3.1 constituency

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3.1 constituency

  1. 1. Constituency The basic units of sentence structure©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  2. 2. Meaning of a sentence is more than the sum of its words.©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  3. 3. Meaning of a sentence is more than the sum of its words. a. The puppy hit the rock©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  4. 4. Meaning of a sentence is more than the sum of its words. a. The puppy hit the rock b. The rock hit the puppy.©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  5. 5. Meaning of a sentence is more than the sum of its words. a. The puppy hit the rock b. The rock hit the puppy. c. The + puppy + hit + the +rock ≠ the + rock + hit + the + puppy. (cf. 2 + 3 = 3 + 2)©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  6. 6. Meaning of a sentence is more than the sum of its words. a. The puppy hit the rock b. The rock hit the puppy. c. The + puppy + hit + the +rock ≠ the + rock + hit + the + puppy. (cf. 2 + 3 = 3 + 2) This fact is captured by the notion that sentences have internal structure©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  7. 7. Another argument for structure: Yes/No questions©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  8. 8. Another argument for structure: Yes/No questions Yes/no questions can be answered by “yes” or “no” or “maybe”©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  9. 9. Another argument for structure: Yes/No questions Yes/no questions can be answered by “yes” or “no” or “maybe” Bear with me, I’m going to run this using the scientific method, and I have a particular set of hypotheses to run through!©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  10. 10. Another argument for structure: Yes/No questions©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  11. 11. Another argument for structure: Yes/No questions Remember: The S.M. requires that we always go with the simplest hypothesis consistent with the data we have. (Occam’s razor)©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  12. 12. Another argument for structure: Yes/No questions Remember: The S.M. requires that we always go with the simplest hypothesis consistent with the data we have. (Occam’s razor) Let’s start with the assumption that there is no structure, and sentences are just a linear string of words. Now consider the following pair of sentences.©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  13. 13. Structure©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  14. 14. Structure Consider the following sentences: a. Dave can’t eat chocolate covered almonds. b. Can’t Dave eat chocolate covered almonds?©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  15. 15. Structure Consider the following sentences: a. Dave can’t eat chocolate covered almonds. b. Can’t Dave eat chocolate covered almonds? Hypothesis # 1 To form a yes/no question move the 2nd word to the front of the sentence.©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  16. 16. Structure©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  17. 17. Structure Hypothesis # 1 To form a yes/no question move the 2nd word to the front of the sentence©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  18. 18. Structure Hypothesis # 1 To form a yes/no question move the 2nd word to the front of the sentence Problem: a. The TA can’t eat chocolate covered almonds. b. *TA the can’t eat chocolate covered almonds?©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  19. 19. Structure Hypothesis # 1 To form a yes/no question move the 2nd word to the front of the sentence Problem: a. The TA can’t eat chocolate covered almonds. b. *TA the can’t eat chocolate covered almonds? Hypothesis #2 To form a yes/no question move the verb to the front of the sentence©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  20. 20. Structure©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  21. 21. Structure Hypothesis # 2 To form a yes/no question move the verb to the front of the sentence.©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  22. 22. Structure Hypothesis # 2 To form a yes/no question move the verb to the front of the sentence. Problem: a. The TA ate chocolate covered almonds. b. *Ate the TA chocolate covered almonds.©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  23. 23. Structure Hypothesis # 2 To form a yes/no question move the verb to the front of the sentence. Problem: a. The TA ate chocolate covered almonds. b. *Ate the TA chocolate covered almonds. Hypothesis #3 To form a yes/no question move the auxiliary to the front of the sentence©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  24. 24. Structure©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  25. 25. Structure Hypothesis #3 To form a yes/no question move the auxiliary to the front of the sentence©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  26. 26. Structure Hypothesis #3 To form a yes/no question move the auxiliary to the front of the sentence Problem: a. The TA has been eating chocolate covered almonds. b. *Been the TA has eating chocolate covered almonds?©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  27. 27. Structure Hypothesis #3 To form a yes/no question move the auxiliary to the front of the sentence Problem: a. The TA has been eating chocolate covered almonds. b. *Been the TA has eating chocolate covered almonds? Hypothesis #4 To form a yes/no question move the first auxiliary to the front of the sentence©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  28. 28. Structure©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  29. 29. Structure Hypothesis #4 To form a yes/no question move the first auxiliary to the front of the sentence©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  30. 30. Structure Hypothesis #4 To form a yes/no question move the first auxiliary to the front of the sentence Problem: a. The TA who is here can eat chocolate covered almonds. b. *Is the TA here can eat chocolate covered almonds? c. (cf. Can the TA who is here eat chocolate covered almonds?)©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  31. 31. Structure Hypothesis #4 To form a yes/no question move the first auxiliary to the front of the sentence Problem: a. The TA who is here can eat chocolate covered almonds. b. *Is the TA here can eat chocolate covered almonds? c. (cf. Can the TA who is here eat chocolate covered almonds?) What’s the problem here? The first auxiliary is part of the subject of the sentence: [The TA who is here] can eat chocolate covered almonds©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  32. 32. Structure©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  33. 33. Structure Hypothesis 5 To form a yes/no question move the first auxiliary after the subject to the front of the sentence©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  34. 34. Structure Hypothesis 5 To form a yes/no question move the first auxiliary after the subject to the front of the sentence We require a notion where there is internal structure to the sentence: We need a notion of what the subject is: which words are in the subject and which words aren’t.©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  35. 35. Structure Hypothesis 5 To form a yes/no question move the first auxiliary after the subject to the front of the sentence We require a notion where there is internal structure to the sentence: We need a notion of what the subject is: which words are in the subject and which words aren’t. There is an alternative hypothesis (move the main clause auxiliary to the front) but this again requires a notion of internal structure: we need to be able to distinguish which words are just in the main clause from those in relative clauses.©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  36. 36. Internal structure is represented by the notion of Constituent©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  37. 37. A Constituent is any unit of internal syntactic structure. (i.e., a group of words functioning as a unit) [The TA who is here] can eat chocolate. Bracketing (as above) is one of two notations for representing, or marking, constituents. (The other is tree notation, which we’ll formally cover next week).©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  38. 38. Constituents represent semantically related material©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  39. 39. Constituents represent semantically related material In the sentence:©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  40. 40. Constituents represent semantically related material In the sentence: The elephant snorted a bowl of peanuts©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  41. 41. Constituents represent semantically related material In the sentence: The elephant snorted a bowl of peanuts There is the intuition that the & elephant are more closely related than peanuts and snorted.©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  42. 42. Constituents represent semantically related material In the sentence: The elephant snorted a bowl of peanuts There is the intuition that the & elephant are more closely related than peanuts and snorted. This intuition is captured with constituency©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  43. 43. Constituent©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  44. 44. Constituent Constituent is a group of words that functions as a unit.©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  45. 45. Constituent Constituent is a group of words that functions as a unit. The elephant snorted the bowl of peanuts©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  46. 46. Constituent Constituent is a group of words that functions as a unit. The elephant snorted the bowl of peanuts©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  47. 47. Constituent Constituent is a group of words that functions as a unit. The elephant snorted the bowl of peanuts©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  48. 48. Constituent Constituent is a group of words that functions as a unit. The elephant snorted the bowl of peanuts©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  49. 49. Constituent Constituent is a group of words that functions as a unit. The elephant snorted the bowl of peanuts©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  50. 50. Constituent Constituent is a group of words that functions as a unit. The elephant snorted the bowl of peanuts©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  51. 51. Constituency Tests: Modification©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  52. 52. Constituency Tests: Modification If one word modifies (limits the meaning of) another, then they are probably part of the same constituent. I bought a red balloon ‘a’ and ‘red’ both modify ‘balloon’ so they are all part of the same constituent: [a red balloon]©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  53. 53. Constituency Tests: Movement©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  54. 54. Constituency Tests: Movement If you can move a group of words, they are functioning as a unit—and are a constituent:©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  55. 55. Constituency Tests: Movement If you can move a group of words, they are functioning as a unit—and are a constituent: Clefting: It is/was __________ that …©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  56. 56. Constituency Tests: Movement If you can move a group of words, they are functioning as a unit—and are a constituent: Clefting: It is/was __________ that … It was [a brand new car] that he bought©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  57. 57. Constituency Tests: Movement If you can move a group of words, they are functioning as a unit—and are a constituent: Clefting: It is/was __________ that … It was [a brand new car] that he bought Preposing: [Big bowls of beans] are what I like.©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  58. 58. Constituency Tests: Movement If you can move a group of words, they are functioning as a unit—and are a constituent: Clefting: It is/was __________ that … It was [a brand new car] that he bought Preposing: [Big bowls of beans] are what I like. Passive: [The big boy] was kissed by the slobbering dog.©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  59. 59. Constituency Tests: Movement If you can move a group of words, they are functioning as a unit—and are a constituent: Clefting: It is/was __________ that … It was [a brand new car] that he bought Preposing: [Big bowls of beans] are what I like. Passive: [The big boy] was kissed by the slobbering dog. There are other kinds of movement!©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  60. 60. Constituency Tests: Replacement©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  61. 61. Constituency Tests: Replacement If you can replace a group of words with a single word (keeping the meaning roughly the same) then they form a constituent:©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  62. 62. Constituency Tests: Replacement If you can replace a group of words with a single word (keeping the meaning roughly the same) then they form a constituent: I’ve always loved [the man in a natty suit]©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  63. 63. Constituency Tests: Replacement If you can replace a group of words with a single word (keeping the meaning roughly the same) then they form a constituent: I’ve always loved [the man in a natty suit] I’ve always loved [John]©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  64. 64. Constituency Tests: Replacement If you can replace a group of words with a single word (keeping the meaning roughly the same) then they form a constituent: I’ve always loved [the man in a natty suit] I’ve always loved [John] I’ve always loved [him]©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  65. 65. Constituency Tests: Pro-form Replacement©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  66. 66. Constituency Tests: Pro-form Replacement If you can replace a group of words with a pro- form (pronoun, pro-verb, pro-adjective etc.) (keeping the meaning roughly the same) then they form a constituent:©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  67. 67. Constituency Tests: Pro-form Replacement If you can replace a group of words with a pro- form (pronoun, pro-verb, pro-adjective etc.) (keeping the meaning roughly the same) then they form a constituent: I’ve always loved [the man in a natty suit]©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  68. 68. Constituency Tests: Pro-form Replacement If you can replace a group of words with a pro- form (pronoun, pro-verb, pro-adjective etc.) (keeping the meaning roughly the same) then they form a constituent: I’ve always loved [the man in a natty suit] I’ve always loved [him]©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  69. 69. Constituency Tests: Pro-form Replacement If you can replace a group of words with a pro- form (pronoun, pro-verb, pro-adjective etc.) (keeping the meaning roughly the same) then they form a constituent: I’ve always loved [the man in a natty suit] I’ve always loved [him] Susan [bought a truck with mag wheels]©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  70. 70. Constituency Tests: Pro-form Replacement If you can replace a group of words with a pro- form (pronoun, pro-verb, pro-adjective etc.) (keeping the meaning roughly the same) then they form a constituent: I’ve always loved [the man in a natty suit] I’ve always loved [him] Susan [bought a truck with mag wheels] Susan [did (so) too)©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  71. 71. Constituency Tests: Ellipsis©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  72. 72. Constituency Tests: Ellipsis This is a special constituency test for a constituent called a Verb Phrase (VP). If an item is a VP, then it can be deleted under (near) identity with another VP©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  73. 73. Constituency Tests: Ellipsis This is a special constituency test for a constituent called a Verb Phrase (VP). If an item is a VP, then it can be deleted under (near) identity with another VP Bill [found a gold nugget in the stream] but I don’t think John will [find a gold nugget in the stream]©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  74. 74. Constituency Tests: Stand Alone (sentence fragment)©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  75. 75. Constituency Tests: Stand Alone (sentence fragment) Can the group of words serve as a sentence fragment in response to a question?©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  76. 76. Constituency Tests: Stand Alone (sentence fragment) Can the group of words serve as a sentence fragment in response to a question?©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  77. 77. Constituency Tests: Stand Alone (sentence fragment) Can the group of words serve as a sentence fragment in response to a question? Q: What did Heidi buy at the flea market?©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  78. 78. Constituency Tests: Stand Alone (sentence fragment) Can the group of words serve as a sentence fragment in response to a question? Q: What did Heidi buy at the flea market? A: [A bag of moldy vacuum cleaner parts]©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  79. 79. Constituency Tests: Stand Alone (sentence fragment) Can the group of words serve as a sentence fragment in response to a question? Q: What did Heidi buy at the flea market? A: [A bag of moldy vacuum cleaner parts]©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  80. 80. Constituency Tests: Stand Alone (sentence fragment) Can the group of words serve as a sentence fragment in response to a question? Q: What did Heidi buy at the flea market? A: [A bag of moldy vacuum cleaner parts] Q: What did Heidi do at the fleamarket?©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  81. 81. Constituency Tests: Stand Alone (sentence fragment) Can the group of words serve as a sentence fragment in response to a question? Q: What did Heidi buy at the flea market? A: [A bag of moldy vacuum cleaner parts] Q: What did Heidi do at the fleamarket? A: [Buy some cheap T-shirts]©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  82. 82. Constituency Tests: Stand Alone (sentence fragment) Can the group of words serve as a sentence fragment in response to a question? Q: What did Heidi buy at the flea market? A: [A bag of moldy vacuum cleaner parts] Q: What did Heidi do at the fleamarket? A: [Buy some cheap T-shirts]©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  83. 83. Constituency Tests: Stand Alone (sentence fragment) Can the group of words serve as a sentence fragment in response to a question? Q: What did Heidi buy at the flea market? A: [A bag of moldy vacuum cleaner parts] Q: What did Heidi do at the fleamarket? A: [Buy some cheap T-shirts] Q: Where did Heidi put them?©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  84. 84. Constituency Tests: Stand Alone (sentence fragment) Can the group of words serve as a sentence fragment in response to a question? Q: What did Heidi buy at the flea market? A: [A bag of moldy vacuum cleaner parts] Q: What did Heidi do at the fleamarket? A: [Buy some cheap T-shirts] Q: Where did Heidi put them? A: [In the back of her car]©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  85. 85. Constituency Tests: Conjunction©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  86. 86. Constituency Tests: Conjunction If the group of words can be coordinated (or conjoined) with another string, then it is a constituent of the same type: [John] and [the man] went to the store *[John] and [very blue] went to the store©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  87. 87. Constituency Tests: Conjunction If the group of words can be coordinated (or conjoined) with another string, then it is a constituent of the same type: [John] and [the man] went to the store *[John] and [very blue] went to the store LINGUISTICS GENERAL’S WARNING: There are a *lot* of situations where the conjunction test will give you false results. Use it sparingly and with caution! (See textbook for details.)©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  88. 88. Caution:©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  89. 89. Caution: The constituency tests are NOT fool proof. You should always apply at least two to any given string of words, just in case you have got false results for some reason.©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  90. 90. John [eats at really fancy restaurants]©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  91. 91. John [eats at really fancy restaurants] Stand Alone? What does John do in his spare time? Eat at really fancy restaurants.©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  92. 92. John [eats at really fancy restaurants] Stand Alone? What does John do in his spare time? Eat at really fancy restaurants. Replace by a Pro-form (pronoun, pro-verb)? John [eats at really fancy restaurants] and Bill [does (so) too]©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  93. 93. John [eats at really fancy restaurants] Stand Alone? What does John do in his spare time? Eat at really fancy restaurants. Replace by a Pro-form (pronoun, pro-verb)? John [eats at really fancy restaurants] and Bill [does (so) too] Move? Eating at really fancy restaurants, that’s John’s favorite pastime. I told John to eat at really fancy restaurants, and [eat at really fancy restaurants] he will!©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  94. 94. John [eats at really] fancy restaurants©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  95. 95. John [eats at really] fancy restaurants Stand Alone? What does John do in his spare time? *Eat at really.©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  96. 96. John [eats at really] fancy restaurants Stand Alone? What does John do in his spare time? *Eat at really. Replace by a Pro-form (pronoun, proverb)? *John [eats at really] fancy restaurants and Bill [does so too] fancy restaurants©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  97. 97. John [eats at really] fancy restaurants Stand Alone? What does John do in his spare time? *Eat at really. Replace by a Pro-form (pronoun, proverb)? *John [eats at really] fancy restaurants and Bill [does so too] fancy restaurants Move? *Eating at really, that’s John’s favorite pastime. *Eating at really is what John does fancy restaurants.©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  98. 98. Constituents are hierarchically organized TP The man eats at fancy restaurants. NP VP D N V PP The man eats P NP at AdjP N fancy restaurants©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  99. 99. Constituents are hierarchically organized TP The man eats at fancy restaurants. NP VP D N V PP The man eats P NP at AdjP N fancy restaurants [TP [NP[DThe] [Nman]] [VP [Veats] [PP [Pat] [NP [Adjfancy] [Nrestaurants]]]]]©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  100. 100. Summary: Constituency©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  101. 101. Summary: Constituency Constituent: A group of words that functions as a unit.©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  102. 102. Summary: Constituency Constituent: A group of words that functions as a unit. Captures judgments about the relatedness of words, and about the hierarchical structure of sentences©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  103. 103. Summary: Constituency©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  104. 104. Summary: Constituency Constituency tests: Modification Movement Replacement (single word & pro-form) Ellipsis (for VPs) Stand Alone (Sentence Fragment) Co-ordination/Conjunction©Andrew Carnie, 2006
  105. 105. Summary: Constituency Constituency tests: Modification Movement Replacement (single word & pro-form) Ellipsis (for VPs) Stand Alone (Sentence Fragment) Co-ordination/Conjunction Tests are NOT infallible. Use more than 1!©Andrew Carnie, 2006

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