Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
“DESIGN AND STABILITY OF RECUMBENT TRICYCLE”
(TEAM ID: 14934)
PROJECT REPORT
Submitted by:
SAHIL JITESH 110590119025
OZA A...
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING,
RAJKOT
CERITIFICATE
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Design and
St...
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING,
RAJKOT
CERITIFICATE
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Design and
St...
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING,
RAJKOT
CERITIFICATE
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Design and
St...
GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
[UNDERTAKING ABOUT ORIGINALITY OF WORK]
We hereby certify that we are the sole authors of...
GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
CERTIFICATE FOR COMPLETION OF ALL ACTIVITIES AT ONLINE PROJECT PORTAL
B.E. SEMESTER VIII,...
i | P a g e
INDEX
TITLE PAGE NO.
CERTIFICATE
INDEX i
LIST OF FIGURE iv
LIST OF TABLE vi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT vii
ABSTRACT
viii
...
ii | P a g e
TITLE PAGE NO.
CHAPTER 9. TURNING ……………………………………………………………………19
9.1 DELTA TURNING
9.2 TADPOLE TURNING
CHAPTER ...
iii | P a g e
TITLE PAGE NO.
CHAPTER 12. CONCLUSION ……………………………………………………………30
12.1 DESIGN REQUIREMENT COMPARISION
12.2 WEI...
iv | P a g e
LIST OF FIGURE
Figure 1.1.1 Stephan farffer’s hand – controlled,three wheel chair
Figure 1.1.2 19TH
century t...
v | P a g e
Figure 8.2.1 Tadpole rider's CoG
Figure 9.1.1 Delta turning vectors
Figure 9.2.1 Tadpole turning vectors
Figur...
vi | P a g e
LIST OF TABLE
Table 2.1 Difference between FWS Moving BB, FWS Twist Chain and RWD
Table 12.1.1 Design Require...
vii | P a g e
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would like to take this opportunity to bestow acknowledge on all person who have
directly...
viii | P a g e
ABSTRACT
Recumbent cycles began emerging in the early 1900’s as a method of improving the rider’s
ability t...
1 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
A tricycle, often abbreviated to trike, is a three...
2 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
tricycle was manufactured by The Leicester Safety Tricycle Company of Lei...
3 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
Recumbents are bicycles with another frame geometry than the established ...
4 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
 no wrist, neck or back pain anymore, for certain low- and short riders ...
5 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
The "long rider" named due the long frame, also known as long wheel base ...
6 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
have different heights, under- or over-seat steering (USS vs OSS), the se...
7 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
CHAPTER 2 FWD AND RWD
One of the many issues to consider when designing a...
8 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
On level ground, the FWD recumbent should have more weight distributed to...
9 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
CHAPTER 3 PEDAL INDUCED STEERING
Figure 3.1 Effect of Trail on FWD
One si...
10 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
CHAPTER 4 CHAIN LINE
Chainline management is the single biggest issue in...
11 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
4.2 FWD TWIST CHAIN
Figure 4.2.1 FWD twist chain chainline
The FWD twist...
12 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
RWD is by far the oldest and most widely used chainline design. It is co...
13 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
CHAPTER 5 ADJUSTABLITY
Figure 5.1 FWD moving BB adjustability
One of the...
14 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
CHAPTER 6 STEERING BEHAVIOR
The angle between the direction a wheel is p...
15 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
friction of the front wheels on the pavement, not the driving force that...
16 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
CHAPTER 7 TADPOLE OR DELTA?
The tadpole trike has the two wheels at the ...
17 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
CHAPTER 8 BRAKING
8.1 DELTA RIDER
Figure 8.1.1 Delta rider's CoG
The del...
18 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
The tadpole rider's CoG is lower, but located ahead of the forward tippi...
19 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
CHAPTER 9 TURNING
9.1 DELTA TURNING
Figure 9.1.1 Delta turning vectors
U...
20 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
9.2 TADPOLE TURNING
Figure 9.2.1 Tadpole turning vectors
Under turning f...
21 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
CHAPTER 10 DESIGN
10.1 Concept
The recumbent tricycle design concept was...
22 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
Using the analogy of a pendulum shown in Figure10.2.2, the bend in the f...
23 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
Using tie rods connected from the frame and wheel brackets, the turning ...
24 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
10.5 Power Train
The power train of the cycle is provided with two chain...
25 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
10.7 Housing Bearing
The Housing Bearing in Figure 10.7.1 was drilled-ou...
26 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
10.10 Steering Arm
The steering arm is welded, and it is placed at the e...
27 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
10.12 Main Frame
The frame is constructed from square pipe rather than r...
28 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
CHAPTER 11 CALCULATION
11.1 Calculation of Optimal Centre of Gravity (Co...
29 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
11.1.3 Calculating Lateral Tipping Point (SIDE VIEW):
Draw a similar tri...
30 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
CHAPTER 12 CONCLUSIONS
12.1 Design Requirement Comparison
Actual perform...
31 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
Figure 12.4.2 Possible Modification for Turning
12.4 Turning Angle
Turni...
32 | P a g e
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
REFERENCE
[1] http://www.jetrike.com/tadpole-or-delta.html
[2] http://ww...
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
Appendix A
Technical Drawings
(BMC)
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
Appendix B
Business Model Canvas
(BMC)
(BMC)
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
Appendix C
PLAGIARISM
www. plagiarism -detect .com
Date: 24.4.2015
Words: 4693
Plagiarised sources: 40
Plagiarised: 11%
http://www.jetrike.com/f...
We then use A draw a5.
We then use the point at the top6.
http://renekmueller.com/Recumbents
plagiarised from source: 1%
h...
models produced by 20 manufacturers." The first front steering tricycle1.
http://www.charismanews.com/opinion/watchman-on-...
http://pathfinder.utsc.utoronto.ca/pages/projectbio.html
plagiarised from source: >1%
The choice is not clear1.
http://www...
around the outside wall of the1.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corpus_cavernosum_penis
plagiarised from source: >1%
around ...
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
Appendix D
Product Drafting Exercise
PDE
(BMC)
GIC Patent Drafting Exercise Team ID:
FORM 1
THE PATENTS ACT 1970
(39 OF 1970)
&
THE PATENTS RULES, 2003
APPLICATION FOR G...
Mobile No. EmailAddressNationalityNameID
Sahil Jitesh . GTU 9408086200 sahiljitesh@hot
mail.com
Indian1
Anand
Maheshbhai O...
7. Particulars for filing divisional application
Original(First) Application Number Date of filing of Original (first) app...
I am/We in possession of the above mentioned invention.
The provisional/complete specification relating to the invention i...
Name Signature & Date
1 Sahil Jitesh .
2 Anand Maheshbhai
Oza
3 Sanjay Dhirubhai
Malankiya
This is just a mock Patent Draf...
GIC Patent Drafting Exercise Team ID:
FORM 2
THE PATENTS ACT, 1970
(39 OF 1970)
&
THE PATENTS RULES, 2003
PROVISIONAL SPEC...
4. Description :
a. Field of Application / Project / Invention :
Automobile field of project. Its a three wheel Tadpole co...
g. Examples
h. Unique Features of the Project
The rider is cable of maintaining overall control of the vehicle through a s...
Drawing Attachments :
Trike View
This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU.
Th...
Isometric
This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU.
These documents are not t...
Seat
This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU.
These documents are not to be ...
Top
This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU.
These documents are not to be s...
side
This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU.
These documents are not to be ...
GIC Patent Drafting Exercise Team ID:
FORM 3
THE PATENTS ACT, 1970
(39 OF 1970)
&
THE PATENTS RULES, 2003
STATEMENT AND UN...
Sign and Date
Sahil Jitesh .
Sign and Date
Anand Maheshbhai Oza
Sign and Date
Sanjay Dhirubhai
Malankiya
To
The Controller...
G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
Appendix E
Gantt Chart
Report Sahil
Report Sahil
Report Sahil
Report Sahil
Report Sahil
Report Sahil
Report Sahil
Report Sahil
Report Sahil
Report Sahil
Report Sahil
Report Sahil
Report Sahil
Report Sahil
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Report Sahil

2,629 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

Report Sahil

  1. 1. “DESIGN AND STABILITY OF RECUMBENT TRICYCLE” (TEAM ID: 14934) PROJECT REPORT Submitted by: SAHIL JITESH 110590119025 OZA ANAND M. 120593119032 MALANKIYA SANJAY D. 110590119085 In fulfilment for the award of the degree of BECHELOR OF ENGINEERING In MECHANICAL ENGINEERING G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD
  2. 2. G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING, RAJKOT CERITIFICATE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Design and Stability of Recumbent Tricycle” has been carried out by SAHIL JITESH Enrolment No. 110590119025 under my guidance in fulfilment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering, (8th Semester) of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2014-15 Internal Guide: Prof. Hardik H. Suchak External Examiner Head of Department
  3. 3. G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING, RAJKOT CERITIFICATE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Design and Stability of Recumbent Tricycle” has been carried out by OZA ANAND M. Enrolment No. 120593119032 under my guidance in fulfilment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering, (8th Semester) of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2014-15 Internal Guide: Prof. Hardik H. Suchak External Examiner Head of Department
  4. 4. G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING, RAJKOT CERITIFICATE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Design and Stability of Recumbent Tricycle” has been carried out by MALANKIYA SANJAY D. Enrolment No. 110590119085 under my guidance in fulfilment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering, (8th Semester) of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2014-15 Internal Guide: Prof. Hardik H. Suchak External Examiner Head of Department
  5. 5. GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY [UNDERTAKING ABOUT ORIGINALITY OF WORK] We hereby certify that we are the sole authors of this IDP/UDP project report and that neither any part of this IDP/UDP project report nor the whole of the IDP/UDP Project report has been submitted for a degree by other student(s) to any other University or Institution. We certify that, to the best of our knowledge, the current IDP/UDP Project report does not infringe upon anyone’s copyright nor violate any proprietary rights and that any ideas, techniques, quotations or any other material from the work of other people included in our IDP/UDP Project report, published or otherwise, are fully acknowledged in accordance with the standard referencing practices. Furthermore, to the extent that we have included copyrighted material that surpasses the boundary of fair dealing within the meaning of the Indian Copyright (Amendment) Act 2012, we certify that we have obtained a written permission from the copyright owner(s) to include such material(s) in the current IDP/UDP Project report and have included copies of such copyright clearances to our appendix. We have checked the write up of the present IDP/UDP Project report using anti-plagiarism database and it is in the allowable limit. In case of any complaints pertaining to plagiarism, we certify that we shall be solely responsible for the same and we understand that as per norms, University can even revoke BE degree conferred upon the student(s) submitting this IDP/UDP Project report, in case it is found to be plagiarised. TEAM: Enrolment Number Name Signature 110590119025 SAHIL JITESH 120593119032 OZA ANAND M. 110590119085 MALANKIYA SANJAY D. Date: Name of Guide Signature of Guide
  6. 6. GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY CERTIFICATE FOR COMPLETION OF ALL ACTIVITIES AT ONLINE PROJECT PORTAL B.E. SEMESTER VIII, ACADEMIC YEAR 2014-2015 Date of certificate generation : 30 April 2015 (22:09) Plagiarism Search Report Final Project Report Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) Business Model Canvas (Report) Business Model Canvas (Image) Submitted Four Periodic Progress Reports (PPR) Uploaded Uploaded Completed Uploaded Uploaded Completed This is to certify that, Sahil Jitesh . (Enrolment Number-110590119025) working on project entitled with Design And Stability Of Recumbent Tricycle from Mechanical Engineering department of G. K. Bharad Institute Of Engineering, Kasturba Dham, Rajkot had submitted following details at online project portal. Name of Student : Signature of Student : Sahil Jitesh . *Signature of Guide : Name of Guide : Mr. Hardik Hiteshkumar Suchak This is a computer generated copy and does not indicate that your data has been evaluated. This is the receipt that GTU has received a copy of the data that you have uploaded and submitted as your project work. Disclaimer : *Guide has to sign the certificate, Only if all above activities has been Completed / Uploaded.
  7. 7. i | P a g e INDEX TITLE PAGE NO. CERTIFICATE INDEX i LIST OF FIGURE iv LIST OF TABLE vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT vii ABSTRACT viii CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………...…01 1.1 HISTORY CHAPTER 2. FWD AND RWD ………………………………………………………..…….07 CHAPTER 3. PEDAL INDUCED STEERING ……………………………….……………09 CHAPTER 4. CHAIN LINE …………………………………………………………….…..10 4.1 FWD MOVING BB CHAINLINE 4.2 FWD TWIST CHAIN 4.3 RWD CHAINLINE CHAPTER 5. ADJUSTABILITY …………………………………………………………...13 CHAPTER 6. STEERING BEHAVIOUR ……………………………………………….…14 6.1 RWD UNDERSTEER BEHAVIOUR 6.2 FWD OVERSTEER BEHAVIOUR CHAPTER 7. TADPOLE OR DELTA? ………………………………………………..….16 CHAPTER 8. BRAKING …………………………………………………………...………17 8.1 DELTA RIDER 8.2 TADPOLE RIDER
  8. 8. ii | P a g e TITLE PAGE NO. CHAPTER 9. TURNING ……………………………………………………………………19 9.1 DELTA TURNING 9.2 TADPOLE TURNING CHAPTER 10. DESIGN ………………………………………………………………..……21 10.1 CONCEPT 10.2 STABILITY 10.3 STEERING AND TILTING 10.4 ACKERMAN STEERING 10.5 POWER TRAIN 10.6 TIE RODS 10.7 HOUSING BEARING 10.8 HANDLES 10.9 POWER TRAIN TENSION PLATE 10.10 STEERING ARMS 10.11 SEAT ASSEMBLY 10.12 MAIN FRAME 10.13 HORIZONTAL FRAME CHAPTER 11. CALCULATION ……………………………………………………………28 11.1 CALCULATION OF OPTOMAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY 11.1.1 OPTIMAL CENTRE 11.1.2 LATERAL TIPPING POINT (FRONT VIEW) 11.1.3 LATERAL TIPPING POINT (SIDE VIEW)
  9. 9. iii | P a g e TITLE PAGE NO. CHAPTER 12. CONCLUSION ……………………………………………………………30 12.1 DESIGN REQUIREMENT COMPARISION 12.2 WEIGHT 12.3 BRAKING DISTANCE 12.4 TURNING ANGLE REFERANCE APPENDIX
  10. 10. iv | P a g e LIST OF FIGURE Figure 1.1.1 Stephan farffer’s hand – controlled,three wheel chair Figure 1.1.2 19TH century tricycle used in iran Figure 1.1.3 Bicycle history and typology Figure 1.1.4 Long rider Figure 1.1.5 Short rider Figure 1.1.6 Low rider Figure 1.1.7 Harold Jarvis long rider, patent excerpt Figure 1.1.8 Dan henry on long rider Figure 1.1.9 Darve willson with his “avatar 2000” Figure 1.1.10 Ravat short rider Figure 1.1.11 Jack fried’s short riders Figure 2.1 Minimum 60:40 weight distribution Figure 2.2 Loss of traction of steep grades Figure 3.1 Effect of Trail on FWD Figure 4.1.1 FWD moving BB chainline Figure 4.2.1 FWD twist chain chainline Figure 4.3.1 RWD chainline Figure 5.1 FWD moving BB adjustability Figure 6.1.1 RWD understeer behaviour Figure 6.2.1 FWD oversteer behavior Figure 7.1 Windcheetah Tadpole Figure 7.2 Kettweisel Delta Figure 8.1.1 Delta rider's CoG
  11. 11. v | P a g e Figure 8.2.1 Tadpole rider's CoG Figure 9.1.1 Delta turning vectors Figure 9.2.1 Tadpole turning vectors Figure 9.2.2 KMX Kart Figure 10.2.1 NX Design of Recumbent Tricycle Figure 10.2.2 Principle of Pendulum Figure 10.3.1 Tilting and Turning Concept Figure 10.4.1 Ackerman Steering Schematic Figure 10.4.2 Steering Principle Figure 10.5.1 Power Train Figure 10.7.1 Housing Bearing Figure 10.9.1 Power Plate Tension Plate Figure 10.10.1 Steering Arm Figure 10.11.1 Seat Assembly Figure 10.12.1 Main Frame Figure 10.13.1 Horizontal Frame Figure 10.1.1.1 Optimal Centre Figure 10.1.2.1 Tipping Point Front View Figure 10.1.3.1 Tipping Point Side View Figure 11.1.3.2 Tipping Point Top View Figure 11.1.3.3 Orthogonal View Figure 12.4.1 Turning Angle Proposed and Actual Design
  12. 12. vi | P a g e LIST OF TABLE Table 2.1 Difference between FWS Moving BB, FWS Twist Chain and RWD Table 12.1.1 Design Requirement Comparison
  13. 13. vii | P a g e ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to take this opportunity to bestow acknowledge on all person who have directly or indirectly helped us in making project and to turn it up into a successful piece of work. It was an educational phase while studying the “B.E. in Mechanical Engineering”, working with highly devoted engineering faculties and probably remain the most memorable experience of our life. Hence they indirectly involved in our project work. It is a great owner for us to making project for final year of BE in “G.K. Bharad Institute of Engineering”. With immense pleasure, we present this project titled, “Design and Stability of Recumbent Tricycle.” Above all we would like to acknowledge, the immense encouragement and guidance we received from external guide Aakash Mavadia and Next we would like to thank Prof. Vaibhab Maniar head of department mechanical department and other faculty member who have enabled us to complete the project and the documentation according to prescribed standards of “G.K. Bharad Institute of Engineering” and “Gujarat Technological University”. We would also like to thank for encouragement and help received from our family members, friends and colleagues. SAHIL JITESH OZA ANAND M. MALANKIYA SANJAY D.
  14. 14. viii | P a g e ABSTRACT Recumbent cycles began emerging in the early 1900’s as a method of improving the rider’s ability to transmit power ergonomically and reach higher sustained speeds. Over the course of the last century, many different types of recumbent cycles were designed and developed upon. Although most recumbent designs are similar to ordinary two-wheeled bicycles, they typically have a lower centre of gravity, causing stability problems at lower speeds. If an effort to improve the stability and control of recumbent cycles, the addition of a third wheel became popular as a method to distribute the weight of the rider. Initial tricycle designs used two wheels in the rear and one in the front; however, there are inherent stability problems with this design while cornering at high speeds. Considering the advantages of recumbent cycles for ergonomic performance, these vehicles present an excellent mode of transportation for short to medium distance commuting. Therefore, the cycle is an excellent means for commuters to reduce energy consumption, lower traffic density, and maintain physical fitness.
  15. 15. 1 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION A tricycle, often abbreviated to trike, is a three-wheeled vehicle, commonly human- powered. Tricycles are used by children and adults alike for their stability versus a bicycle. In the United States and Canada, adult-sized tricycles are used by senior adults for recreation, shopping, and exercise. In Asia and Africa, tricycles called pedicabs are used to transport passengers; tricycles are also used to transport freight and make deliveries. Human-powered trikes are powered by pedals or hand cranks. Motorized trikes can be powered by motorcycle engines, smaller automatic transmission scooter motors, or electric motors. 1.1 HISTORY A three-wheeled wheelchair was built in 1655 or 1680 by a disabled German man, Stephan Farffler, who wanted to be able to maintain his mobility. Since he was a watch-maker, he was able to create a vehicle that was powered by hand cranks. In 1789, two French inventors developed a three wheeled vehicle, powered by pedals; they called it the tricycle. In 1818, British inventor Denis Johnson patented his approach to designing tricycles. In 1876, James Starley developed the Coventry Lever Tricycle, which used two small wheels on the right side and a large drive wheel on the left side; power was supplied by hand levers. In 1877, Starley developed a new vehicle he called the Coventry Rotary, which was "one of the first rotary chain drive tricycles." Starley's inventions started a tricycling craze in Britain; by 1879, there were “twenty types of tricycles and multi-wheel cycles ... produced in Coventry, England, and by 1884, there were over 120 different models produced by 20 manufacturers." The first front steering Figure 1.1.1 Stephan Farffler's hand-controlled, three-wheeled wheelchair
  16. 16. 2 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING tricycle was manufactured by The Leicester Safety Tricycle Company of Leicester, England in 1881 which was brought to the market in 1882 costing £18. They also developed a folding tricycle at the same time. [5] [6] Tricycles were used by riders who did not feel comfortable on the high wheelers, such as women who wore long, flowing dresses. In the UK, upright tricycles are sometimes referred to as "barrows". Many trike enthusiasts ("trikies") in the UK belong to the Tricycle Association, formed in 1929. In order to understand recumbents, I'm giving a brief history of the evolution: The draisienne was rather a walking bicycle invented by Karl von Drais around 1817, whereas the highweeler around 1870 didn't have a chain but direct drive, and in order to provide decent speed the wheel had to be big and thereby the risk of falling was obvious. As result of increased risk a "safety" version was developed by J. K. Starley around 1885, which is the raw model of current "ordinary" bicycle. Interestingly for a long time the highwheeler was considered "ordinary" and the "safety" bicycle a special, even "safety" version - this is how history changes. Figure 1.1.2 19TH century tricycle used in Iran
  17. 17. 3 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING Recumbents are bicycles with another frame geometry than the established type (often referred as Diamond Frame (DF)), and have shown to suit different features thereby:  faster due better aerodynamics of the body posture (sitting or almost laying)  more ergonomic body posture  more relaxing position good for extensive ridings and tours  better force application on pedals due comfortable seats Figure 1.1.3 Bicycle History and Typology
  18. 18. 4 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING  no wrist, neck or back pain anymore, for certain low- and short riders a head-support is helpful  more safe to ride, such as the long rider which has a low sitting respectively falling height of 50cm or 20" only, and head-on falling nearly impossible; low-riders might not considered more safe as visibility of those are more limited in daily commuting in traffic The few main disadvantages most recumbents have are:  more expensive,  heavier and  harder to climb mountains fast as you can't get up and push with your full body weight on the pedals, and also due general heavier frame Base Types Three main types can be defined as shown below (but there are many more): Figure 1.1.4 Long Rider Figure 1.1.5 Short Rider Figure 1.1.6 Low Rider
  19. 19. 5 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING The "long rider" named due the long frame, also known as long wheel base (LWB). The steering is relatively steady, independent whether under- or over-seat steering (USS or OSS). The first long riders came around 1900, as example Harold Jarvis filed patent in 1901, US Patent #690,733. [4] In 1968 Dan Henry on his own long rider. The modern type was invented by David Gordon Wilson professor at MIT in 1976, who named this type "Avatar 2000", see also his patent "Recumbent Bicycle" #4,283,070, applied 1979 and issued 1981.Later inspired colleagues formed a company building this type, Fomac Inc., or Dick Ryan made the "Ryan Vanguard ", other companies adapted the same design such as Radius (Germany) and Fateba (Switzerland) often without crediting the original designer, David G. Wilson. Longriders are very suitable for long distance travels due the comfortable seat; the resistance of the wind isn't optimal but still much better than with an ordinary bicycle frame geometry. The "short rider" named due the short length between the wheels, also known as shorts wheel base (SWB), usually the pedals are in the front of the front wheel. The steering bar might Figure 1.1.7 Harold Jarvis longrider, patent excerpt (1901) Figure 1.1.8 Dan Henry on a longrider (1968) Figure 1.1.9 Dave Wilson with his 'Avatar 2000' (~1976) Figure 1.1.10 Ravat (1937)
  20. 20. 6 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING have different heights, under- or over-seat steering (USS vs OSS), the seat is straight and very comfortable to sit on. The steering is not very steady due to the shortness of length between both wheel, and the angle of the steering bar. One of the first short riders I found are from Ravat (1937) a French motorcycle company in St. Etienne, and Jack Fried (1946) as seen on US Patent #2,482,472. The Velocar by Charles Mochet in 1931 is between a longrider and a short rider - so this may be kept remembered too. The front wheel drive (FWD) seems first time implemented by Thomas D. Traylor in 1979, and later in 1982 issued the Patent #D277, 744 which was granted 1985. The "low-rider" due the low seat, and usually the drive is in front of the front wheel. The steering bar is often very narrow, and the chain is very close to the front wheel, so there is a narrow margin for steering curves. The low-riders are suitable to do speed records as human powered vehicles (HPV), e.g. 24 hours ca. 1000km, or 1 hour 85km/h, 200m or 1000m with 130km/h, in such an application a chassis is attached to decrease air resistance even further. Figure1.1.11 Jack Fried's shortrider, patent excerpt (1946)
  21. 21. 7 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING CHAPTER 2 FWD AND RWD One of the many issues to consider when designing a recumbent, is whether to make it front or rear wheel drive (FWD or RWD). The choice is not clear cut. Each approach has its strengths and weaknesses, and like all good design, you have to find the best solution fit for your specific requirements. FWD Moving BB FWD Twist Chain RWD Limitations Steep Grades Steep Grades - Psi Manageable Minimal - Chainline Simple Complex Complex Adjustability Easier Harder Harder Steering Behaviour Overseer Overseer Understeer Table 2.1 Difference between FWS Moving BB, FWS Twist Chain and RWD The above table attempts to compare the relative advantages and disadvantages of each approach, however these are generalizations, and the devil, as always, is in the details. First and foremost the significant limitation of FWD designs is their potential to loose traction on steep grades (hills). [2] Figure 2.1 Minimum 60:40 weight distribution
  22. 22. 8 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING On level ground, the FWD recumbent should have more weight distributed to the front wheel than the rear. Ratios of 60:40 or higher are recommended. Figure 2.2 Loss of traction of steep grades The problem is that as the grade becomes steeper, the weight distribution changes to favour the rear wheel. The illustration above is extreme, and most riders even on hilly terrain don't consider FWD traction a significant issue. If however you are planning to ride off road, the friction coefficient of gravel, mud and dry grass is much less than tarmac, so traction will become a limiting factor. You can reduce the impact of grade on weight distribution by keeping the seat height low and increasing the wheelbase.
  23. 23. 9 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING CHAPTER 3 PEDAL INDUCED STEERING Figure 3.1 Effect of Trail on FWD One significant issue for FWD designs is the effect of trail on dynamic stability and pedal induced steering (PSI). To illustrate this, the diagram above represents the view looking down on a 20" front wheel that is moving forward down the page. It has a 75° pivot angle, 20mm of fork offset and is leaning 30° to the left. As the front wheel leans, the contact patch moves to the inside of the pivot axis. This is because the contact patch is moving around the outside wall of the tire. This causes the driving force (Red) to generate a turning force (Blue) around the pivot axis, but because the application of human power using pedals is not constant, the turning force oscillates. These oscillations will generate sympathetic harmonics at certain cadence frequencies due to the shifting weight of the legs while peddling, and their interaction with the dynamic tracking behaviour of caster. On FWD twist chain designs, having a shallow pivot axis, short trail and long tiller minimizes the impact. On FWD moving BB designs however, the turning force will interact with the pedal force, alternating between cooperation and opposition. At some cadence frequencies this actually eliminates PSI effects and works well, at others, particularly high cadence it causes stability problems.
  24. 24. 10 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING CHAPTER 4 CHAIN LINE Chainline management is the single biggest issue in recumbent design. You can come up with a beautiful bike or trike, but if you can't transfer power efficiently form your feet to the drive wheel(s), then you will have to revise your design. 4.1 FWD MOVING BB CHAINLINE Figure 4.1.1 FWD moving BB chainline The FWD moving BB design is used by the TT, Cruz bike, Speculums, Python low racer and Flevobike, as well as the Hipperion trike. When properly designed, pedal induced steering can be kept to a minimum. This is a challenging configuration, but in the case of the Python low racer, it can produce a very light bike. The direct, unencumbered chainline is also the most efficient, the chain routing used in the other designs has been reported to consume over 5 watts.
  25. 25. 11 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 4.2 FWD TWIST CHAIN Figure 4.2.1 FWD twist chain chainline The FWD twist chain design has become extremely popular of late, particularly in the HPV racing scene. This design is favoured by fully fared streamliners used in HPV speed trials because it helps to keep the frontal profile of the faring to a minimum. 4.3 RWD CHAINLINE Figure 4.3.1 RWD chainline
  26. 26. 12 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING RWD is by far the oldest and most widely used chainline design. It is constrained by the seat height -- make the seat high and you can have an unencumbered chainline like the Cycloratio -- make the seat low and you have to route the chain over the front wheel and under the seat. For a tadpole trike this is less of an issue than for a bike, in that you only have to route the chain under the seat, but the front cross member and steering tie rods can also get in the way.
  27. 27. 13 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING CHAPTER 5 ADJUSTABLITY Figure 5.1 FWD moving BB adjustability One of the challenges all recumbent designs face, is making the distance from the seat the bottom bracket (BB-BOS) adjustable. It is often undesirable to make this adjustment by moving the seat backwards and forwards, because this may upset the ride quality and handling characteristics. Most designs incorporate some variant of a telescopic boom. However with most chainlines, this requires adding or removing chain links to make the adjustment, on the theory that once fitted to the rider, the BB-BOS distance never needs to change. If however you are planning to race in a 24 hour HPV event with a team of riders, quick changeovers are a requirement. The FWD moving BB design is rather unique in this regard, the bottom bracket can be design for adjustment without any need to modify the chain. The alternative for routed chain lines is to have a longer chain and use an adjustable chain tensioner on the return run.
  28. 28. 14 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING CHAPTER 6 STEERING BEHAVIOR The angle between the direction a wheel is pointing and the path along which it actually moves is called the slip angle. Slip occurs under power when a trike is turning. It also occurs under breaking as the tire approaches its traction limit. Under power the weight distribution usually moves to the rear of a vehicle, but human power being as limited as it is, acceleration forces are rarely an issue, unless you ride a unicycle. Under breaking the weight distribution moves to the front outside wheel. How the steering behaves under power is dependent on the weight distribution and the friction coefficient of the tire and road surface. Steering behaviour becomes more pronounced when the friction coefficient is low i.e. a verge with loose gravel while cornering. Too much weight at the back of the tricycle causes the rear wheel to spin out (overseer). Too much weight at the front causes the front wheels to plough (understeer). Neutral handling is when the weight is evenly distributed between the front and rear, but generally slight understeer is considered safest. 6.1 RWD UNDEERSTEER BEHAVIOR Figure 6.1.1 RWD understeer behaviour RWD trikes have a tendency to understeer. This is because the drive force is pushing the trike forward in a straight line, and the front wheels slip forward as they turn. It is only the
  29. 29. 15 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING friction of the front wheels on the pavement, not the driving force that turns the trike. The location of the optimal CoG also creates a weight distribution that favours understeer. Under the decelerating forces of braking the steering behaviour may be completely different. It is dependent on the dynamic weight distribution, which is directly influenced by the location of the rider CoG in relation to the front contact patches, the seat height, the brake force distribution, and the amount of brake force applied. 6.2 FWD OVERSTEER BEHAVIOR Figure 6.2.1 FWD overseer behaviour FWD trikes have a tendency to overseer. The drivetrain pulls the front of the trike around the corner. It is only the friction of the rear wheels on the pavement that prevents the rear of the trike from spinning out. However because the weight distribution is already biased towards the front wheel to improve traction, these forces tend to cancel one another out. In competitive racing, particularly on short tracks with lots of cornering, riders may prefer the responsive feel of slight overseer, but it carries the added risk that the rider may lose control. Too much overseer will make a trike unstable and dangerous.
  30. 30. 16 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING CHAPTER 7 TADPOLE OR DELTA? The tadpole trike has the two wheels at the front, the delta trike has the two wheels at the rear. Figure 7.1 Wind cheetah Tadpole One of the original and best known tadpole trike designs is the Wind cheetah by Advanced Vehicle Design. Above is a partially fared example of their Club Sport model. The Wind cheetah uses all cast aluminium components that are bonded to aluminium tubular frame. Figure 7.2 Kettweisel Delta By contrast the Kettweisel by Hase is probably the best known delta trike design. This is a fast, light trike, renowned for its handling. I am simply using these proven designs to illustrate how one might go about assessing the strengths and weaknesses of any trike design. And more to the point, how to assess which characteristics are best suited to your requirements, and on that basis, whether they should be considered for your own designs. This discussion is general and representational. As such it should not be considered definitive. From here on the trike configurations will simply be referred to as 'the delta' and 'the tadpole'.
  31. 31. 17 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING CHAPTER 8 BRAKING 8.1 DELTA RIDER Figure 8.1.1 Delta rider's CoG The delta rider's CoG is unusually high for a trike, but it is located behind the forward tipping axis so would be stable under a 1g braking force. Conversely, riding up an unusually steep grade the trike could easily lift the front wheel if enough force was applied to the pedals in a low gear. However as trade-offs go, this is unlikely to ever be a problem in real world riding conditions, so the rearward CoG is a good idea. 8.2 TADPOLE RIDER Figure 8.2.1 Tadpole rider's CoG
  32. 32. 18 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING The tadpole rider's CoG is lower, but located ahead of the forward tipping axis so it would tip forward under a 1g braking force. With modern calliper brakes, this would have a tendency to lift the rear wheel. On a downward slope the tipping threshold would be even less, exacerbating the problem. Why not position the front wheels further forward? Well there are some issues with doing this including: the cross member getting in the way of the cyclists calves, and the seat becoming more difficult to stand up out of, because the riders feet are too far forward. Changing the backrest angle to 30° or less will help move the rider CoG further back. However having the CoG slightly forward changes the weight distribution to favour understeer, which is a good thing. It also means the CoG can be raised slightly, making the seat height more practical.
  33. 33. 19 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING CHAPTER 9 TURNING 9.1 DELTA TURNING Figure 9.1.1 Delta turning vectors Under turning forces the delta rider's CoG is well placed. Likewise under combined turning and braking forces the CoG is also well places, however as we will see in this implementation the CoG is too high. The long wheel base of the delta also decreases the twitchiness of the steering, improving high speed steering control and precision. Obviously the rider experiencing the inertial feedback and with quicker reflexes could make a course correction better than I can under the simulation. Still, one must lower the CoG to make the simulation more stable. The rearward weight distribution also favours oversteer, meaning the trike would tend so spin out as a result of loosing traction on loose gravel.
  34. 34. 20 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 9.2 TADPOLE TURNING Figure 9.2.1 Tadpole turning vectors Under turning forces the tadpole rider's CoG is well placed, and combined with the low seat, more stable than the delta. However under combined turning and braking forces there is still the possibility of tipping forward. Figure 9.2.2 KMX Kart The KMX trike pictured above resolves the tadpole brake force issue by having smaller front wheels, thereby lowering the rider CoG inside the forward tipping axis. Nevertheless, as this image clearly shows, with a more upright backrest angle it is definitely possible tip the trike and get it up on two wheels. [1]
  35. 35. 21 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING CHAPTER 10 DESIGN 10.1 Concept The recumbent tricycle design concept was selected to mimic the motion of a traditional bicycle while benefiting from the ergonomics and stability of a recumbent. All steering and tilting manoeuvres are accomplished by simply leaning the tricycle into the turn. The main advantage of this design concept over past models is the simplicity and improved stability. With reference to study from above 9 chapters, we conclude to use following design criteria. 1. Real Wheel Drive (RWD) 2. Adjustable seat, chain and paddle shaft, and 3. Tadpole Configuration 10.2 Stability The final design of the recumbent tricycle depicted in Figure 10.2.1 is an assembly model generated in the SIEMENS NX modelling software. This model allowed the team to refine the geometry of the turning and tilting linkages to improve turning radius and stability. From the model, technical drawings were produced for the build report of the fabrication process. Figure 10.2.1 NX Design of Recumbent Tricycle
  36. 36. 22 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING Using the analogy of a pendulum shown in Figure10.2.2, the bend in the frame allows the centre of gravity to be lowered with reference to the centre of rotation of the frame. By lowering the centre of rotation, the cyclist will be always return to a vertical position. Furthermore, the centrifugal forces imposed on the rider during cornering will apply a moment to the frame forcing the frame to rotate to a vertical position. Ө y Fnx x Fny Fn Figure 10.2.2 Principle of Pendulum 10.3 Steering and Tilting The steering and tilting mechanisms are interconnected to the frame which rotates through the bearing housing on the front horizontal support shown in Figure 10.3.1 Figure 10.3.1 Tilting and Turning Concept
  37. 37. 23 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING Using tie rods connected from the frame and wheel brackets, the turning and tilting actions are coupled into one sweeping motion of the frame. This design characteristics allows the user to ride on the point of stability. The symmetrical top tie rods are used for turning and bottom rods are used for tilting as the frame rotates through the bearing housing. 10.4 Ackerman Steering The design of the turning system accounts for Ackerman steering by allowing for more turn angle on the inner front wheel during cornering. The top view schematic of the front cycle wheels shown in 10.4.1 demonstrates how the inner wheel is positioned at a higher angle during turning. Figure 10.4.1 Ackerman Steering Schematic The top view of the model in Figure 10.4.2 demonstrates how design accomplishes a tighter turning angle. This design feature allows the tricycle to move around the centre of rotation without scrubbing which causes wear on the surface of the tires. Figure 10.4.2 Steering Principle
  38. 38. 24 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 10.5 Power Train The power train of the cycle is provided with two chains that are routed from the pedal/sprocket assembly to a sprocket idler at the front of the tricycle before transmitting power to the rear sprocket. Idler wheels guide the long chain from below the frame to the rear sprocket. Each idler is connected using a bracket connected onto the main frame discussed further in this report. 10.6 Tie Rods The connecting rods are subjected to axial forces which cause the cycle to both turn and tilt. As these rods are only subjected to axial forces, bending stress calculations were not needed. However, a large enough force on the connecting rods could cause buckling. The chosen diameter of the rod corresponds to the dot indicating that the rod is capable of a 20,000 N load before buckling. MS was selected for the connecting rods for extra safety and to reduce the overall weight contribution. Figure 10.5.1 Power Train
  39. 39. 25 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 10.7 Housing Bearing The Housing Bearing in Figure 10.7.1 was drilled-out for bolting instead of welding to facilitate the assembly and disassembly, Holes were also drilled in the pedal post to allow adjustability for riders with different sized feet. 10.8 Handles The handles were moved closer to the outside to accommodate a more anatomical position. A plate was also welded to the handles. 10.9 Power Train Tension Plate The rear tensioning plate shown in Figure 10.9.1 was designed to be welded at angle to the frame. This alteration allowed the chain to route to the rear sprocket without affecting the shifting cable, and allowing higher tensioning forces to be imparted upon the chain itself. The middle idlers were also moved forward, and welded to the frame; this change allows more flexibility in the design, and places the idlers closer to the center of the chain span. Figure 10.7.1 Housing Bearing Figure 10.9.1 Power Plate Tension Plate
  40. 40. 26 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 10.10 Steering Arm The steering arm is welded, and it is placed at the exact location parallel to steering bracket. Figure 10.10.1 Steering Arm 10.11 Seat Assembly The seat was made by hand, a custom hinge was fabricated to mount the seat to the bracket. The seat bracket was rotated to face backwards, and the hinge was bolted to both the seat and bracket to allow a full range of motion. These modifications allow a greater range of adjustment to suit the rider. Figure 10.11.1 Seat Assembly
  41. 41. 27 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 10.12 Main Frame The frame is constructed from square pipe rather than round piping. This allows for a lighter frame construction while maintaining rigidity and simplicity for cutting, welding and assembly. The selection of a square pipe frame presented problems where it rotates through the horizontal support member of the front wheels. In order to fit the frame through the housing bearing, a collar was designed to fit over the frame and allow fluid rotational movement. The rear portion of the frame was constructed to deliver additional support against bending for the rear axle. Holes were drilled in the centre portion of the frame to allow for seat adjustability to suit a range of users. Modifications were done to connect the support members for the seat at the rear. 10.13 Horizontal Frame The horizontal frame support was constructed from square pipe MS with rounded edges as shown in Figure 10.12.1. This allows for the inner steering brackets to seat firmly for supporting the wheels. Figure 10.12.1 Main Frame Figure 10.13.1 Horizontal Frame
  42. 42. 28 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING CHAPTER 11 CALCULATION 11.1 Calculation of Optimal Centre of Gravity (CoG) After construction, the recumbent tricycle was tested according to maximum velocity, turning radius, braking distance, mass, manoeuvrability etc. 11.1.1 Optimal Centre Looking down from above, if we draw a triangle between the three contact patches, and at the midpoint of each line we draw another line to the opposite corner, then the intersection of these three lines is the optimal point where the rider CoG should be. 11.1.2 Calculating Lateral Tipping Point (FRONT VIEW): Now looking from the front, if we take the track measurement B and we divide it in half we get A. We use A to construct an isosceles triangle between the contact patches. This triangle represents the tipping point for the trike. If the CoG is inside the triangle, then the trike will skid when it loses traction while cornering, if the CoG is above it, the trike will tip. 𝐵 = 36" 𝐴 = 𝐵 2 𝐴 = 36 2 𝑨 = 𝟏𝟗" Figure 10.1.2.1 Tipping Point Front View Figure 10.1.1.1 Optimal Centre
  43. 43. 29 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 11.1.3 Calculating Lateral Tipping Point (SIDE VIEW): Draw a similar triangle on a side view of the trike using the wheelbase measurement for B to derive A. You can then use this side-on triangle to calculate where to place the CoG in order to prevent the trike from tipping forward when breaking -- more of a problem for tadpole configurations. 𝐵 = 45" 𝐴 = 𝐵 2 𝐴 = 45 2 𝐴 = 22.5" The previous two calculations would be fine if the CoG on either axis was directly between the two wheels, but it’s not. The optimum place is 1/3 of the wheelbase length back from the isosceles triangle's base. At this location, the triangle is only 2/3 of the track width. Now we use this 2/3 track measurement as B to derive A which is 1/3 of the track width. We then use A draw a vertical line up from the optimal CoG point. We then use the point at the top of this line to create a 3 sided pyramid. This pyramid represents a 3D view of the tipping space, inside which the rider CoG must remain for the trike to be stable. [3] Figure 11.1.3.3 Orthogonal View Figure 10.1.3.1 Tipping Point Side View Figure 11.1.3.2 Tipping Top View
  44. 44. 30 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING CHAPTER 12 CONCLUSIONS 12.1 Design Requirement Comparison Actual performance of the tricycle is differ from the expected, the reasons for this changes are given below. Design Requirement Actual Performance Maximum Velocity N/A 40.78 km/hr Sustained Velocity 30 km/hr 34.56 km/hr Braking Distance N/A 9.5 m Weight 50kg 55 kg Turning Radius 5 m 9.1 m Cost 20,000 Rupees 14,000 Rupees Tilt While Cornering Yes Yes Carrying Capacity 100 kg >100 kg Cargo Carrying Capacity Yes Yes Easy To Operate Yes Yes Adjustability Yes Yes High Visible Yes Yes Life Expectancy 3 Years N/A Table 12.1.1 Design Requirement Comparison 12.2 Weight As we have selected the MS material to construct the frame, instead of it any lighter material like Aluminium or Carbon Fibre were used instead, then there can be notable difference might be observed. Magnitude of velocity is directly depend upon the weight of the tricycle. 12.3 Braking Distance As our cycle have only one shoe brake at rear wheel, hence it shows the high value of braking distance. Instead of shoe brake the Disk Break were used in all the three wheel then breaking distance will be less.
  45. 45. 31 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING Figure 12.4.2 Possible Modification for Turning 12.4 Turning Angle Turning angle can be increased by decreasing the length of the rod from 3.75 to 2 inch which is calculated as below and fig 12.4.1 represent current design and proposed design. STRAIGHT WHEEL CURRENT DESIGN PRAPOSED DESIGN Calculation of Current Design: tan 𝛩 = 1⋅10 3⋅70 𝜃 = tan−1(0.2972) 𝜃 = 16.56˚ Calculation of Proposed Design: tan 𝛩 = 1⋅10 2 . ˚. 𝜃 = 28.8˚ 𝛩 3.75" 1.1" Figure 12.4.1 Turning Angle Proposed and Actual Design
  46. 46. 32 | P a g e G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING REFERENCE [1] http://www.jetrike.com/tadpole-or-delta.html [2] http://www.jetrike.com/fwd-or-rwd.html [3] http://www.jetrike.com/why-does-tilting-matter.html [4] http://renekmueller.com/Recumbents [5] http://www.clarkisit.com/riding-a-tricycle/ [6] http://www.ijfeat.org/papers/march37.pdf [7] https://www.morpheustrike.4t.com
  47. 47. G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING Appendix A Technical Drawings (BMC)
  48. 48. G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING Appendix B Business Model Canvas (BMC) (BMC)
  49. 49. G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
  50. 50. G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING Appendix C PLAGIARISM
  51. 51. www. plagiarism -detect .com Date: 24.4.2015 Words: 4693 Plagiarised sources: 40 Plagiarised: 11% http://www.jetrike.com/fwd-or-rwd.html plagiarised from source: 5% you have to find the best solution fit for your specific1. hilly terrain don't consider FWD traction a significant2. trail on dynamic stability and pedal induced steering3. using pedals is not constant, the turning force4. is by far the oldest and most widely used chainline5. route the chain over the front wheel and under the6. distance from the seat the bottom bracket7. If however you are planning to race in a 24 hour8. event with a team of riders, quick changeovers are a9. this regard, the bottom bracket can be10. for adjustment without any need to modify the11. The alternative for routed chain lines is to have a longer12. the path along which it actually moves is called the slip13. Slip occurs under power when a trike is14. It also occurs under breaking as the tire approaches its traction15. Under power the weight distribution usually moves to the rear16. a vehicle, but human power being as limited as it is17. The location of the optimal CoG also creates a18. to the front contact patches, the seat height, the brake19. The drivetrain pulls the front of the trike around the20. to improve traction, these forces tend to cancel one another21. http://www.jetrike.com/tadpole-or-delta.html plagiarised from source: 2% From here on the trike configurations will simply be referred1. cross member getting in the way of the cyclists calves2. out of, because the riders feet are too far3. will help move the rider CoG further4. However having the CoG slightly forward changes the5. It also means the CoG can be raised slightly, making the6. The long wheel base of the delta also decreases the twitchiness7. Still, one must lower the CoG to make the simulation more8. The rearward weight distribution also favors oversteer, meaning the trike9. resolves the tadpole brake force issue by having smaller10. angle it is definitely possible tip the trike and11. http://www.jetrike.com/why-does-tilting-matter.html plagiarised from source: 1% the CoG is above it, the trike will1. similar triangle on a side view of the2. the CoG in order to prevent the trike from tipping forward3. length back from the isosceles triangle's4.
  52. 52. We then use A draw a5. We then use the point at the top6. http://renekmueller.com/Recumbents plagiarised from source: 1% had to be big and thereby the risk of falling was1. even ... version - this is how history2. can't get up and push with your full body weight3. example Harold Jarvis filed patent in 1901, US Patent4. The modern type was invented by David Gordon Wilson5. chain is very close to the front wheel6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tricycle plagiarised from source: 1% or 1680 by a disabled German man1. Britain; by 1879, there were “twenty types of tricycles and multi-wheel2. produced in Coventry, England, and by 1884, there were over3. models produced by 20 manufacturers." The first front steering tricycle4. used by riders who did not feel comfortable on5. http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/116511 plagiarised from source: 1% Britain; by 1879, there were “twenty types of tricycles and multi-wheel1. produced in Coventry, England, and by 1884, there were over2. models produced by 20 manufacturers." The first front steering tricycle3. used by riders who did not feel comfortable on4. http://www.clarkisit.com/riding-a-tricycle/ plagiarised from source: 1% Britain; by 1879, there were “twenty types of tricycles and multi-wheel1. produced in Coventry, England, and by 1884, there were over2. models produced by 20 manufacturers." The first front steering tricycle3. used by riders who did not feel comfortable on4. http://www.thefullwiki.org/Tricycles plagiarised from source: 1% Britain; by 1879, there were “twenty types of tricycles and multi-wheel1. produced in Coventry, England, and by 1884, there were over2. used by riders who did not feel comfortable on3. http://www.slideshare.net/JericaRaymond/raymond-j-museumcatelogue plagiarised from source: 1% Britain; by 1879, there were “twenty types of tricycles and multi-wheel1. produced in Coventry, England, and by 1884, there were over2. models produced by 20 manufacturers." The first front steering tricycle3. https://trikeasylum.wordpress.com/more/wikipedia-on-tricycles/ plagiarised from source: 1% Britain; by 1879, there were “twenty types of tricycles and multi-wheel1. models produced by 20 manufacturers." The first front steering tricycle2. used by riders who did not feel comfortable on3. https://triporteurs.wordpress.com/page-3-history-of-tricycles/ plagiarised from source: >1%
  53. 53. models produced by 20 manufacturers." The first front steering tricycle1. http://www.charismanews.com/opinion/watchman-on-the-wall/45194-can-we-pray-the-polygamy-away plagiarised from source: >1% alike for their stability versus a1. http://www.hemmings.com/hcc/stories/2006/03/01/hmn_feature22.html plagiarised from source: >1% The front wheel drive1. http://www.angelfire.com/biz/snwvlly/fwd.html plagiarised from source: >1% The front wheel drive1. http://thecarguy.com/articles/drivesys.htm plagiarised from source: >1% The front wheel drive1. https://www.facebook.com/fwdracing plagiarised from source: >1% The front wheel drive1. http://www.edmunds.com/car-technology/what-wheel-drive.html plagiarised from source: >1% The front wheel drive1. http://www.kbb.com/car-advice/articles/which-wheel-drive-is-best-for-you/ plagiarised from source: >1% The front wheel drive1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Front-wheel-drive_vehicles plagiarised from source: >1% The front wheel drive1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Front-wheel_drive plagiarised from source: >1% The front wheel drive1. https://oldbike.wordpress.com/page-3-history-of-tricycles/ plagiarised from source: >1% produced in Coventry, England, and by 1884, there were over1. https://www.ewtn.com/library/Liturgy/zlitur406.htm plagiarised from source: >1% The choice is not clear1. http://www.whatawaytogomovie.com/2012/10/the-clear-choice-for-2012/ plagiarised from source: >1% The choice is not clear1. http://slippedisc.com/2015/02/what-if-berlin-doesnt-get-its-man/ plagiarised from source: >1% The choice is not clear1.
  54. 54. http://pathfinder.utsc.utoronto.ca/pages/projectbio.html plagiarised from source: >1% The choice is not clear1. http://www.apsu.edu/sites/apsu.edu/files/academic-support-center/Who_and_Whom_0.pdf plagiarised from source: >1% The choice is not clear1. http://www.successfulbusinessnews.com/technology/technology/technology/android-vs-apple-which-is-more-bu siness-friendly plagiarised from source: >1% The choice is not clear1. http://basef.ca/biotechnology plagiarised from source: >1% The choice is not clear1. http://www.thefullwiki.org/Tricycle plagiarised from source: >1% models produced by 20 manufacturers." The first front steering tricycle1. http://www.jetrike.com/theory.html plagiarised from source: >1% you have to find the best solution fit for your specific1. http://www.southrussell.com/properties.html plagiarised from source: >1% around the outside wall of the1. http://community.cookinglight.com/archive/index.php/t-23129.html plagiarised from source: >1% around the outside wall of the1. http://orion.mscc.huji.ac.il/symposiums/4th/papers/Schiffman99.html plagiarised from source: >1% around the outside wall of the1. https://nagashakti.wordpress.com/2011/03/18/the-tuning-of-tibetan-singing-bowls/ plagiarised from source: >1% around the outside wall of the1. http://www.ck12.org/physical-science/Screw-in-Physical-Science/lesson/Screw/ plagiarised from source: >1% around the outside wall of the1. http://www.uesp.net/wiki/Skyrim:Thalmor_Embassy plagiarised from source: >1% around the outside wall of the1. https://www.reddit.com/r/DestinyTheGame/comments/2maq3k/i_found_a_way_though_the_walls_of_the_vault_o f/ plagiarised from source: >1%
  55. 55. around the outside wall of the1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corpus_cavernosum_penis plagiarised from source: >1% around the outside wall of the1. http://www.ijfeat.org/papers/march37.pdf plagiarised from source: >1% models produced by 20 manufacturers." The first front steering tricycle1. http://crescentok.com/staff/jaskew/isr/botzo/class5.htm plagiarised from source: >1% The choice is not clear1.
  56. 56. G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING Appendix D Product Drafting Exercise PDE (BMC)
  57. 57. GIC Patent Drafting Exercise Team ID: FORM 1 THE PATENTS ACT 1970 (39 OF 1970) & THE PATENTS RULES, 2003 APPLICATION FOR GRANT OF PATENT (FOR OFFICE USE ONLY) Application No: Filing Date: Amount of Fee paid: CBR No: GTU Innovation Council Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) 14934 1. Applicant(s) : ID Name Nationality Address Mobile No. Email Sahil Jitesh . GTU 9408086200 sahiljitesh@hotm ail.com Indian1 Anand Maheshbhai Oza GTU 8238094145 ozaanand001@g mail.com Indian2 Sanjay Dhirubhai Malankiya GTU 7405375853 piyushmalankiya @gmail.com Indian3 2. Inventor(s): This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 1 of 5
  58. 58. Mobile No. EmailAddressNationalityNameID Sahil Jitesh . GTU 9408086200 sahiljitesh@hot mail.com Indian1 Anand Maheshbhai Oza GTU 8238094145 ozaanand001@ gmail.com Indian2 Sanjay Dhirubhai Malankiya GTU 7405375853 piyushmalankiy a@gmail.com Indian3 3. Title of Invention/Project: Design And Stability Of Recumbent Tricycle 4. Address for correspondence of applicant/authorized patent agent in india Name: Address: Mobile: Email ID: Sahil Jitesh . Mechanical Engineering , G. K. Bharad Institute Of Engineering, Kasturba Dham, Rajkot , Gujarat Technological University. 9408086200 sahiljitesh@hotmail.com 5. Priority particulars of the application(S) field in convention country Name of the Applicant Title of the InventionFiling DateApplication No.Country N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A 6. Particulars for filing patent co-operation treaty (pct) national phase Application International application number International filing date as alloted by the receiving office N/A N/A This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 2 of 5
  59. 59. 7. Particulars for filing divisional application Original(First) Application Number Date of filing of Original (first) application N/A N/A 8. Particulars for filing patent of addition Original(First) Application Number Date of filing of Original (first) application N/A N/A 9. DECLARATIONS: (i) Declaration by the inventor(s) I/We, the above named inventor(s) is/are true & first inventor(s) for this invention and declare that the applicant(s). herein is/are my/our assignee or legal representative. Date : 30 - April - 2015 Signature & DateName 1 Sahil Jitesh . 2 Anand Maheshbhai Oza 3 Sanjay Dhirubhai Malankiya (ii) Declaration by the applicant(s) in the convention country I/We, the applicant(s) hereby declare(s) that:- (iii) Declaration by the applicant(s) I/We, the applicant (s) in the convention country declare that the applicant(s) herein is/are my/our assignee or legal representative.applicant(s) This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 3 of 5
  60. 60. I am/We in possession of the above mentioned invention. The provisional/complete specification relating to the invention is filed with this aplication. The invention as disclosed in the spcification uses the biological material from India and the necessary permission from the competent authority shall be submitted by me/us before the grant of patent to me/us. There is no lawful ground of objection to the grant of the patent to me/us. I am/we are the assignee or the legal representative of true & first inventors. The application or each of the application,particulars of each are given in the para 5 was the first applicatin in the convention country/countries in respect of my/our invention. The application or each of the application,particulars of each are given in the para 5 was the first applicatin in the convention country/countries in respect of my/our invention. I/we claim the priority from the above mentioned applications(s) filed in the convention country/countries & state that no application for protection in respect of invention had been made in a convention country before that date by me/us or by any person My/Our application in india is based on international application under Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) as mentioned in para 6 The application is divided out of my/our application(s) particulars of which are given in para 7 and pray that this application may be treated as deemed to have been filed on ___________under section 16 of the Act. The said invention is an improvement in or modification of the invention particulars of ehivh are given in para 8. (a) Provisional specification/Complete specification (b) Complete specification(In confirmation with the international application) / as amended before the international Preliminary Examination Authority (IPEA),as applicable(2 copies),No.of pages.....No.of claims..... (c) Drawings (In confirmation with the international application)/as amended before the international Preliminary Examination Authority(IPEA),as applicable(2 copies),No.of sheets.... (d) Priority documents (e) Translations of priority documents/specification/international search reports (f) Statement and undertaking on Form 3 (g) Power of Authority (h) Declaration of inventorship on Form 5 (i) Sequence listing in electronic Form (j) ........................................ Fees Rs.XXX in Cash /Cheque/Bank Draft bearin No.XXX Date: XXX on XXX Bank. 10. Following are the attachments with the application: I/We hereby declare that to the best of my /our knowledge, information and belief the fact and mtters stated herein are correct and I/We request that a patent may be granted to me/us for the said invention. Dated this 30 day of April , 2015 This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 4 of 5
  61. 61. Name Signature & Date 1 Sahil Jitesh . 2 Anand Maheshbhai Oza 3 Sanjay Dhirubhai Malankiya This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 5 of 5
  62. 62. GIC Patent Drafting Exercise Team ID: FORM 2 THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 (39 OF 1970) & THE PATENTS RULES, 2003 PROVISIONAL SPECIFICATION 14934 1. Title of the project/invention : Design And Stability Of Recumbent Tricycle Sahil Jitesh . , ( Indian ) Address :GTU Anand Maheshbhai Oza , ( Indian ) Address :GTU Sanjay Dhirubhai Malankiya , ( Indian ) Address :GTU 2. Applicant(s) : 3. Preamble to the description : The following specification describes the invention. This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 1 of 8
  63. 63. 4. Description : a. Field of Application / Project / Invention : Automobile field of project. Its a three wheel Tadpole configuration tricycle with the recumbent means of travel. b. Prior Art / Background of the Invention / References : A tricycle, often abbreviated to trike, is a three-wheeled vehicle, commonly human-powered. Tricycles are used by children and adults alike for their stability versus a bicycle. In the United States and Canada, adult-sized tricycles are used by senior adults for recreation, shopping, and exercise. In Asia and Africa, tricycles called pedicabs are used to transport passengers; tricycles are also used to transport freight and make deliveries. c. Summary of the Invention/Project : Recumbent Tricycle is used in order to incorporate both turning and tilting capabilities which minimize the inertia force on the rider and that ultimately improve performance and maneuverability of the vehicle. It is three wheel Tadpole Configuration for front steering control and maximum stability concerning. The rider is cable of maintaining overall control of the vehicle through a simple leaning motion which mimic a traditional bicycle. d. Objects of the Invention/Project : The rider does not need to disengage from the pedals when stopped. The comfortable rider position reduces strain to the riders body. Recumbent trikes are very well suited for long distance touring. Recumbent trikes may also be more suitable for people with balance or limb disabilities. e. Drawing(s) : Trike View Isometric Seat Top side f. Description of the Invention A tricycle, often abbreviated to trike, is a three-wheeled vehicle, commonly human-powered. Tricycles are used by children and adults alike for their stability versus a bicycle. In the United States and Canada, adult-sized tricycles are used by senior adults for recreation, shopping, and exercise. In Asia and Africa, tricycles called pedicabs are used to transport passengers; tricycles are also used to transport freight and make deliveries. Recumbent Tricycle is used in order to incorporate both turning and tilting capabilities which minimize the inertia force on the rider and that ultimately improve performance and maneuverability of the vehicle. It is three wheel Tadpole Configuration for front steering control and maximum stability concerning. The rider is cable of maintaining overall control of the vehicle through a simple leaning motion which mimic a traditional bicycle. This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 2 of 8
  64. 64. g. Examples h. Unique Features of the Project The rider is cable of maintaining overall control of the vehicle through a simple leaning motion which mimic a traditional bicycle. 5. Date & Signature : Date : 30 - April - 2015 Sign and Date Sahil Jitesh . Sign and Date Anand Maheshbhai Oza Sign and Date Sanjay Dhirubhai Malankiya 6. Abstract of the project / invention : Recumbent cycles began emerging in the early 1900’s as a method of improving the rider’s ability to transmit power ergonomically and reach higher sustained speeds. Over the course of the last century, many different types of recumbent cycles were designed and developed upon. Although most recumbent designs are similar to ordinary two-wheeled bicycles, they typically have a lower centre of gravity, causing stability problems at lower speeds. If an effort to improve the stability and control of recumbent cycles, the addition of a third wheel became popular as a method to distribute the weight of the rider. Initial tricycle designs used two wheels in the rear and one in the front; however, there are inherent stability problems with this design while cornering at high speeds. Considering the advantages of recumbent cycles for ergonomic performance, these vehicles present an excellent mode of transportation for short to medium distance commuting. Therefore, the cycle is an excellent means for commuters to reduce energy consumption, lower traffic density, and maintain physical fitness. This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 3 of 8
  65. 65. Drawing Attachments : Trike View This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 4 of 8
  66. 66. Isometric This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 5 of 8
  67. 67. Seat This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 6 of 8
  68. 68. Top This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 7 of 8
  69. 69. side This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 8 of 8
  70. 70. GIC Patent Drafting Exercise Team ID: FORM 3 THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 (39 OF 1970) & THE PATENTS RULES, 2003 STATEMENT AND UNDERTAKING UNDER SECTION 8 14934 1. Declaration : Sahil Jitesh . , Anand Maheshbhai Oza , Sanjay Dhirubhai Malankiya , I/We, Sahil Jitesh . ( Indian ) Address : GTU Anand Maheshbhai Oza ( Indian ) Address : GTU Sanjay Dhirubhai Malankiya ( Indian ) Address : GTU 2. Name, Address and Nationality of the joint Applicant : Name of the Country Date of Application Application Number Status of the Application Date of Publication Date of Grant N/A N/A N/A N/AN/AN/A (i) that I/We have not made any application for the same/substantially the same invention outside India. (ii) that the right in the application(s) has/have been assigned to, Here by declare: (iii) that I/We undertake that up to the date of grant of patent by the Controller , I/We would keep him inform in writing the details regarding corresponding application(s) for patents filed outside India within 3 months from the date of filing of such application. Dated this 30 day of April , 2015. 3. Signature of Applicants : This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 1 of 2
  71. 71. Sign and Date Sahil Jitesh . Sign and Date Anand Maheshbhai Oza Sign and Date Sanjay Dhirubhai Malankiya To The Controller of Patent The Patent Office, at Mumbai. This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 2 of 2
  72. 72. G.K. BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING Appendix E Gantt Chart

×