ISSN2311-2824
FAO STATISTICAL YEARBOOK
2014
Latin America and the Caribbean
Food and Agriculture
Food and Agriculture Organization of th...
The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information
product do not imply the expression of any ...
Foreword
The Latin America and Caribbean region is made up of many diverse countries, from small
islands states to large c...
iv
Acknowledgements
The FAO Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean (FAORLC) and the FAO Statistics
Division (ESS)...
vi
How to use this book
The structure
The FAO Statistical Yearbook products build on the process that be-
gan with the 2012 e...
The book is divided into four thematic parts, in an attempt to present
the full spectrum of issues relevant to the subject...
if present; and ii) the comparability condition – as aggregations are
usually computed over time, this condition is design...
x
CONTENTS
Foreword: iii
Acknowledgements: v
How to use this book: vii
Part 1 The Setting: 1
Overview 4
Economy 8
Land and W...
List of Charts
1 Latin America rural and urban population (1960-2050) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
LIST OF CHARTS
60 Per capita oil crop production (2000-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
List of Maps
1 Population annual growth (percent, 2000-2012) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
LIST OF MAPS
60 Nitrogen fertilizer consumption per ha of arable area and permanent crops (kg/ha, 2009) . . . . . . . . . ...
List of Tables
1 Population and structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
PART
1
The Setting
The countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, as with the rest
of the world, are in a situation whe...
can continue to be a motor for sustainable economic growth, partic-
ularly in rural areas.
Recent years have seen upheaval...
Key Resources
The State of Food and Agriculture
The State of Food and Agriculture, FAO’s major
annual flagship publication,...
Overview
In 2012, the population of Latin America and the Caribbean
was estimated at 597.7 million people, about nine perc...
THE SETTING
MAP 1: Population annual growth (percent, 2000-2012)
−0.1836 ~ < 0.36
0.36 ~ < 1
1 ~ < 1.3
1.3 ~ < 1.7
1.7 ~ 2...
The per capita gross annual income (GNI) for the region
more than doubled between 2000 and 2012. Nevertheless
one of the m...
THE SETTING
MAP 2: GNI per capita (current US$, 2011-2012*)
No data available
760 ~ < 3 440
3 440 ~ < 6 080
6 080 ~ < 8 64...
Economy
Latin America and the Caribbean made a strong recovery
from the economic crisis, but has experienced a slowdown
si...
THE SETTING
MAP 4: Agriculture, value added per worker annual growth (percent, 2000-2012)
No data available
−1.075 ~ < 0.8...
Land and Water
Although agricultural production has increased in the re-
gion, the area used for agriculture has not fluctu...
THE SETTING
MAP 6: Cropland per capita (ha/cap, 2011)
0.03492 ~ < 0.084
0.084 ~ < 0.12
0.12 ~ < 0.19
0.19 ~ < 0.4
0.4 ~ 1....
Overall, Latin America and the Caribbean has a wealth of
water resources. According to AQUASTAT, FAO’s global wa-
ter info...
THE SETTING
MAP 7: Share of equipped area actually irrigated (percent, 2000-2012*)
No data available
36 ~ < 73
73 ~ < 85
8...
Labour
In Latin America and the Caribbean the percentage of the
labour force engaged in agriculture is just under 15 per-
...
THE SETTING
MAP 9: Employment in agriculture, share of total employment (percent, 2005-2010*)
No data available
1.3 ~ < 2....
Inputs
Globally, the use of fertilizers is becoming increasingly im-
portant due to the impact of more intensive cultivati...
THE SETTING
MAP 11: Nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers consumption per ha of arable land and permanent crops (tonne/ha, 20...
Capital and Investment
In many instances, the gaps between high-income and low-
income countries are widening as a result ...
THE SETTING
MAP 13: FDI (inward flows) to agriculture (million US$, 2010-2011*)
No data available
−2.69 ~ < 0
0 ~ < 0.44
0....
Innovation
Economic growth is fostered not only by inputs but also
through innovation. For innovation to occur, investment...
THE SETTING
MAP 14: Access to mobile cellular phone subscriptions annual growth (percent, 2000-2012)
No data available
7.6...
TABLE 1: Population and structure
Population Age composition
total rural urban density agricultural between over
share of ...
TABLE 2: Demographic indicators
GNI per capita Infant mortality Under-5 mortality Life expectancy at birth
current US$ per...
TABLE 3: Economy
Gross domestic product Value added, share of GDP Share of GDP
total current US$ agriculture industry serv...
TABLE 4: Land
Land area Agricultural area Cropland
total
agricultural
forest other total arable permanent per capita
crops...
TABLE 5: Water resources per capita and irrigation
Water resources Irrigation
per capita potential total area
equipped
equ...
TABLE 6: Labour
Employment Employment in agriculture Labor force Children in
employment
female male share of
total
female ...
TABLE 7: Inputs
Agricul-
tural
tractors
Pesticides
use
Fertilizers consumption
total per ha of
arable
land and
permanent
c...
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Fao satistical yearbook 2014

  1. 1. ISSN2311-2824
  2. 2. FAO STATISTICAL YEARBOOK 2014 Latin America and the Caribbean Food and Agriculture Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Regional Office for the Latin America and the Caribbean Santiago, 2014
  3. 3. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. The views expressed in this information product are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of FAO. ISBN 978-92-5-108149-5 (print) E-ISBN 978-92-5-108150-1 (PDF) © FAO, 2014 FAO encourages the use, reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product. Except where otherwise indicated, material may be copied, downloaded and printed for private study, research and teaching purposes, or for use in non-commercial products or services, provided that appropriate acknowledgement of FAO as the source and copyright holder is given and that FAO’s endorsement of users’ views, products or services is not implied in any way. All requests for translation and adaptation rights, and for resale and other commercial use rights should be made via www.fao.org/contact-us/licence-request or addressed to copyright@fao.org. FAO information products are available on the FAO website (www.fao.org/publications) and can be purchased through publications-sales@fao.org.
  4. 4. Foreword The Latin America and Caribbean region is made up of many diverse countries, from small islands states to large countries whose economies are becoming more and more important to the global economy. With high mountains, arid deserts and temperate and tropical areas, the rich variety of agricultural ecosystems found within the region is immense. As a whole, the region is endowed with a wealth of natural resources and has by and large experienced a period of tremendous economic growth over the last decade. Nevertheless, 47 million people remain undernourished in the region. Most of these people live in rural areas and rely on agriculture for their livelihoods. Bringing an end to hunger in the region and ensuring that everyone has access to a secure supply of safe, nutritious food in the future will require policies that can balance economic growth with environmental sustainability and social equality. To strike this difficult balance, policymakers and the public that they work for will need to have on hand reliable data on a range of issues related to food and nutrition security, poverty, agricultural production and natural resource management. This information needs to be constantly updated in order to respond to changing conditions in the region and in the world. As a contribution to this effort, FAO has prepared this Regional Yearbook for Latin America and the Caribbean. The Yearbook presents a visual synthesis of the major trends and factors shaping the regional food and agricultural landscape and their interplay with broader envi- ronmental, social and economic dimensions. It serves as a reference document on regional food and agriculture for policymakers, donor agencies, researchers and analysts, and the general public. FAO’s preparation of regional and global Yearbooks is part of a much broader effort by the organization and its national and international partners to improve the quality of statisti- cal data related to food security, agriculture and the sustainable management of natural resources. A key element of these efforts is the Global Strategy to Improve Agricultural and Rural Statistics, which has been undertaken to address the lack of capacity in many coun- tries to produce and report agricultural data. The Global Strategy, on which regional activity programmes are based, is built on three major pillars: producing a minimum set of core data and determining national priorities, integrating agricultural statistics into national statisti- cal systems, and fostering the sustainability of agricultural statistics through governance and statistical capacity development. The organization is committed to working with partners and member states in Latin America and the Caribbean to improve agricultural and rural statistics and see that this information is put to use to safeguard food security and ensure more sustainable food production. Raúl Osvaldo Benítez Pietro Gennari Assistant Director-General FAO Chief Statistician, and Regional Representative and Director, for Latin America and the Caribbean Statistics Division iii
  5. 5. iv
  6. 6. Acknowledgements The FAO Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean (FAORLC) and the FAO Statistics Division (ESS) of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations would like to acknowledge the collective effort of statisticians and other staff in national statistical offices, ministries of agriculture and other ministries and government departments in this region that constantly provide data to FAO. In addition we would like to acknowledge the ongoing cooperation with regional and international institutions and non-government organizations, whose efforts have made this publication possible. This publication was jointly prepared by FAORLC and ESS. The work was carried under the guidance of Raul Benitez (Regional Representative and Assistant Director General, FAORLC) and Pietro Gennari (Chief Statistician, FAO, and Director, ESS). Production was managed by Veronica Boero (FAORLC) and her team in Santiago, which included Byron Jara (RLC), Ben- jamin Kiersch (RLC), Hivy Ortiz Chour (RLC), Salomon Salcedo (RLC) and Jan Van Wambeke (RLC); and Amy Heyman (ESS) and her team in Rome, which included Filippo Gheri (ESS) and Shira Fano (ESS). Contributors were Nienke Beintema (the International Food Policy Re- search Institute – IFPRI), Riccardo Biancalani (NRC), Andrea Borlizzi (ESS), Chiara Brunelli (ESS), Carlo Cafiero (ESS), Cinzia Cerri (ESS), Rocio Condor-Golec (Climate, Energy and Tenure Division – NRC), Piero Conforti (ESS), Elisenda Estruch (Gender, Equity and Rural Employ- ment Division – ESW), Alessandro Ferrara (NRC), Karen Frenken (Land and Water Division – NRL), Nandini Gunewardena (FAOLOW) , Gary Jones (International Monetary Fund – IMF), Arvydas Lebedys (Forest Economics, Policy and Products Division – FOE) , Erdgin Mane (ESS), Robert Mayo (ESS), Verena Nowak (Nutrition Division – ESN), Michael Rahija (IFPRI), Simone Rossi (NRC), Mirella Salvatore (NRC), Nadia Scialabba (NRC), Gert-Jan Stads (IFPRI), Nathalie Troubat (ESS), Sachiko Tsuji (Statistics and Information Service – FIPS), Francesco Tubiello (NRC), Stefania Vannuccini (FIPS), Nathan Wanner (ESS) and Firas Yassin (ESS). A special thanks goes to Andrea Alcibiade (ESS), Guido Barbaglia (ESS), Giorgia DeSantis (ESS), James Edge (ESS), Carola Fabi (ESS), Amanda Gordon (ESS), Nicola Graziani (ESS), Fabio Grita (ESS), Michelle Kendrick (ESA), Francesca Pittueo, Adam Prakash (ESS), Gordon Ramsay, Nicholas Sakoff (ESS), Nicola Selleri (ESS), Sylvaine Thomas (ESS), and Boris Veytsman. v
  7. 7. vi
  8. 8. How to use this book The structure The FAO Statistical Yearbook products build on the process that be- gan with the 2012 edition. The book has been created from begin- ning to end with the statistical software R and the typesetting lan- guage LATEX: from data retrieval, to data processing, indicator con- struction, and blueprint-ready pdf file for distribution. This technique has circumvented the traditional route of manual production, involv- ing costly software licences, significant labour costs and inefficiencies associated with a lack of integration. Using data from global statistical providers, including FAO, the publi- cation presents a visual synthesis of major trends and factors shaping the global food and agricultural landscape, and their interplay with broader environmental, social and economic dimensions. In doing so, it serves as a unique reference point of world food and agriculture for policy-makers, donor agencies, researchers, analysts and the general public. vii
  9. 9. The book is divided into four thematic parts, in an attempt to present the full spectrum of issues relevant to the subject matter: Part 1 The setting measures the state of the agricultural resource base by assessing the supply of land, labour, capital and inputs, and examining the pressure on the world food system stemming from demographic and macroeconomic change. Part 2 Hunger dimensions gauges the state of food insecurity and malnutrition, measuring the multitude of dimensions that give rise to hunger and shape undernourishment. Part 3 Feeding the world evaluates the past and present productive capacity of world agriculture, together with the role of trade in meeting changing food, feed and other demands. Part 4 Sustainability dimensions examines the sustainability of agri- culture in the context of the pressure it exerts on the envi- ronment, including the interaction of agriculture with climate change, and how it can provide ecosystem services through the bio-based economy. Several page spreads are used to present each thematic issue. Each spread contains visualizations of the data in maps and charts, along with text providing background to the salient issues and an assess- ment of current trends. Tables are provided at the end of each part. A list of indicators used throughout the book and a section on concepts and methods can be found in Part 5. Country definitions and classification The publication follows the FAO Regional Office for the Latin America and the Caribbean composition (see “Table: Country list” or http:// www.rlc.fao.org/). Aggregations Two types of aggregations are used in the book: sum and weighted mean. Two restrictions are imposed when computing the aggrega- tion: i) the sufficiency condition – the aggregation is computed only when sufficient countries have reported data, and the current thresh- old is set at 50 percent of the variable and the weighting variable, viii
  10. 10. if present; and ii) the comparability condition – as aggregations are usually computed over time, this condition is designed to ensure that the number of countries is comparable over several years; under the current restriction the number of countries may not vary by more than 15 over time. Data presentation conventions The cutoff date for the data is 30 September 2013. • When country data have not been reported for the reference year, an asterisk (*) on the year label indicates that the value for the most recent year available is shown. For example, 2008–2010* means that the most recent value for the period from 2008 to 2010 is shown. When a growth rate is computed, the specified interval always refers to available data. • A billion is 1 000 million. • A trillion is 1 000 billion. • A blank means that data are not available or that aggregates can- not be calculated because of missing data for the years shown. • In tables, 0 or 0.0 means zero or a number that is small enough to round to zero at the displayed number of decimal places. • A ~ in the maps refers to the range specified in the class intervals. ix
  11. 11. x
  12. 12. CONTENTS Foreword: iii Acknowledgements: v How to use this book: vii Part 1 The Setting: 1 Overview 4 Economy 8 Land and Water 10 Labour 14 Inputs 16 Capital and Investment 18 Innovation 20 Tables 22 Part 2 Hunger dimensions: 35 Number undernourished and their prevalence in the population 38 Anthropometric indicators 40 Poverty 42 Food Availability 44 Economic and physical access 46 Clean water and sanitation 48 Economic and political stability 50 Education and health 54 Natural and human-made risks 56 Tables 58 Part 3 Feeding the world: 67 Aggregate agriculture 70 Growth in crop production 72 Trends in the crop sector 74 Trends in the livestock sector 86 Trends in the fisheries sector 92 Trends in agricultural trade 96 Tables 104 Part 4 Sustainability dimensions: 125 Land and Forestry 128 Water 132 Biodiversity 134 Agri-environmental indicators 136 Organic farming 138 Bio-based economy 140 Climate change 142 Greenhouse gas emissions 144 Tables 146 Part 5 Metadata: 155 Country list 155 Metadata 157 Bibliography 179 ix
  13. 13. List of Charts 1 Latin America rural and urban population (1960-2050) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 Rural and urban population, share of total population (2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3 Agricultural population, share of total population (1990 and 2012) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4 Population age structure (2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5 Life expectancy at birth, selected countries (2000-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6 Value added in agriculture, industry, and services as shares of GDP (2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 7 Latin America trade, FDI, and ODA as shares of GDP (2000-2012) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 8 Arable land per capita (2000-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 9 Land area (2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 10 Agricultural area (2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 11 Irrigation potential, selected countries (2012) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 12 Total equipped area (2009) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 13 Female employment in agriculture, share of female employment, selected countries (2005-2010*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 14 Labor force participation rate by gender, ages 15+ (2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 15 Latin America fertilizer consumption per ha of arable land and permanent crops (2002-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 16 Fertilizer consumption per ha of arable land and permanent crops (2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 17 Latin America and Caribbean region, ODA received in agriculture, forestry and fishing, share of total ODA (2005-2010) . 18 18 ODA received in agriculture, total share of ODA (2002 and 2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 19 Share of components in capital stock (2007) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 20 Government expenditures in agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting, selected countries (2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 21 Total public agricultural research expenditure, share of agricultural GDP, selected countries (2008) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 22 Mobile cellular, broadband internet, and telephone lines subscribers (2012) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 23 Undernourishment in the developing world (1990-1992 to 2011-2013) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 24 Number of people undernourished (1990-1992 and 2011-2013) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 25 Percentage of children under 5 years of age who are stunted (2005-2011*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 26 Percentage of children under 5 years of age who underweight (2005-2011*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 27 People in the world living on less than 2005 PPP $1.25 and $2 a day (1981-2005) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 28 Gini coefficient for Latin American countries (1995-2010 and 2007-2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 29 Average dietary supply adequacy (1990-1992 and 2011-2013) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 30 Trend of the value of food production (1990-1992 to 2009-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 31 Share of energy supply derived from cereals, roots and tubers (1990-1992 and 2008-2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 32 Relative change in average protein supply (between 1990-1992 and 2008-2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 33 Relative change in average protein supply from animal origin (between 1990-1992 and 2008-2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 34 Relative change in average fat supply (between 1990-1992 and 2008-2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 35 Rail-lines density (2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 36 Relative price of food in Latin America (2000-2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 37 Percentage of population without reasonable access to improved water source (1992 and 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 38 Percentage of population without reasonable access to improved sanitation facilities (1992 and 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . 48 39 Value of food imports over total merchandise exports (1992 and 2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 40 Cereal import dependency ratio (1992 and 2009) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 41 Domestic food price volatility (1995-2013) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 42 Per capita food production variability (1990-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 43 Domestic food price volatility (2000 and 2013) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 44 Domestic food price volatility (2000 and 2013) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 45 Per capita food supply variability (1995-2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 46 Girls’ and boys’ enrolment in primary education (2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 47 Total health expenditure, share of GDP (1995-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 48 Droughts, floods, extreme temperatures - share of population affected (2009) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 49 Refugees in Latin America region (2000-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 50 Food supply in crops primary equivalent (2000-2009) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 51 Latin America protein and fat supply in crops primary equivalent (2000-2009) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 52 Protein supply in crops primary equivalent (2009) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 53 Fat supply in crops primary equivalent (2009) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 54 Crops, gross per capita production index number (2004-2006 = 100) (2000-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 55 Growth in cereal production (2000-2012) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 56 Per capita cereal production (2000-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 57 Per capita coarse grain production (2000-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 58 Per capita rice production, selected countries (2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 59 Per capita wheat production (2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 x
  14. 14. LIST OF CHARTS 60 Per capita oil crop production (2000-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 61 Per capita pulse production (2000-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 62 Per capita root and tuber production (2000-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 63 Per capita citrus fruit production (2000-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 64 Per capita fruit production, excluding melons (2000-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 65 Per capita vegetable production, including melons (2000-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 66 Latin America stocks of cattle and buffaloes, and sheep and goats (2000-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 67 Stock of poultry birds (2000-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 68 Stocks of cattle and buffaloes, and sheep and goats (2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 69 Stock of poultry birds (2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 70 Latin America meat production (2000-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 71 Meat production by type (2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 72 Latin America per capita meat production (2000-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 73 Per capita total meat production (2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 74 Egg production (2000-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 75 Cheese production (2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 76 Capture fish production, per capita (2000-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 77 Aquaculture fish production, per capita (2000-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 78 State of the world’s fishery stocks (1974-2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 79 Composition of fish products (2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 80 Per capita world fish food supply (1990-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 81 Cereal net trade (2000-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 82 Cereal net trade (2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 83 Latin America composition of global exports (2000-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 84 Fruit and vegetables net trade (2000-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 85 Fruit and vegetables net trade (2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 86 Major export flows of soybeans from American countries (US$, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 87 Animal fats, oilseeds and veg. oils net trade (2000-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 88 Animal fats, oilseeds and veg. oils net trade (2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 89 Major export flows of maize from American countries (US$, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 90 Sugar and honey net trade (2000-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 91 Sugar and honey net trade (2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 92 Annual growth rate in forest area (1990-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 93 Forest characteristics (2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 94 Latin America production of selected forest products (1970-2012) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 95 Latin America production of selected forest products (1970-2012) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 96 Exports of forest products (2000 and 2012) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 97 Imports of forest products (2000 and 2012) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 98 Freshwater withdrawal by agricultural sector, shares of total (2000 and 2010*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 99 Freshwater withdrawal by industrial sector, shares of total (2000 and 2010*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 100 Species threatened in Latin America and the Caribbean (2012) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 101 Terrestrial protected areas, share of total land area (1990 and 2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 102 Livestock density per ha of agricultural land, cattle and buffaloes, sheep and goats (2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 103 Agricultural land, share of total land area (1992-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 104 Organic water pollutant (BOD) emissions (2005) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 105 Organic water pollutant (BOD) emissions per worker (2005) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 106 Organic agriculture area (2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 107 Organic agriculture, share of total agricultural area (2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 108 World area under bioenergy crops (2005-2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 109 Biofuel production (1990-2009) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 110 Share of food crop usage in world bio-based economy (2009) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 111 Global land-ocean temperature index, base period 1951-1980 (1880-2012) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 112 Global land-ocean temperature index for three latitude bands, base period 1951-1981 (1880-2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 113 Net emissions/removals from net forest conversions (1990, 2000 and 2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 114 Greenhouse gas emissions from cultivated organic soils (2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 115 Latin America agricultural greenhouse gas emissions by sector (2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 xi
  15. 15. List of Maps 1 Population annual growth (percent, 2000-2012) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2 GNI per capita (current US$, 2011-2012*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 Under-5 mortality rate (per 1000 live births, 2010-2011*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4 Agriculture, value added per worker annual growth (percent, 2000-2012) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5 Agriculture, value added as share of GDP (percent, 2008-2012*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6 Cropland per capita (ha/cap, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 7 Share of equipped area actually irrigated (percent, 2000-2012*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 8 Water resources per capita (m3/yr/cap, 2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 9 Employment in agriculture, share of total employment (percent, 2005-2010*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 10 Children in employment, total (percent, 2000-2011*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 11 Nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers consumption per ha of arable land and permanent crops (tonne/ha, 2011) . . . . . . 17 12 Agricultural tractors, total (tractors, 2000-2010*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 13 FDI (inward flows) to agriculture (million US$, 2010-2011*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 14 Access to mobile cellular phone subscriptions annual growth (percent, 2000-2012) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 15 Total public agricultural research expenditure, share of agricultural GDP (percent, 2006-2010*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 16 Map of hunger (percent, prevalence of undernourishment 2011-2013) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 17 Prevalence of food inadequacy (percent, 2011-2013) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 18 Percentage of children under 5 years of age who are stunted (percent, 2005-2011*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 19 Percentage of children under 5 years of age who are underweight (percent, 2005-2011*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 20 Poverty gap at $2 a day PPP (percent, 2005-2012*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 21 Poverty headcount ratio at national poverty line, share of population (percent, 2005-2012*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 22 Road density (km per 100 square km of land area, 2005-2010*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 23 Percent of paved roads over total roads (percent, 2005-2010*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 24 Share of population without reasonable access to improved water source (percent, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 25 Share of population without reasonable access to improved sanitation facilities (percent, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 26 Political stability and absence of violence/terrorism (index, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 27 Adult female literacy rate, share of females ages 15 and above (percent, 2005-2011*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 28 Primary completion rate, total (percent, 2005-2011*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 29 Droughts, floods, extreme temperatures - share of population affected (average 1990-2009) (percent, 2009) . . . . . . . 57 30 UNHCR total population of concern (thousand people, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 31 Food supply in crops primary equivalent (kcal/cap/day, 2009) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 32 Crops, net per capita production index number (2004-2006 = 100) (index, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 33 Food, net per capita production index number (2004-2006 = 100) (index, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 34 Cereal producing countries (million tonnes, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 35 Coarse grain producing countries (million tonnes, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 36 Rice producing countries (million tonnes, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 37 Wheat producing countries (million tonnes, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 38 Oil crop producing countries (million tonnes, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 39 Pulse producing countries (million tonnes, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 40 Root and tuber producing countries (million tonnes, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 41 Citrus fruit producing countries (tonnes, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 42 Fruit producing countries, excluding melons (million tonnes, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 43 Vegetable producing countries, including melons (million tonnes, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 44 Stock of cattle and buffaloes (million heads, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 45 Meat producing countries (million tonnes, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 46 Milk production (million tonnes, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 47 Butter and ghee production (tonnes, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 48 Capture fish producing countries (thousand tonnes, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 49 Aquaculture producing countries (thousand tonnes, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 50 Geo-location of harvests by capture and aquaculture (thousand tonnes, 2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 51 Import value index (index, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 52 Major export flows of wheat from American countries (US$, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 53 Global distribution of risks associated with main agricultural production systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 54 Forest area as share of total land area (percent, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 55 Roundwood production (thousand m3, 2012) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 56 Total water withdrawal per capita (m3/yr/cap, 2000-2010*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 57 Renewable freshwater resources withdrawn by agriculture (percent, 2000-2010*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 58 Terrestrial protected areas, share of total land area (percent, 2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 59 Marine protected areas, share of territorial waters (percent, 2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 xii
  16. 16. LIST OF MAPS 60 Nitrogen fertilizer consumption per ha of arable area and permanent crops (kg/ha, 2009) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 61 Organic agriculture area (ha, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 62 Organic agriculture, share of total agricultural area (percent, 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 63 Biofuel production (kilotonne of oil equivalent, 2009) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 64 Surface temperature, anomaly versus 1951-1980 (degrees Celsius, 2012) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 65 Share of population living in areas with elevation of 5 meters or less (percent, 2000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 66 Total agricultural greenhouse gas emissions (gigagrams CO2eq, 2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 xiii
  17. 17. List of Tables 1 Population and structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2 Demographic indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3 Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4 Land . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5 Water resources per capita and irrigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 6 Labour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 7 Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 8 Agricultural capital stock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 9 Foreign direct investment and official development assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 10 Government expenditures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 11 Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 12 Outcomes: Inadequate access to food . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 13 Utilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 14 Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 15 Determinants: Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 16 Determinants: Physical and economic access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 17 Vulnerability/Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 18 Health and education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 19 Population at risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 20 Cereal producers and their productivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 21 Coarse grain producers and their productivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 22 Rice producers and their productivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 23 Wheat producers and their productivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 24 Oilcrop producers and their productivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 25 Pulse producers and their productivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 26 Root and tuber producers and their productivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 27 Vegetable producers and their productivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 28 Treenut producers and their productivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 29 Fruit producers and their productivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 30 Citrus fruit producers and their productivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 31 Fibre crop producers and their productivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 32 Jute and jute-like producers and their productivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 33 Meat producers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 34 Eggs, milk, and processed milk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 35 Fish production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 36 Volume of total cereal trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 37 Volume of total oilseeds, and sugar and honey trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 38 Volume of total meat and dairy products trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 39 Value of fish trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 40 Land and forestry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 41 Forestry production and trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 42 Forestry production: finished products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 43 Water withdrawal and pressure on renewable water resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 44 Species threatened and nationally protected areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 45 Agri-environmental indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 46 Water pollution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 47 Renewable feedstocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 48 Agricultural emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 xiv
  18. 18. PART 1 The Setting The countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, as with the rest of the world, are in a situation where they must find ways of feeding more and more people with a limited amount of land, water and other natural resources. Transforming the agricultural sector to meet the growing demand for safe and nutritious food, reducing rural poverty, while at the same time contributing to environmentally sustainable development, are among the most important challenges the world is facing. To meet this challenge, attention will need to be paid to the commu- nities whose livelihoods depend on agriculture, forestry and fisheries. In Latin America and the Caribbean, these rural communities are fac- ing persistent outmigration and high levels of poverty. It is in these communities where the transformation to more sustainable agricul- ture will need to take place. Within the region, there are wide vari- ations among countries in terms of their economic and agricultural development. But whatever the level of agricultural development, every country will need to invest in agriculture to ensure that pro- duction can be sustained for future generations and that agriculture 1
  19. 19. can continue to be a motor for sustainable economic growth, partic- ularly in rural areas. Recent years have seen upheavals that have affected the agricultural sector: food prices have soared and then declined on volatile interna- tional commodity markets, a global financial crisis has slowed down economic growth and there have been serious droughts in both South America and Europe. For many countries in the region, agriculture can offer an important haven against global economic and financial turmoil, often more effectively than other sectors. The world is slowly emerging from the global economic downturn, and more financial resources are becoming available to address the issue of hunger and sustainable agricultural and rural development. The extreme volatility of food prices has made governments and donor agencies realize that agriculture and food security must be high on the development agenda and that policies promoting eco- nomic growth must take agriculture into account. To pay dividends, national, regional and global investments in sus- tainable agriculture, forestry and fisheries, must be based on sound data on a wide range of subjects. There needs to be a complete pic- ture of the overall context in which sustainable agriculture develop- ment is to take place. This involves gathering information on agri- culture, forestry and fisheries, as well as on the natural resource base that supports these activities and the competing demands on these resources from other sectors. Information on livelihoods in agricul- tural communities is essential for determining the best possible op- tions for achieving sustainable food production and reducing hunger and malnutrition. This includes a greater understanding of the de- mographic trends and the labour situation in rural communities. Women contribute significantly to the rural economy, but they often do not have the same access to productive resources as men and rural families often depend on children’s work to survive. For this reason, gender-sensitive data on the different roles men and women play in agricultural production and the alleviation of hunger and malnutri- tion is also required. 2
  20. 20. Key Resources The State of Food and Agriculture The State of Food and Agriculture, FAO’s major annual flagship publication, aims at bringing to a wider audience balanced science-based assess- ments of important issues in the field of food and agriculture. Each edition of the report contains a comprehensive, yet easily accessible, overview of a selected topic of major relevance for rural and agricultural development and for global food secu- rity. This is supplemented by a synthetic overview of the current global agricultural situation. 2013: Food systems for better nutrition 2012: Investing in agriculture for a better future 2010-11: Women in Agriculture, Closing the gen- der gap for development 2009: Livestock in the balance Publication cycle: Annual Webpage: www.fao.org/publications/sofa The Food Outlook for Agriculture and Rural Development in the Americas: A Perspective on Latin America and the Caribbean This report provides information and analysis of the current situation and context of the agrifood sector, and the situation in 2013. This is a joint ef- fort developed for a fourth consecutive year by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), the Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean of the Food and Agri- culture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA). Publication cycle: Annual Webpage: www.rlc.fao.org/en/publications/outlook-2013/ 3
  21. 21. Overview In 2012, the population of Latin America and the Caribbean was estimated at 597.7 million people, about nine percent of the total world population of nearly seven billion. Al- though the population continues to expand, the rate of pop- ulation growth in the region has fallen from 1.7 percent be- tween 1989-1999 to an estimated 1.3 percent between 1999 and 2015. The region’s population growth rate is slightly higher than the global rate over the same period. From 2015 to 2030, population growth for the Latin American and Caribbean region is expected to equal the global rate of 0.9 percent. In line with the global trend, the population of Latin America and the Caribbean is becoming more urban. Between 2000 and 2011, the percentage of the total population living in rural areas fell from 24.7 percent to 21.0 percent, around 30 percent lower than the global figure. Over the past fifty years, the rural population in the region has gradually de- clined. In 2010, it was estimated at about 120 million and is expected to decline to 115 million by 2015. The main fac- tor for this sustained rural emigration is the persistent eco- nomic inequality between urban and rural areas. Rural em- igration is selective, with more educated women and youth more likely to choose a life in the city. The island countries of the Caribbean are significantly more rural than the countries of Central and South America. Trinidad and Tobago has the highest percentage of rural peo- ple at 86 percent. The population in South America is al- most as urban as North America and is significantly more urban than the world average. The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela has one of the lowest percentages of rural pop- ulation at 6.5 percent. In Argentina and Uruguay, the per- centage is 7.5. These are among the lowest percentages of rural population in the world. In comparison, Japan’s rural population is 8.9 percent. CHART 1: Latin America rural and urban population (1960-2050) 0 200 400 600 1960 1980 2000 2025 2050 millionpeople Urban Rural Source: United Nations Population Division. Data after 2011 are projections. CHART 2: Rural and urban population, share of total population (2011) 0 25 50 75 100 Caribbean CentralAm erica North Am erica South Am erica W orld percent Urban Rural Source: United Nations Population Division. 4
  22. 22. THE SETTING MAP 1: Population annual growth (percent, 2000-2012) −0.1836 ~ < 0.36 0.36 ~ < 1 1 ~ < 1.3 1.3 ~ < 1.7 1.7 ~ 2.514 Source: United Nations Population Division. CHART 3: Agricultural population, share of total population (1990 and 2012) 0 10 20 30 40 Caribbean CentralAm erica North Am erica South Am erica W orld percent 1990 2012 Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT) and United Nations Pop- ulation Division. CHART 4: Population age structure (2010) 0 25 50 75 100 Caribbean CentralAm erica North Am erica South Am erica percent Population 0-14 Population 15-64 Population 65+ Source: United Nations Population Division. 5
  23. 23. The per capita gross annual income (GNI) for the region more than doubled between 2000 and 2012. Nevertheless one of the main problems that countries in Latin America and the Caribbean continue to face is the concentration of wealth and persistent poverty. Although poverty and ex- treme poverty levels have gradually reduced over the last few years, progress in this area has declined since the 2008 global financial crisis. In 2010, it is estimated that a third of the population is poverty stricken, and around 13 percent are in extreme poverty. In rural areas, poverty levels are much higher, with an estimated half of the rural population living in poverty and roughly 30 percent in extreme poverty. Progress is being made in key health-related areas. Between 2000 and 2012, life expectancy in the region increased from 72 to 74 years. The countries with the highest life ex- pectancy in the region are Cuba, Costa Rica and Chile. Be- tween 2000 and 2012, Guyana and Nicaragua have shown the greatest increases in life expectancy. Increases in life expectancy partly reflect progress that has been made in lowering infant and under-5 mortality. Be- tween 2000 and 2012, infant mortality decreased from 26.4 deaths per 1 000 live births to 19.4, well below the global number of 37.4. Over the same period, under-5 mortality also fell, declining from 32.7 deaths per 1 000 live births to 23.3, again well below the world average of 52.6. Between 2000 and 2012, Brazil reduced its infant and under- 5 mortality by half. In terms of percentage decease, this stands out in the region. Haiti has the highest incidence of infant mortality (52.9 deaths per 1 000 live births) and under-5 mortality (70 deaths per 1 000 live births) in the re- gion. The Plurinational State of Bolivia has the second high- est incidence of infant and under-5 mortality. These two countries, however, showed the greatest drop in mortality rates in absolute terms. Further reading • World Population Prospects: the 2011 revision (www.un. org/esa/population/) • UN Population Fund (www.unfpa.org/) • FAO Food and Nutrition Security in Urban Environments (www.fao.org/ag/agn/nutrition/urban_security_en.stm) CHART 5: Life expectancy at birth, selected countries (2000-2011) Haiti Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Guyana Guatemala Suriname Trinidad and Tobago El Salvador Nicaragua Paraguay Grenada Brazil Jamaica Honduras Peru Belize Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Dominican Republic Colombia Saint Lucia Bahamas Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Barbados Ecuador Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Mexico Uruguay Panama Cuba Chile Costa Rica 60 65 70 75 80 years 2000 2011 Source: World Bank (WDI). 6
  24. 24. THE SETTING MAP 2: GNI per capita (current US$, 2011-2012*) No data available 760 ~ < 3 440 3 440 ~ < 6 080 6 080 ~ < 8 640 8 640 ~ < 13 200 13 200 ~ 50 970 Source: World Bank (WDI). MAP 3: Under-5 mortality rate (per 1000 live births, 2010-2011*) 5.6 ~ < 13 13 ~ < 16 16 ~ < 20 20 ~ < 25 25 ~ 70 Source: World Bank (WDI). 7
  25. 25. Economy Latin America and the Caribbean made a strong recovery from the economic crisis, but has experienced a slowdown since 2010. Value added to the GDP by agriculture accounts for more than six percent of the GDP, considerably higher than the global figure (2.9 percent). Although the Caribbean and Cen- tral America have higher percentages of agricultural popu- lation, the value added through agriculture accounts for a smaller percentage of the GDP in those areas compared to South America. In the Caribbean and Central America, the value added by agriculture accounts for roughly 4.5 percent of the GDP, whereas in South America it is seven percent. The countries where the value added by agriculture occu- pies the largest share of GDP are Guyana (21.3 percent) and Nicaragua (19.2 percent). Recent years have seen wide fluctuations in the value added to the GDP by agriculture. In 2009, Latin America and the Caribbean saw a nearly four percent reduction in the value added by agriculture. This decline was due almost exclu- sively to the over seven percent drop in the value added by agriculture in the southern subregion caused by the drought that struck the Southern Cone during 2008 and 2009. Trade makes up roughly 45 percent of the total GDP for the region, compared to global trade at 55.4 percent. However, there are wide variations within the region. In the Caribbean and Central America, the share of trade in GDP hovers around 70 percent. In South America, the share is only 36.8 percent. This significantly lower share is due to the fact that in Brazil the share of trade in GDP is very low (26.5 percent). In fact, Brazil has the lowest share of trade as total GDP. Japan has the second lowest share (29.2 percent). In all other South American countries, the share of trade in GDP is much higher. Further reading • World Bank: Global Economic Prospects (wwwr.worldbank. org/prospects/) • International Monetary Fund: World Economic Outlook (www.imf.org/external/index.htm) CHART 6: Value added in agriculture, industry, and services as shares of GDP (2011) 0 25 50 75 100 Caribbean CentralAm erica North Am erica South Am erica percent Agriculture Industry Services Source: World Bank (WDI). CHART 7: Latin America trade, FDI, and ODA as shares of GDP (2000-2012) 0 10 20 30 40 50 2000 2005 2010 percent Trade FDI ODA Source: World Bank (WDI). 8
  26. 26. THE SETTING MAP 4: Agriculture, value added per worker annual growth (percent, 2000-2012) No data available −1.075 ~ < 0.83 0.83 ~ < 2.5 2.5 ~ < 3.6 3.6 ~ < 4 4 ~ 5.611 Source: World Bank. MAP 5: Agriculture, value added as share of GDP (percent, 2008-2012*) No data available 0.6411 ~ < 2.8 2.8 ~ < 5.7 5.7 ~ < 6.5 6.5 ~ < 12 12 ~ 21.35 Source: World Bank (WDI). 9
  27. 27. Land and Water Although agricultural production has increased in the re- gion, the area used for agriculture has not fluctuated sig- nificantly during recent years. In Latin America and the Caribbean, 37 percent of the land is used for agriculture and another 47 percent is forested. In the Caribbean and Central America, there is more agricultural land than forest, whereas in South America the situation is reversed. Of the total agricultural land in the region, 23 percent is arable, 2.7 percent is used for permanent crops and 75 per- cent is used for permanent meadows and pastureland. Al- though the percentage of permanent meadows and pasture- land is somewhat higher than the global percentage, the ra- tio between these different uses of agricultural land is sim- ilar to Africa and to the global situation in general. There are significant differences within the region regard- ing agricultural land use. In the Caribbean, the percentage of agricultural land used for permanent meadows and pas- tureland (40 percent) is considerably less than in Central and South America (70 and 77 percent respectively). Colombia has the highest percentage of permanent meadows and pas- tureland (91 percent). In the Caribbean, 11 percent of agricultural land is used for permanent crops compared to 4.2 percent in Central America and 2.3 in South America. Dominica has the most agricul- tural land under permanent crops (69.2 percent), mainly for banana cultivation. In South America, Ecuador stands out as having the highest percentage (18.8 percent) of agricultural land under permanent crops, again mainly for banana. In the Caribbean, the percentage of agricultural land that is arable (48.6 percent) is markedly higher than in Central America (25.8 percent) and South America (21.6 percent). The area of cropland per capita varies within the region. On the small island countries of the Caribbean, population densities are higher (nearly three times higher than Central America and almost eight times higher than South America). As might be expected, per capita cropland in the Caribbean (0.2 ha) is smaller compared to Central America (0.23 ha) and South America (0.4 ha). Argentina has the highest amount of cropland per capita (0.96 ha). This is the same figure as for the Russian Federation. Only Canada and Australia have more cropland per capita. CHART 8: Arable land per capita (2000-2011) Grenada Saint Lucia Bahamas Trinidad and Tobago Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Antigua and Barbuda Costa Rica Jamaica Barbados Colombia Dominica Dominican Republic Haiti Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) El Salvador Chile Suriname Guatemala Ecuador Peru Saint Kitts and Nevis Honduras Panama Mexico Belize Cuba Brazil Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Nicaragua Uruguay Paraguay Guyana Argentina 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 ha/cap 2000 2011 Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT) and United Nations Pop- ulation Division. 10
  28. 28. THE SETTING MAP 6: Cropland per capita (ha/cap, 2011) 0.03492 ~ < 0.084 0.084 ~ < 0.12 0.12 ~ < 0.19 0.19 ~ < 0.4 0.4 ~ 1.394 Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT) and United Nations Population Division. CHART 9: Land area (2011) 0 25 50 75 100 Caribbean CentralAm erica North Am erica South Am erica W orld percent Agricultural Forest Other Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). CHART 10: Agricultural area (2011) 0 25 50 75 100 Caribbean CentralAm erica North Am erica South Am erica W orld percent Arable Permanent crops Permanent meadows and pastures Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). 11
  29. 29. Overall, Latin America and the Caribbean has a wealth of water resources. According to AQUASTAT, FAO’s global wa- ter information system, the region, which represents 15 per- cent of the world’s total land surface, receives 30 percent of precipitation and generates 33 percent of the world’s water resources. AQUASTAT estimates the region’s water resources to be around 28 000 cubic metres per capita per year, much higher than the world average. Although data on the distribution of water resources in the Caribbean are not available for all countries, this subregion presents the highest water scarcity of the region. AQUASTAT uses 2 000 cubic metres per person per year as an indicator of water scarcity. Only four countries in the Caribbean have per capita water resources above that threshold: Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago. The Bahamas has the least amount of water resources per capita (58 cubic metres per year). Guyana has the most per capita water resources (319 629 cubic metres per year) of any coun- try in the world. The total amount of land under irrigation is over 18.3 million hectares, which represents almost 14 percent of the culti- vated area. Taking into account only the countries for which data were available, the irrigation potential for the region is estimated at 77.8 million hectares. Sixty-six percent of this regional irrigation potential is in four countries: Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Peru. AQUASTAT’s suite of indicators distinguishes between land under irrigation and actually irrigated land. The first is the physical area equipped with irrigation infrastructure that is managed by the public or private sector, including the farm- ers themselves. The second is expressed in percentage and is defined as part of the area under irrigation that is actually irrigated in a given year. Although recent data are not avail- able for every country in the region, AQUASTAT has made some recent estimates in this area. The 2011 estimate for Colombia indicates that only 36 percent of the area equipped for irrigation is actually irrigated. Estimates for other South American countries are much higher: Argentina (92 percent) and Paraguay (100 percent). Further reading • AQUASTAT, FAO’s global information system on wa- ter and agriculture (http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/ main/index.stm) • FAO The State of the World’s Land and Water Resources for Food and Agriculture (SOLAW) - Managing Systems at Risk 2011 (www.fao.org/nr/solaw/solaw-home/en/) • Bruinsma (2011) • FAO Natural Resources and Environment Department (www.fao.org/nr/) CHART 11: Irrigation potential, selected countries (2012) Haiti Panama Jamaica El Salvador Costa Rica Honduras Nicaragua Dominican Republic Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Uruguay Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Chile Guatemala Cuba Ecuador Argentina Peru Colombia Mexico Brazil 0 10 20 30 million ha Source: Land and Water Division (AQUASTAT). The irrigation potential area includes the area already equipped for irrigation. CHART 12: Total equipped area (2009) Suriname Nicaragua Paraguay Honduras Haiti Costa Rica Guyana Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Guatemala Uruguay Dominican Republic Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Cuba Colombia Ecuador Peru Argentina Chile Brazil Mexico 0 2 4 6 million ha Source: Land and Water Division (AQUASTAT). 12
  30. 30. THE SETTING MAP 7: Share of equipped area actually irrigated (percent, 2000-2012*) No data available 36 ~ < 73 73 ~ < 85 85 ~ < 92 92 ~ < 100 100 ~ 100 Source: Land and Water Division (AQUASTAT). MAP 8: Water resources per capita (m3 /yr/cap, 2010) No data available 58 ~ < 2 860 2 860 ~ < 9 890 9 890 ~ < 41 300 41 300 ~ < 53 900 53 900 ~ 319 629 Source: Land and Water Division (AQUASTAT). 13
  31. 31. Labour In Latin America and the Caribbean the percentage of the labour force engaged in agriculture is just under 15 per- cent. Although there are no comparable regional figures from other parts of the developing world, in most countries in Asia and Africa agriculture employs a much larger share of the labour force. Again, there is considerable variation within the region. The countries with the highest percentage of the labour force working in agriculture are in Central America: Guatemala (33.2 percent), Honduras (36 percent) and Nicaragua (32.2 percent). The Plurinational State of Bolivia is the only coun- try in South America where the percentage is higher than 30 (32.1 percent). Argentina and Peru have the lowest percent- ages (1.3 and 1.4 percent respectively). In Latin America and the Caribbean, the participation of women in the labour force (53.3 percent) is higher than the world average (49 percent) and approaches the North American average (57.9 percent). However, the percentage of women in the agricultural labour force (9.1 percent) is significantly smaller than it is for developing countries as a whole (43 percent). In Caribbean countries the percent- age of women in the agricultural labour force is even less (5.9 percent). This somewhat exceptional situation in Latin America and the Caribbean reflects relatively high female education levels, economic growth and diversification, and cultural norms that support female migration to service jobs in urban areas. The Plurinational State of Bolivia has by far the highest percentage of women in the agricultural labour force (32.9 percent). In fact, the percentage is higher for women than it is for men (31.4), a situation that is unique in Latin America and the Caribbean but quite frequent in de- veloping countries. Ecuador has the next highest percentage of women engaged in agricultural labour (21.3 percent). Youth account for a disproportionate share (23.5 per cent) of the working poor (ILO, 2012). The majority of these poor youth live in rural areas (ILO, 2012). In the region, Peru has by far the highest percentage of children in employ- ment (42.2 percent), as does the Plurinational State of Bo- livia (20.2 percent). In the Caribbean, Haiti has the highest level of child employment (33.4 percent) and Guatemala in Central America (18.2 percent). Further reading • FAO (2012b) • FAO Gender, Equity and Rural Employment Division (www. fao.org/economic/esw/) CHART 13: Female employment in agriculture, share of female employment, selected countries (2005-2010*) Dominican Republic Barbados Belize Mexico Costa Rica Colombia Chile El Salvador Panama Cuba Jamaica Honduras Nicaragua Brazil Paraguay Ecuador Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 0 10 20 30 40 percent Source: World Bank (WDI). CHART 14: Labor force participation rate by gender, ages 15+ (2011) 0 20 40 60 80 Caribbean CentralAm erica North Am erica South Am erica W orld percent Male Female Source: World Bank (WDI). 14
  32. 32. THE SETTING MAP 9: Employment in agriculture, share of total employment (percent, 2005-2010*) No data available 1.3 ~ < 2.9 2.9 ~ < 12 12 ~ < 18 18 ~ < 27 27 ~ 36 Source: World Bank (WDI). MAP 10: Children in employment, total (percent, 2000-2011*) No data available 2.5 ~ < 4.2 4.2 ~ < 7.3 7.3 ~ < 9.8 9.8 ~ < 15 15 ~ 42.2 Source: World Bank (WDI). 15
  33. 33. Inputs Globally, the use of fertilizers is becoming increasingly im- portant due to the impact of more intensive cultivation prac- tices and shorter fallow periods on soil fertility. In Latin America and the Caribbean fertilizer use grew steadily be- tween 2002 and 2012. In 2011, the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean applied 45.7 tonnes of nitrogen per ha of agricultural land. This is relatively close to the amount used in Europe and Central Asia (45 tonnes per ha) but less than the amount applied per hectare in North America (67.3 tonnes per ha) and Asia and the Pacific (61.2 tonnes per ha). Fertilizers have varying use across the region. In Caribbean countries, less than half as much nitrogen fertilizer is ap- plied per hectare of arable land than in Central and South America (21.5 tonnes as opposed to 52.8 and 45.0). Chile applies the most nitrogen per ha (243.8), which is compa- rable to China (296.8). In the Plurinational State of Bolivia, only 5.1 tonnes of nitrogen fertilizer is applied per ha. Latin America and the Caribbean is the region that applies the most phosphates and potash fertilizers per hectare of arable land (32.6 tonnes per ha for both type of fertilizer). Farmers in South America apply roughly three times the amount of phosphate and potash fertilizers per ha of agri- cultural land than their counterparts in the Caribbean and Central America. Machinery is a major input into agriculture and can improve farm efficiency. Agricultural tractors are generally wheel- and-crawler or track-laying tractors, excluding garden trac- tors. It is not surprising the greatest number of tractors is found in the largest countries. Brazil has by far the most, followed by Argentina and Mexico. Further reading • Schmidhuber, J. and Bruinsma, J. (2011) • FAO Agriculture Department (www.fao.org/ag/portal/ index_en/en/) CHART 15: Latin America fertilizer consumption per ha of arable land and permanent crops (2002-2011) 0 30 60 90 2002 2011 kg/ha Nitrogen Phosphate Potash Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). CHART 16: Fertilizer consumption per ha of arable land and permanent crops (2011) 0 25 50 75 100 125 Caribbean CentralAm erica North Am erica South Am erica kg/ha Nitrogen Phosphate Potash Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). 16
  34. 34. THE SETTING MAP 11: Nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers consumption per ha of arable land and permanent crops (tonne/ha, 2011) No data available 2.2 ~ < 20 20 ~ < 57 57 ~ < 77 77 ~ < 110 110 ~ 361.4 Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). MAP 12: Agricultural tractors, total (tractors, 2000-2010*) No data available 14 ~ < 1 530 1 530 ~ < 6 410 6 410 ~ < 34 300 34 300 ~ < 241 000 241 000 ~ 4 389 812 Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). 17
  35. 35. Capital and Investment In many instances, the gaps between high-income and low- income countries are widening as a result of low investment rates or growing labour forces. This is particularly true in countries with low levels of agricultural capital stock (ACS) per worker. Vulnerable and food-insecure people are likely to channel their savings into assets that reduce their vulnerability to shocks rather than investments that increase resource pro- ductivity. In this context, credit to agriculture, including investment-oriented loans provided by the banking sector, relates directly to the rate at which ACS is being accumu- lated. In Latin America and the Caribbean, total ACS is US$726 tril- lion, which is slightly higher than North America. Between 2000 and 2007, South America shows the fastest growth (1.1 percent), followed by Central America (0.6 percent) and the Caribbean (0.2 percent). Guatemala had the fastest growth rate in the region (4.6 percent). Owing to the imperfect information available to potential investors, and the perceived high risks of longer-term in- vestment, the allocation of foreign direct investment (FDI) to agriculture has tended to bypass many low-income coun- tries, where generating additional food supplies and the in- comes necessary to access food remains a critical challenge. In the subregion of South America, Colombia saw huge in- creases in FDI for agriculture between 2000 and 2012, while only Ecuador experienced a decline. Most Central American countries, on the other hand, have seen notable declines. In Mexico, for example, FDI for agriculture fell from US$95 mil- lion to US$17 million even though FDI for food, beverages and tobacco increased ten-fold, rising from US$230 million to nearly US$3 billion. Official Development Assistance (ODA) also plays an impor- tant role. The percentage of ODA to agriculture, forestry and fisheries to the entire region was 8.5 percent. This percent- age was much lower for the Caribbean (3.1 percent) than for Central America (7.4 percent) and South America (13.9 per- cent). In Belize, nearly half of ODA was directed to agricul- ture. In most countries, the share of ODA for agriculture was higher than for forestry and fisheries. However, in Brazil, more than 20 percent of ODA went to forestry, and in Ar- gentina 20 percent went to fisheries. Further reading • FAO How to Feed the World in 2050: Investment Brief (www.fao.org/wsfs/forum2050/) • FAO Foreign Investment in Agriculture (www.fao.org/ economic/est/investments/) • Principles for Responsible Agricultural Investment that Re- spects Rights, Livelihoods and Resources (www.unctad.org/ en/Pages/Home.aspx) • Foreign Agriculture Investment Database (www.fao.org/ tc/policy-support/investment-policy/fdi/en/) CHART 17: Latin America and Caribbean region, ODA received in agriculture, forestry and fishing, share of total ODA (2005-2010) 0 2 4 6 8 2005 2010 percent Agriculture Forestry Fishing Source: FAO, Statistics Division. CHART 18: ODA received in agriculture, total share of ODA (2002 and 2010) 0 2 4 6 8 Caribbean South Am erica CentralAm erica percent 2002 2010 Source: FAO, Statistics Division. 18
  36. 36. THE SETTING MAP 13: FDI (inward flows) to agriculture (million US$, 2010-2011*) No data available −2.69 ~ < 0 0 ~ < 0.44 0.44 ~ < 13 13 ~ < 180 180 ~ 2 966 Source: Foreign agriculture investment database. CHART 19: Share of components in capital stock (2007) 0 25 50 75 100 Caribbean CentralAm erica North Am erica South Am erica percent Land development Livestock fixed assets Livestock inventory Machinery and equipment Plantation crops Structures for livestock Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). CHART 20: Government expenditures in agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting, selected countries (2010) Saint Kitts and Nevis United States of America Bahamas Panama El Salvador Guatemala Jamaica Mexico Paraguay 1 2 3 percent of total outlays Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). 19
  37. 37. Innovation Economic growth is fostered not only by inputs but also through innovation. For innovation to occur, investments in research and development (R&D) must take place, including within agriculture. Following a decade of slowing growth in the 1990s, global public spending on agricultural R&D increased steadily from US$26.1 billion in 2000 to US$31.7 billion in 2008. Be- tween 2000 and 2008, spending on agricultural R&D in Latin America and the Caribbean region as a whole increased from US$2.8 billion to US$ 3.3 billion. However, throughout the Caribbean subregion, expenditures in this area declined, with only the Dominican Republic showing a very slight in- crease. In Central American countries, increases in agricul- tural R&D spending were fairly uniform. Only Guatemala and Panama reduced spending in this area. In South Amer- ica, there are greater variations among countries. Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Uruguay, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela increased their spending on agricultural R&D, whereas all the others reduced or maintained their spending levels. The capacity to innovate depends in part on an ability to har- ness information and communications technology. Mobile telephony and the Internet have become essential tools in development. In Latin America and the Caribbean, the num- ber of fixed internet broadband subscribers per 100 people is 7.7. This is slightly less than the world average (8.3) but considerably higher than Asia and the Pacific (4.3) and Africa (0.2). Barbados and Saint Kitts and Nevis have the highest num- ber of fixed broadband internet subscribers per 100 people in the entire region. However, the Caribbean as a subregion has the fewest subscribers (2.3 per 100 people) due to the fact that two very populous countries, Cuba and Haiti, have an almost negligible number of users. In Central America, the figure is slightly higher than for South America (9.0 as opposed to 7.7). In South America, the Plurinational State of Bolivia and Paraguay have the lowest number of fixed broadband internet subscribers (0.4 and 0.9 per 100 people respectively). Between 2005 and 2010, developing countries’ share of worldwide mobile telephone subscriptions increased from approximately 50 to 75 percent. In fact, Latin America and the Caribbean now has more subscriptions per 100 people than North America. Further reading • Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (www.asti. cgiar.org/) • ASTI Global Assessment of Agricultural R & D Spending (www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/ astiglobalassessment.pdf) CHART 21: Total public agricultural research expenditure, share of agricultural GDP, selected countries (2008) Colombia Argentina Mexico Chile Brazil United States of America Canada 1 2 3 percent Source: ASTI. CHART 22: Mobile cellular, broadband internet, and telephone lines subscribers (2012) 0 25 50 75 100 125 Caribbean CentralAm erica North Am erica South Am erica W orld subscribersper100people Internet Mobile cellulars Telephone lines Source: World Bank (WDI). 20
  38. 38. THE SETTING MAP 14: Access to mobile cellular phone subscriptions annual growth (percent, 2000-2012) No data available 7.63 ~ < 15 15 ~ < 22 22 ~ < 26 26 ~ < 30 30 ~ 57.55 Source: World Bank (WDI). MAP 15: Total public agricultural research expenditure, share of agricultural GDP (percent, 2006-2010*) No data available 0.06 ~ < 0.29 0.29 ~ < 0.7 0.7 ~ < 0.95 0.95 ~ < 1.5 1.5 ~ 3.37 Source: ASTI. 21
  39. 39. TABLE 1: Population and structure Population Age composition total rural urban density agricultural between over share of total 0-14 65+ thousand people thousand people percent percent percent percent people/km2 percent percent percent percent 2000 2012 2000 2011 2000 2011 2011 2000 2012 2010 2010 North America 313 163 350 466 20.9 17.8 79.1 82.2 19.0 2.3 1.6 19.7 13.2 Canada 30 667 34 675 20.5 19.3 79.5 80.7 3.8 2.6 1.8 16.4 14.1 United States of America 282 496 315 791 20.9 17.6 79.1 82.4 34.1 2.2 1.6 20.1 13.1 Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean 516 162 597 748 24.7 21.0 75.3 79.0 29.7 20.6 15.2 27.9 6.8 Caribbean 33 342 37 031 43.6 37.1 56.4 62.9 173.8 28.9 24.5 27.4 7.9 Antigua and Barbuda 78 91 67.9 70.0 32.1 30.0 200.3 23.1 19.8 Bahamas 298 351 17.8 15.9 81.9 84.4 36.6 3.7 2.3 22.4 7.3 Barbados 268 275 61.6 55.5 38.4 44.5 655.4 4.1 2.5 17.2 11.4 Cuba 11 104 11 249 24.4 24.8 75.6 75.2 105.9 16.6 12.4 17.3 12.4 Dominica 70 68 32.9 32.4 67.1 66.2 95.2 22.9 20.6 Dominican Republic 8 592 10 183 38.3 30.3 61.7 69.7 210.0 16.9 10.4 31.0 6.3 Grenada 102 105 63.7 61.0 36.3 39.0 309.0 23.5 20.0 27.9 7.7 Haiti 8 645 10 256 64.4 46.6 35.6 53.4 364.0 64.1 57.7 35.9 4.4 Jamaica 2 582 2 761 48.2 48.0 51.8 52.1 249.9 20.9 16.9 29.0 7.8 Saint Kitts and Nevis 46 54 67.4 67.9 32.6 32.1 203.7 23.9 20.4 Saint Lucia 157 178 72.0 82.4 28.0 17.6 293.9 22.9 19.7 25.9 6.9 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 108 109 54.6 50.5 45.4 49.5 280.4 23.1 20.2 27.5 7.3 Trinidad and Tobago 1 292 1 351 89.2 86.3 10.8 13.7 259.9 8.5 6.2 20.6 7.0 Latin America 482 988 560 963 23.4 19.9 76.6 80.1 28.2 20.0 14.5 28.0 6.8 Central America 135 555 160 159 31.2 27.6 68.8 72.4 66.4 26.6 19.8 30.8 6.0 Belize 251 324 52.2 55.3 47.4 44.7 13.9 27.1 23.1 34.9 4.2 Costa Rica 3 919 4 794 41.0 35.3 59.0 64.6 92.8 20.5 15.1 24.9 6.5 El Salvador 5 940 6 264 41.1 35.2 58.9 64.8 301.9 32.0 25.1 32.0 7.0 Guatemala 11 237 15 138 54.9 50.2 45.1 49.8 137.2 50.9 41.2 41.5 4.3 Honduras 6 218 7 912 54.6 47.8 45.5 52.2 69.5 34.3 25.0 36.8 4.3 Mexico 99 960 116 147 25.3 21.9 74.7 78.1 61.4 23.6 16.9 29.1 6.3 Nicaragua 5 074 5 955 45.3 42.5 54.7 57.5 49.1 22.3 14.3 34.5 4.6 Panama 2 956 3 625 34.2 24.7 65.8 75.3 50.3 23.1 16.9 29.0 6.6 South America 347 265 400 558 20.3 16.9 79.7 83.1 22.8 17.4 12.4 26.8 7.1 Argentina 36 931 41 119 9.9 7.5 90.1 92.5 14.9 9.5 7.4 24.9 10.6 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 8 307 10 248 38.2 33.2 61.8 66.8 9.5 42.7 39.4 36.1 4.7 Brazil 174 425 198 361 18.8 15.4 81.2 84.6 23.3 15.9 10.0 25.5 7.0 Chile 15 420 17 423 14.1 10.8 85.9 89.2 23.3 15.9 12.9 22.1 9.3 Colombia 39 764 47 551 27.9 24.7 72.1 75.3 42.4 20.0 14.2 28.7 5.6 Ecuador 12 345 14 865 39.7 32.5 60.3 67.5 61.4 26.0 18.8 30.3 6.2 Guyana 733 758 71.4 71.7 28.6 28.3 4.0 17.5 14.0 33.6 4.2 Paraguay 5 344 6 683 44.7 38.1 55.3 61.9 16.5 35.0 29.1 33.5 5.1 Peru 25 862 29 734 27.0 22.7 73.0 77.3 23.1 28.4 23.2 30.0 6.1 Suriname 467 534 35.1 30.2 64.9 69.8 3.4 18.8 16.5 28.6 6.5 Uruguay 3 319 3 391 8.7 7.5 91.3 92.5 19.3 11.1 9.7 22.5 13.8 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 24 348 29 891 10.1 6.5 89.9 93.5 33.4 9.5 5.7 29.5 5.6 Regional Office for Africa 668 229 898 226 68.5 63.9 31.5 36.1 37.6 60.4 54.2 42.4 3.2 Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific 3 640 853 4 110 736 50.0 47.3 50.0 52.7 81.2 34.9 30.2 25.1 7.7 Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia 866 961 900 803 31.7 29.6 68.3 70.4 33.5 11.1 7.8 17.4 14.4 Regional Office for the Near East 338 485 432 218 42.6 38.8 57.4 61.2 29.2 29.8 22.7 31.5 4.3 World 6 100 688 7 028 688 50.5 47.5 49.7 52.6 53.5 35.7 31.7 28.5 7.5 22
  40. 40. TABLE 2: Demographic indicators GNI per capita Infant mortality Under-5 mortality Life expectancy at birth current US$ per 1,000 live births per 1,000 live births total US$ US$ rate rate rate rate years years 2000 2012 2000-01* 2010-12* 2000-01* 2010-12* 2000-01* 2010-12* North America 33 640 50 204 6.3 5.5 7.4 6.4 77.0 78.9 Canada 22 130 50 970 5.3 4.7 6.2 5.4 79.5 81.1 United States of America 34 890 50 120 7.0 6.2 8.3 7.3 76.7 78.6 Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean 3 847 9 145 26.4 19.4 32.7 23.3 71.8 74.4 Caribbean 3 156 4 057 25.9 21.6 32.8 26.5 69.3 71.8 Antigua and Barbuda 8 680 12 640 13.8 9.5 15.1 10.2 73.6 75.5 Bahamas 20 340 14.5 14.1 17.4 17.2 72.5 74.8 Barbados 9 100 16.7 17.3 18.4 18.8 73.2 75.0 Cuba 2 620 6.2 4.4 8.0 5.7 76.9 78.9 Dominica 3 390 6 460 Dominican Republic 2 600 5 470 31.4 23.4 38.6 28.0 70.8 73.0 Grenada 3 910 7 110 13.1 11.7 15.6 13.8 70.5 72.5 Haiti 760 73.0 57.7 101.7 77.6 57.7 62.3 Jamaica 3 310 5 140 19.4 14.9 22.8 17.3 70.6 73.1 Saint Kitts and Nevis 6 750 13 330 Saint Lucia 4 270 6 530 15.0 15.2 17.9 17.9 71.6 74.6 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3 080 6 380 19.1 21.3 22.0 23.7 70.6 72.3 Trinidad and Tobago 5 300 14 400 24.2 19.0 27.3 21.3 68.7 69.7 Latin America 3 895 9 437 26.6 18.4 32.6 21.9 72.0 74.5 Central America 4 061 8 063 25.9 18.4 31.5 21.7 73.5 76.0 Belize 3 250 20.4 16.1 24.0 18.8 70.8 73.5 Costa Rica 3 710 8 740 10.6 8.8 12.4 10.1 77.9 79.5 El Salvador 2 110 3 580 25.0 14.2 30.0 16.5 69.8 71.9 Guatemala 1 730 3 140 38.4 27.4 48.5 33.1 68.2 71.3 Honduras 930 2 070 29.8 20.1 36.3 23.7 70.7 73.2 Mexico 4 820 9 600 20.3 14.3 23.9 16.7 74.5 76.9 Nicaragua 960 1 650 31.0 21.3 38.1 25.2 70.1 74.1 Panama 3 610 9 850 21.3 16.3 25.2 19.1 75.3 77.2 South America 3 830 10 048 27.2 18.4 33.5 22.0 71.4 73.9 Argentina 7 470 17.6 13.0 19.7 14.5 74.0 75.8 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 980 2 220 54.7 34.0 73.8 43.1 63.3 66.6 Brazil 3 860 11 630 27.1 13.6 30.8 15.3 70.6 73.3 Chile 4 920 14 280 8.7 7.9 10.3 9.2 77.1 79.3 Colombia 2 340 6 990 20.7 15.6 24.4 18.1 71.3 73.6 Ecuador 1 550 5 200 27.2 20.4 32.9 24.1 73.7 75.9 Guyana 880 3 410 36.2 29.7 45.3 36.3 63.6 65.9 Paraguay 1 350 3 290 26.3 19.4 31.7 22.8 70.3 72.1 Peru 2 050 5 880 28.4 14.8 37.0 19.1 71.0 74.2 Suriname 1 930 8 480 27.6 19.1 31.3 21.4 68.0 70.6 Uruguay 7 050 13 510 13.9 6.8 16.0 7.9 74.9 76.8 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 4 090 12 500 17.7 13.4 20.7 15.6 72.6 74.3 Regional Office for Africa 496 1 383 86.1 63.2 140.6 96.1 50.5 55.9 Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific 2 202 5 612 44.8 30.4 58.7 38.0 68.3 70.9 Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia 11 912 24 003 19.1 12.8 22.8 14.9 73.4 76.3 Regional Office for the Near East 1 966 34.6 25.6 46.1 32.7 68.5 70.6 World 5 323 10 116 53.8 38.8 81.5 55.4 67.9 70.5 23
  41. 41. TABLE 3: Economy Gross domestic product Value added, share of GDP Share of GDP total current US$ agriculture industry services trade FDI ODA billion US$ billion US$ percent percent percent percent percent percent 2000 2012 2010-12* 2010-12* 2010-12* 2011-12* 2011-12* 2011 North America 10 624 17 506 1.2 20.2 78.6 33.7 1.8 Canada 725 1 821 62.1 2.5 United States of America 9 899 15 685 1.2 20.2 78.6 31.7 1.3 Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean 2 080 5 614 6.3 32.4 61.3 46.6 3.0 0.00 Caribbean 87 119 4.6 32.2 63.2 73.6 3.9 0.03 Antigua and Barbuda 1 1 2.3 18.2 79.5 105.0 5.1 0.01 Bahamas 6 8 2.3 15.9 81.8 101.0 7.6 Barbados 3 99.7 9.1 Cuba 31 5.0 20.5 74.5 38.6 Dominica 0 0 13.8 15.8 70.4 89.6 7.2 0.05 Dominican Republic 24 59 6.0 33.1 61.0 58.9 4.1 0.00 Grenada 1 1 5.3 16.6 78.1 73.8 5.3 0.02 Haiti 4 8 68.8 2.5 0.23 Jamaica 9 15 6.5 21.5 71.9 84.7 1.2 0.00 Saint Kitts and Nevis 0 1 1.8 22.8 75.4 72.6 15.2 0.02 Saint Lucia 1 1 3.4 16.9 79.7 114.1 6.7 0.03 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 0 1 6.3 19.5 74.2 82.9 15.9 0.03 Trinidad and Tobago 8 24 0.6 57.0 42.4 91.9 2.4 Latin America 1 992 5 495 6.3 32.5 61.2 45.7 3.0 0.00 Central America 654 1 363 4.5 35.5 60.0 65.8 2.3 0.00 Belize 1 130.8 6.6 0.02 Costa Rica 16 45 6.4 25.5 68.2 79.4 5.3 0.00 El Salvador 13 24 12.5 27.1 60.4 74.9 1.1 0.01 Guatemala 19 51 11.3 29.9 58.8 60.8 2.3 0.01 Honduras 7 19 14.5 27.3 58.1 120.6 5.9 0.04 Mexico 581 1 178 4.1 36.4 59.5 66.9 1.1 0.00 Nicaragua 5 11 19.2 24.9 55.9 98.2 7.7 0.07 Panama 12 36 4.4 17.1 78.5 147.5 9.3 0.00 South America 1 338 4 133 7.2 31.0 61.8 36.8 3.2 0.00 Argentina 284 471 10.1 33.6 56.3 37.1 2.7 0.00 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 8 27 12.5 38.9 48.5 85.1 3.6 0.03 Brazil 645 2 253 5.2 26.3 68.5 26.5 3.4 0.00 Chile 79 268 3.7 38.0 58.3 68.1 11.3 0.00 Colombia 100 370 6.5 37.5 56.0 38.7 4.3 0.00 Ecuador 18 84 10.1 37.0 52.9 64.4 0.8 0.00 Guyana 1 3 21.3 33.7 44.9 6.4 0.06 Paraguay 8 26 17.4 28.1 54.5 93.5 1.6 0.00 Peru 53 197 6.4 36.4 57.2 49.9 4.7 0.00 Suriname 1 5 9.7 38.3 52.0 3.4 0.02 Uruguay 23 49 9.4 23.9 66.8 4.7 0.00 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 117 381 5.8 52.2 42.1 50.4 0.6 0.00 Regional Office for Africa 342 1 263 70.8 3.2 0.04 Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific 8 450 23 671 4.9 31.4 63.7 47.6 2.3 0.00 Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia 9 704 21 289 1.8 26.2 72.0 83.6 1.8 Regional Office for the Near East 818 82.0 1.4 World 31 979 69 569 58.6 2.5 24
  42. 42. TABLE 4: Land Land area Agricultural area Cropland total agricultural forest other total arable permanent per capita crops meadows & pastures million ha percent percent percent thousand ha percent percent percent ha/cap 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 North America 1 824.1 26.0 33.7 40.3 473 860 42.9 1.6 55.5 0.61 Canada 909.4 6.9 34.1 59.0 62 597 68.6 7.9 23.5 1.39 United States of America 914.7 45.0 33.3 21.8 411 263 38.9 0.6 60.4 0.52 Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean 2 013.2 36.7 46.8 16.4 739 587 22.7 2.7 74.6 0.32 Caribbean 21.2 53.9 29.4 16.7 11 393 48.6 11.3 40.1 0.19 Antigua and Barbuda 0.0 20.5 22.3 57.3 9 44.4 11.1 44.4 0.06 Bahamas 1.0 1.5 51.4 47.1 15 60.0 26.7 13.3 0.04 Barbados 0.0 34.9 19.4 45.7 15 80.0 6.7 13.3 0.05 Cuba 10.6 61.7 27.3 11.0 6 570 54.0 5.9 40.0 0.35 Dominica 0.1 34.7 59.2 6.1 26 23.1 69.2 7.7 0.35 Dominican Republic 4.8 50.6 40.8 8.5 2 447 32.7 18.4 48.9 0.12 Grenada 0.0 32.4 50.0 17.7 11 27.3 63.6 9.1 0.10 Haiti 2.8 64.2 3.6 32.1 1 770 56.5 15.8 27.7 0.13 Jamaica 1.1 41.5 31.1 27.5 449 26.7 22.3 51.0 0.08 Saint Kitts and Nevis 0.0 23.1 42.3 34.6 6 83.3 1.7 15.0 0.10 Saint Lucia 0.1 18.0 77.0 4.9 11 27.3 63.6 9.1 0.06 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 0.0 25.6 68.7 5.7 10 50.0 30.0 20.0 0.07 Trinidad and Tobago 0.5 10.5 44.0 45.5 54 46.3 40.7 13.0 0.03 Latin America 2 001.5 36.4 47.2 16.4 729 342 22.3 2.6 75.2 0.33 Central America 245.2 49.7 34.2 16.1 121 763 25.8 4.2 70.0 0.23 Belize 2.3 6.9 60.6 32.5 157 47.8 20.4 31.8 0.34 Costa Rica 5.1 36.8 51.5 11.7 1 880 13.3 17.6 69.1 0.12 El Salvador 2.1 73.9 13.6 12.4 1 532 43.4 15.0 41.6 0.14 Guatemala 10.7 41.0 33.6 25.4 4 395 34.1 21.5 44.4 0.17 Honduras 11.2 28.8 45.3 25.9 3 220 31.7 13.7 54.7 0.19 Mexico 194.4 53.1 33.3 13.7 103 166 24.7 2.6 72.7 0.25 Nicaragua 12.0 42.8 25.3 31.9 5 146 36.9 4.5 58.6 0.36 Panama 7.4 30.5 43.6 25.9 2 267 23.8 8.3 67.8 0.20 South America 1 746.8 34.7 48.8 16.5 606 431 21.6 2.3 76.2 0.36 Argentina 273.7 53.9 10.7 35.4 147 548 25.8 0.7 73.5 0.96 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 108.3 34.2 52.5 13.3 37 055 10.4 0.6 89.1 0.40 Brazil 845.9 32.5 61.2 6.3 275 030 26.2 2.6 71.3 0.40 Chile 74.4 21.2 21.9 56.9 15 789 8.3 2.9 88.8 0.10 Colombia 110.9 39.5 54.4 6.1 43 786 4.8 4.3 90.9 0.09 Ecuador 24.8 29.6 38.9 31.5 7 346 15.7 18.8 65.5 0.17 Guyana 19.7 8.5 77.2 14.2 1 677 25.0 1.6 73.3 0.59 Paraguay 39.7 52.8 43.8 3.4 20 990 18.6 0.4 81.0 0.61 Peru 128.0 16.8 53.0 30.2 21 500 17.0 4.0 79.1 0.15 Suriname 15.6 0.5 94.6 4.9 82 72.0 7.3 20.7 0.12 Uruguay 17.5 82.2 10.2 7.6 14 378 12.6 0.3 87.2 0.55 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 88.2 24.1 52.1 23.8 21 250 12.2 3.1 84.7 0.11 Regional Office for Africa 2 126.4 43.6 27.9 30.2 955 135 20.3 2.6 77.8 0.25 Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific 5 012.6 38.9 31.3 29.8 1 951 899 30.8 4.0 65.4 0.17 Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia 2 693.5 29.7 38.3 32.0 800 592 41.5 2.5 56.1 0.39 Regional Office for the Near East 1 221.6 33.8 1.9 64.4 521 071 13.7 1.9 85.0 0.17 World 12 765.7 37.4 31.0 32.0 4 911 605 28.6 3.2 68.5 0.22 25
  43. 43. TABLE 5: Water resources per capita and irrigation Water resources Irrigation per capita potential total area equipped equipped area actually irrigated share m3 /yr/cap m3 /yr/cap m3 /yr/cap thousand ha thousand ha year percent 1990 2000 2010 2012 2009 1987-2012 1987-2012* North America Canada 104 762 94 629 85 310 855 2 010 100 United States of America 12 114 10 864 9 888 23 000 2 005 83 Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean Caribbean Antigua and Barbuda 839 667 584 0 0 Bahamas 78 67 58 1 Barbados 308 299 293 4 5 Cuba 3 606 3 433 3 386 2 700 870 1 997 85 Dominica Dominican Republic 2 919 2 444 2 115 710 275 2 004 71 Grenada 2 Haiti 1 969 1 623 1 404 143 92 1 991 71 Jamaica 3 976 3 642 3 431 188 25 2 009 100 Saint Kitts and Nevis 585 522 462 0 Saint Lucia 3 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1 Trinidad and Tobago 3 160 2 972 2 864 30 7 1 997 85 Latin America Central America Belize 97 632 73 904 59 455 4 1 997 100 Costa Rica 36 612 28 681 24 125 430 108 1 997 100 El Salvador 4 731 4 247 4 074 200 45 Guatemala 12 473 9 905 7 735 2 620 200 2 003 100 Honduras 19 622 15 428 12 621 500 80 2 006 69 Mexico 5 423 4 574 4 031 9 766 6 300 2 003 84 Nicaragua 47 707 38 747 33 967 700 61 2 001 85 Panama 61 258 50 068 42 081 187 43 1 997 81 South America Argentina 24 937 22 041 20 143 6 128 1 650 2 011 92 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 93 497 74 937 62 689 2 000 175 1 999 100 Brazil 55 015 47 201 42 232 29 350 4 500 2 006 100 Chile 69 912 59 792 53 874 2 500 1 900 2 007 91 Colombia 64 211 53 616 46 052 6 589 900 2 011 36 Ecuador 41 360 34 378 29 340 3 136 960 2 000 73 Guyana 332 414 328 786 319 629 150 Paraguay 79 171 62 874 52 053 67 2 012 100 Peru 88 214 73 970 65 791 6 411 1 196 1 998 93 Suriname 299 754 261 242 232 381 57 1 998 100 Uruguay 44 709 41 880 41 259 1 760 218 1 998 100 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 62 637 50 641 42 547 1 700 580 2 008 93 Regional Office for Africa Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia Regional Office for the Near East World 26
  44. 44. TABLE 6: Labour Employment Employment in agriculture Labor force Children in employment female male share of total female male participation rate % of children ages 7-14 share of female employment share of male employment female male total million people million people percent percent percent percent percent percent 2010 2010 2005-12* 2005-12* 2005-12* 2010 2010 2000-12* North America 75 85 1.6 0.8 2.1 57.9 70.3 Canada 8 9 2.4 1.3 3.3 61.8 71.5 United States of America 66 76 1.6 0.8 2.3 57.5 70.2 Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean 105 155 14.9 9.1 19.7 53.3 80.1 Caribbean 6 9 16.2 5.9 22.1 51.8 73.2 Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas 0 0 2.9 0.5 5.1 69.3 79.4 Barbados 0 0 2.8 1.9 3.8 64.8 76.3 Cuba 2 3 18.5 8.4 24.7 43.1 70.1 Dominica Dominican Republic 1 2 12.0 1.8 19.4 50.8 78.7 14.1 Grenada Haiti 2 2 59.8 70.5 33.4 Jamaica 0 1 20.2 9.4 28.5 56.0 72.0 9.8 Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia 63.9 77.0 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 55.5 78.5 Trinidad and Tobago 0 0 3.8 1.8 5.2 54.6 78.0 3.4 Latin America 99 146 14.7 8.7 18.9 53.4 80.5 Central America 23 40 15.1 4.9 21.6 44.7 81.2 Belize 0 0 19.5 3.3 28.0 48.0 81.8 Costa Rica 1 1 15.0 4.8 21.0 46.0 78.9 2.5 El Salvador 1 1 20.8 5.4 32.0 47.1 78.7 7.4 Guatemala 2 3 33.2 16.0 43.8 48.8 88.3 18.2 Honduras 1 2 36.0 11.9 49.9 41.9 82.9 8.7 Mexico 17 30 13.1 4.0 18.6 43.9 80.5 6.8 Nicaragua 1 1 32.2 15.2 44.2 46.2 80.0 10.1 Panama 1 1 17.4 7.7 23.3 49.3 82.6 8.9 South America 75 106 14.7 10.7 18.8 56.9 80.2 Argentina 7 10 1.3 0.4 1.9 47.0 74.9 12.9 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 2 2 32.1 32.9 31.4 63.8 81.0 20.2 Brazil 40 54 17.0 12.2 20.5 59.4 81.0 4.2 Chile 3 5 10.6 5.1 14.1 46.8 74.3 4.1 Colombia 8 12 17.9 5.0 26.1 55.3 79.7 6.4 Ecuador 2 4 28.2 21.3 32.6 53.7 82.6 3.2 Guyana 0 0 41.3 79.6 Paraguay 1 2 26.8 19.1 31.5 57.4 86.4 15.3 Peru 6 8 1.4 0.5 1.0 67.4 84.7 42.2 Suriname 0 0 40.1 68.7 Uruguay 1 1 11.5 4.8 15.6 55.4 76.6 7.3 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 5 8 8.7 1.8 13.1 51.6 80.2 5.1 Regional Office for Africa 141 169 62.8 76.4 Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific 728 1 168 49.4 80.0 Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia 175 213 14.1 12.5 13.5 49.9 67.3 Regional Office for the Near East 24 97 21.6 73.5 World 1 201 1 820 50.6 77.3 27
  45. 45. TABLE 7: Inputs Agricul- tural tractors Pesticides use Fertilizers consumption total per ha of arable land and permanent crops per ha of arable land and permanent crops nitrogen phosphate potash tractors kg/ha kg/ha kg/ha kg/ha 2000-12* 2008-12* 2011 2011 2011 North America 67.31 22.34 21.79 Canada 733 182 1.04 50.01 15.43 7.31 United States of America 4 389 812 72.40 24.38 26.05 Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean 45.66 32.58 32.64 Caribbean 21.52 10.14 8.38 Antigua and Barbuda 7.85 0.80 1.40 0.40 Bahamas Barbados 60.85 18.85 1.77 Cuba 72 602 13.87 5.54 9.89 Dominica 3.25 9.54 11.21 Dominican Republic 1 868 4.97 45.98 22.27 2.60 Grenada Haiti Jamaica 24.69 21.66 8.10 Saint Kitts and Nevis 22 2.90 8.63 5.88 5.88 Saint Lucia 14 15.50 4.10 3.20 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 112 Trinidad and Tobago 5 129 0.00 20.13 38.64 Latin America 5.21 46.57 33.42 33.56 Central America 52.48 11.03 14.16 Belize 7.51 121.80 239.56 12.93 Costa Rica 21.64 147.37 15.45 122.01 El Salvador 13.27 92.35 31.28 20.58 Guatemala 6.09 73.82 21.17 8.30 Honduras 5 200 3.60 39.77 17.16 31.23 Mexico 238 830 4.55 50.32 8.58 12.28 Nicaragua 5.69 25.81 6.81 3.77 Panama 8 066 2.54 33.13 10.12 9.03 South America 45.08 39.08 38.46 Argentina 244 320 6.55 25.65 18.47 0.82 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 6 000 7.96 5.09 2.30 1.30 Brazil 788 053 45.23 51.22 59.55 Chile 53 915 11.36 243.77 68.77 39.93 Colombia 13.46 150.55 72.64 68.62 Ecuador 14 652 6.85 70.11 13.11 40.81 Guyana 0.90 14.26 11.31 0.60 Paraguay 25 823 25.21 44.67 35.47 Peru 3.09 55.82 20.79 14.05 Suriname 1 013 14.40 142.18 21.23 20.66 Uruguay 36 465 9.44 28.98 39.30 31.56 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 87.69 22.46 31.38 Regional Office for Africa 6.87 3.24 1.55 Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific 106.76 35.62 22.36 Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia 11 467 067 45.08 11.69 12.29 Regional Office for the Near East 651 197 35.94 26.59 3.66 World 73.34 26.83 19.82 28

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