Analysis of Advertisements


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Pragmatic analysis of advertisements. Introduction with Elaboration likelihood model.(psychological analysis of advertisements)
Whosoever see this slide, do watch this Nestle campaign #shareyourgoodness and Open Happiness campaign by coca cola.
Nestle campaign :
Coca Cola Campaign:

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Analysis of Advertisements

  1. 1. TOWARD A PRAGMATIC UNDERSTANDING OF ADVERTISEMENTS Advertising, Psychology and Pragmatics
  2. 2. Index • Introduction-Psychology of Advertising • Looking Beyond the frame • Why Pragmatics?-Discussions and Findings 1. Presuppositions 2. Emotional Appeals 3. Context 4. Intertexuality 5. Deixis 6. Conversational tone 7. Fuzziness • Conclusion
  3. 3. Introduction: Psychology of Advertising Psychology The scientific study of behavior and mental process. Advertisements A commercial appeal that is a form of communication designed to sell commodity or service Inform. Persuade. Influence
  4. 4. Persuasion – ELM Model Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) ELM identifies two ways a communication can be persuasive • The central route • The peripheral route The route which is taken is dependent upon the abilities of processing and motivation of the receiver.
  5. 5. Persuasion – ELM Model
  6. 6. Persuasion – ELM Model
  7. 7. Persuasion – ELM Model IGNORED CUES
  8. 8. An Example- Coca Cola First, Coca Cola asked you to believe in happier tomorrow. Now how you can have that happier tomorrow, by opening the bottle of coke implies “Open Happiness”
  9. 9. Looking beyond the Frame! True pragmatic analysis of advertisements requires “looking beyond the frame” of the media message – the individual TV commercial, news story or website, for example – to examine its context. Decoding the message! Nestle. #ShareYourGoodness When goodness is shared over food, life smiles. That’s why we pack goodness in all that we do.
  10. 10. Pragmatics Now, we will decode them or look beyond the frame using concepts of pragmatics and understand how advertisers are using these concepts to persuade and sell their product using central or peripheral route.
  11. 11. Presuppositions “a presupposition is something the speaker assumes to be the case prior to making an utterance. “ - Yule • Presuppositions are inferences about what is assumed • Presuppositions can be drawn even when there is little or no surrounding context
  12. 12. Presuppositions “ Just married ” underlines the “fusion” between the car and the road. This is the effective use of presupposition. So, it is All wheel drive. The first and natural presupposition we make is that the car belongs to a happily married couple, so maybe this could be a family car. BUT
  13. 13. Presuppositions !!!!!!!!!!!!! !!! !!! !!!!!!!! We find no text at all, but a long chain of exclamation marks. The idea that there are no words to express this amazement is implied, the public being given the possibility to fill in the blanks, presupposing, of course, that everything is extraordinary and out of the ordinary, out of the reach of language and of its capacities
  14. 14. Emotional appeals “a growing body of mood research suggests that feelings can change the nature of cognitive processing”. “if the emotional reaction is positive, more positive thoughts may be generated in response to the message of the ad, because the emotional reactions one has in response to an advertisement may influence what gets activated from memory” The applicability of this to the discourse of advertising is as follows:
  15. 15. Emotional appeals Etzioni states that even in the area of decision making one finds models that suggest that the basis for most decisions is emotional. If advertisers are capable of getting to know what people privately yearn for, they will have the best chance to arrest their attention and establish communication. Therefore, advertising is not just about the promotion of certain branded products or services, but “can also encompass the idea of texts whose intention is to enhance the image of an individual, group or organization”.
  16. 16. Emotional appeals
  17. 17. Context We speak about a certain context of the advertisement itself, of a context of the process of decoding the message and also of a context of the actual interpretation of the ad. We have to deal here with two concepts: ambiguity and vague terms But we need to remember these vague terms cannot be called ambiguous, but they remain in the sphere of the unclear, of the undetermined.
  18. 18. An ambiguous text usually draws the attention; it raises a question to be answered. The context may indeed clarify the discourse, as the receiver is allowed to “discover the mystery” Context
  19. 19. Context “ Lust, Envy, Jealousy. The dangers of a Volvo”. In this case, however, the advertisers chose to exploit “ dangers ” from the point of view of men and masculinity. The connection might be also made with women, case in which the temptations may take a sexual connotation. In both cases, however, the advertisement underlines characteristics of men and of the way they perceive a car.
  20. 20. Intertexuality The term “Intertextuality” refers to the way in which a text can make use of another one, by referring to it or by simply integrating it as a part. “ to be or not to be, that is the question ” is exploited by a sofa advertisement that transforms it into “ to buy or not to buy ”
  21. 21. This “ Is no longer the question ” here, as the incredible price clarifies it. The guarantee comes directly from Horatio, “ interest free, Horatio ”. The quotation is central on a specially created background image that integrates the nowadays sofa into a shakespearean atmosphere. The central text is definitely meant to draw the attention, exploiting the popularity of the phrase. Intertexuality
  22. 22. Deixis The term “deixis‟ in pragmatics underlines, once again, the relationship between language and context. This becomes even more important if we speak of a pragmatic view on advertisements, as they code and decode messages in context. As a general view on them, deictic word and structures usually refer to demonstratives and personal pronouns, time and place adverbs, tenses, etc.
  23. 23. Images in advertisements may also contribute to building together elements of reference. Deixis The text of advertisement on the left underlines, through the use of deixis, the way the addressee, potential user of the Roman showers is individualized among the others. The bathroom is the setting, where the four ducklings are not enjoying a swim in the water, but leaving, as “ not Everyone welcomes our latest range of showers ”. The use of deixis helps differentiating, as we can see, between : (1) the company (the advertiser) ; (2) you, the one who can take a choice : to join us or (3) that “someone”, the other, who is left behind by the latest inventions.
  24. 24. Deixis The discourse in the next Toyota advertisement also makes use of deixis ; in this case, the main distinction refers to the time reference. The new Toyota Corolla changed the situation : if we previously could sometimes use an excuse not to visit his mum‟s, after having bought the Corolla, this was no longer possible. Both verbs are in the past but the distinction is made by the adverb “ then ”. This one marks the boundary between what we could call, in the humorous tone of the advertisement itself, the period before and after Corolla. “We could sometimes avoid going to mum’s by pretending the car wouldn’t start. Then we got the Corolla.”
  25. 25. The conversational tone The advertising discourse often appears as a dialogue which involves both parts in the conversation. The same discourse may be apparently imagined as a monologue, but a dialogue is most of the times implied. In both cases, the addressee is directly involved in the conversation, an appeal being made to his/her own interests, emotions, knowledge.
  26. 26. The conversational tone Mazda advertisement suggests two options: “tread the same road” or “ blaze a trail ”. The first one is simply not as interesting as the second The first option may be characteristic to the many, to the majority, while the second is just for you. A need is created this way, as the one driving the Mazda naturally stands out, “ blazing a trail ” .
  27. 27. The conversational tone Lots of AIESEC advertisements make use of the same strategies. The advertising techniques of this student organization underline elements of the brand promise : “ Are you swimming with the stream or creating a wave ? ”, “ Are you reading case studies or developing global strategies ? ”, “ Are you looking for a summer job or a life changing experience ? ” In this case, the question is directly addressed to the receiver ( “ are you ” ), it refers to his/her present situation (the use of present continuous) and advertises the offer of the organization that definitely stands out.
  28. 28. Fuzziness in Advertising English “Fuzziness” as a special form of communication, the commercial advertisements are actually a kind of persuasive speech act, aiming to persuade the potential consumers to accept and buy the advertised products or services.
  29. 29. Fuzziness in Advertising English There are several reasons for advertisers to employ fuzziness in advertising language. One of the reasons is the existence of various supervising organization, such as the Advertising Authority in Britain or the American Federal Trade Commission, which regulate what advertisers can say and how they should say. It is generally believed that the appropriate use of fuzzy expressions in advertising language may bring direct and indirect profits to the producers and advertisers. Under this circumstance, fuzziness is a useful help.
  30. 30. Fuzziness and Politeness Principle Fuzzy language may be a good way because they have no definite boundaries and can be understood favorably when appropriately used. For example:  Go the Green and Gold!!Over$15 million worth of prizes could be won! (McDonald)- Tact Maxim  With America’s best warranty, we see a very long life in your future. (Hyundai) - Generosity Maxim  Just like you, we care about how your kids feel. (Johnson&Johnson Skincare) - Approbation Maxim  Just slightly ahead of our times. (Panasonic) - Agreement Maxim  My son is homophobic, but I hope it’s just a phase. (an advertisement for Terrence Higgin Trust). -Modesty Maxim
  31. 31. Fuzziness It is the taste. (an advertisement for Nescafe) It is the slogan that makes the Nescafe wide- spread all over the world and brings Nestle Company considerable profit. The advertiser’s purpose is to inform the audience the superior quality of his product and then persuade or influence the target audience to purchase the product. On the basis of these assumptions, the audience become aware of the fact that the advertiser is speaking highly of, not criticizing or depreciating his product, and want the audience to share the advantages of the product.
  32. 32. Conclusion The pragmatic dimensions of face-to-face interaction are constituted in commercials. • commercials patently and selectively use pragmatic devices of everyday talk. • commercials set up interactions with viewers, interactions which receive relatively little analytic attention. • fuzziness can make communication smooth and effective as precise language can do • Fuzziness functions irreplaceably and plays a positive role in human communication and advertising English. • The language of print advertising abounds with pragmatically- motivated phraseological units (PUs) such as: idioms, metaphors, slogans, proverbs, etc. In order to draw the reader’s attention, advertisers exploit the pragmatic potential of PUs
  33. 33. Thank You! “Pragmatics together with understanding of psychology helps advertisers to Inform. Persuade. Influence consumers“