2.5 2.5 0.5 0.5 Travelling in backward direction and bending down Putting HLC in washing machine Operator is training due to heat Taking the HLC from the washing machine and putting on the trolley 1.5 1.5 Travelling in backward direction Mounting washers and bolt the storage rack on the HLC 1.00 1.00 Tightening the bolts Spanner, Torque wrench 0.5 0.5 Bending down to take the washers and bolts Taking trolley from behind the washing machine 1.00 1.00 3.00 3.00 Traveling left and then forward to get the trolley Picking the cylinder from trolley and putting into washing machine Cont…
  53. 53. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 53 Picking cylinder from washing machine and again keeping in trolley 2.00 2.00 Operator is carrying heavy weight Removing water droplets using air gauge Air gauge 0.5 0.5 Again moving trolley to the respective station 1.00 1.00 1.5 1.5 Taking kitting trolley and washing the parts 1.5 1.5 Pulling kitting trolley near to washing machine Picking parts from washing machine and keeping in the kitting trolley 0.5 0.5 Turning back to keep parts in the trolley Picking end cover from the end cover tray and putting in the washing machine Hoist 1.00 1.00 0.5 0.5 Operator is bending down to pick up end cover After washing picking the end cover using hoist and keeping on the conveyor Hoist 0.75 0.75 Operator is straning due to heat Cont…
  54. 54. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 54 Operator 2 Operations Sequence Tools used Forward Backward Right Left Bending Down Stretching up Remarks To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro To Fro Putting bolt and washers from storage rack to fix the HLC 0.5 0.5 Putting 'O' ring and disc over load plate from storage rack 0.4 0.4 0.35 0.35 Operator is bending to take disc cover load plate Taking kitting trolley from the trolley line to station 2.5 2.5 Operator is travelling straight and right to take the kitting trolley Taking Arm Ram and connecting rod pressing using machine 1.5 1.5 Turning back for pressing Putting allen screw on HLC from storage rack 1 1 Putting washers from trolley 0.5 0.5 Inserting lift shaft into HLC from trolley 0.5 0.5 Cont…
  55. 55. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 55 Locating DC link and PC link from the trolley to the HLC Hammer and rod 0.5 0.5 Putting link shaft from storage rack 0.75 0.75 Putting bush from storage rack and locating it Bush guide tool 1 1 Turning back to pick up the bush Putting 'O' ring and seal ring Bush guide tool 0.5 0.5 Putting lift arm from the trolley 0.75 0.75 Putting load washer from storage rack 0.5 0.5 Putting control spring from the trolley and locating it Screw driver 0.5 0.5 Locating HLC cylinder from the HLC sub assembly line Hammer 1 1 Operator is carring heavy weight Locating quardant from the storage rack Screw driver and centre screw allen key 3 3 travelling in backward direction carring heavy load Cont…
  56. 56. Analysis of Data A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 56 Checking draft control and position control Pounds and checking tool 1.5 1.5 Moving to the main assembly line Putting bolt and washers from storage rack to fix the HLC 0.5 0.5 Putting 'O' ring and disc over load plate from storage rack 0.4 0.4 0.35 0.35 Operator is bending to take disc cover load plate Taking kitting trolley from the trolley line to station 2.5 2.5 Operator is travelling straight and right to take the kitting trolley Taking Arm Ram and connecting rod pressing using machine 1.5 1.5 Turning back for pressing Cycle time = 675 seconds Production volume = 1941 parts Distance travelled by the operator = 72 meters
  57. 57. Findings and Recommendations A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 57 Findings With the best knowledge of available techniques the solution to these type of layout become more acceptable with the good points of different approach were brought together. As it was noted there are several points which make the problem more real. The data that are posted in the operated movement chart has been carefully collected and summarized. The important factors should be assigned accurately to the type of movement so that adjustment of the numbers in the travel chart could be affected accordingly. The data collection and posting into the operator movement chart is the most important step before starting the analysis, because the techniques of evaluation of layouts depends on the accuracy of the operator movement with keeping the restrictions and assumptions in the mind. we can find the effectiveness of the existing layout. From the data collected using the methodology the existing layout of the rear axle assembly was doing good in terms of productivity and ergonomically. Now the existing layout they were achieving the peak of the desired production level in the rear axle assembly. Recommedations For the main assembly line of tractor they can adopt the robotic technology. By adopting the robotic technology they can reduce the human error and can achieve the high precision. With the help of robotic technology they can reduce the takt timeand the production volume can be increased.
  58. 58. Bibliography A Study on Effectiveness of Existing Layout at TAFE Ltd., 58 Bibliography 1. Dr.M.Khoshnevisan Francis, “Facility layout and location: An analytical approach”, Prentice Hall, 2/E, Engle wood cliffs, NJ, 1993. 2. Shikdar A. Al-Hadhrami M., (2007) “Smart workstation design : an ergonomics and methods engineering approach” International Journal of Industrial and System Engineering. 3. Dr.V.Jayakumar, “Process planning and cost estimation”, Lakshmi Publications, OMAN, 2011. 4. G.Sundaraja, Improving productivity of manufacturing using lean concepts, International Journal of Lean Thinking.

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