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Saeed esmailian 
Roshanak mohammadi
The Crusades 
History’s 
Most 
Successful 
FAILURE
Background 
• During the Middle Ages 
the Catholic Church had 
risen in power 
• After the fall of Rome, 
the Eastern port...
Many were uncertain where life 
would lead them and many tragic 
events lead people to have a higher 
believe in GOD (Rise...
Background- 
Causes 
• Jerusalem was a holy 
land for the Christians 
and each year many come 
to visit (pilgrimages) 
• T...
Causes of the Crusades 
Muslim Turks 
captured Jerusalem 
from the Byzantine 
Empire 
Muslims stopped 
Christians from 
Vi...
Jerusalem 
•
Pope Urban II and his call 
• 1093- Byzantine Emperor 
Alexius wanted help to 
save Constantinople from 
Turks  asks Chur...
GOAL: 
Crusades  recapture the 
holy land from Muslims
Who Answered the Call? 
•Feudal Lords 
•Knights 
•Peasants
Map of Crusades
1st Crusade- 1096 
• Crusaders capture Jerusalem 
• 1187- Jerusalem falls back to Muslim 
rule
Crusade # 2 
• Fails to recapture city
Third Crusade 
• Led by Richard the Lionhearted- 
King of England 
– Despite war, eventually they came 
to a truce with Sa...
The Crusades = 7-8 total 
• The next 4 were unsuccessful in 
recapturing city. 
• But there were other crusades….
Children’s Crusade 
- 1212 
• 20,000 – 
30,000 
children went 
out 
– Most died of 
disease, 
starvation and 
others were ...
Spanish Crusade- The 
Inquisition 1400 
• kick Muslims/ non Christians 
out of Spain 
• Reconquisita- Re –conquering of 
S...
Why did the Crusades fail? 
• After the 1st attempt, each attempt 
was weaker with less emphasis on 
winning 
• People soo...
Results of the Crusades 
• I.F. Turks Traveled they would Trade 
• I = Improvements – Ships, Maps, Explorers 
• F = Feudal...
Effects of Crusades 
• Showed power of Church 
• Increased trading between East and 
West 
--> will lead to massive Cultur...
Effect of Crusades 
• Increased trading helped business 
flourish 
• Merchants increased
Banking is fixed 
• Fixing the “coinage” problem: 
• -Merchants developed notes of credit
Thanks!!! 
• Any question? 
• For more informations and sildes ypu can email to 
jades144@yahoo.com
Refrences: 
• Constable, Giles. "The Historiography of the Crusades" in 
Angeliki E. Laiou, ed. The Crusades from the Pers...
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The crusades final

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about crusades history by Iranian research in the English literature

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The crusades final

  1. 1. Saeed esmailian Roshanak mohammadi
  2. 2. The Crusades History’s Most Successful FAILURE
  3. 3. Background • During the Middle Ages the Catholic Church had risen in power • After the fall of Rome, the Eastern portion of the Empire became known as the Byzantine Empire
  4. 4. Many were uncertain where life would lead them and many tragic events lead people to have a higher believe in GOD (Rise of Christianity)
  5. 5. Background- Causes • Jerusalem was a holy land for the Christians and each year many come to visit (pilgrimages) • The Seljuk Turks (Muslims) controlled that land and the amount of visitors grew too much that they began not allowing visitors • It was also believed that the increase in Muslim power would threaten the Byzantine Capital of Constantinople
  6. 6. Causes of the Crusades Muslim Turks captured Jerusalem from the Byzantine Empire Muslims stopped Christians from Visiting Holy Land Christian pilgrims were attacked Byzantine Empire feared attack on Constantinople
  7. 7. Jerusalem •
  8. 8. Pope Urban II and his call • 1093- Byzantine Emperor Alexius wanted help to save Constantinople from Turks  asks Church • 1095- Pope Urban II issues a call for a “holy” war or Crusade to capture the Holy land (Palestine) back from Muslims – Pope assured that those that die in Crusade will have a place in Heaven
  9. 9. GOAL: Crusades  recapture the holy land from Muslims
  10. 10. Who Answered the Call? •Feudal Lords •Knights •Peasants
  11. 11. Map of Crusades
  12. 12. 1st Crusade- 1096 • Crusaders capture Jerusalem • 1187- Jerusalem falls back to Muslim rule
  13. 13. Crusade # 2 • Fails to recapture city
  14. 14. Third Crusade • Led by Richard the Lionhearted- King of England – Despite war, eventually they came to a truce with Saladin, leader of Muslims • Christians (unarmed) would be allowed in city
  15. 15. The Crusades = 7-8 total • The next 4 were unsuccessful in recapturing city. • But there were other crusades….
  16. 16. Children’s Crusade - 1212 • 20,000 – 30,000 children went out – Most died of disease, starvation and others were sold to slavery
  17. 17. Spanish Crusade- The Inquisition 1400 • kick Muslims/ non Christians out of Spain • Reconquisita- Re –conquering of Spain • Inquisition – court used to suppress heresy (anyone different from teachings of Church) • Like a witch hunt against those not Christians
  18. 18. Why did the Crusades fail? • After the 1st attempt, each attempt was weaker with less emphasis on winning • People soon became about making money and getting goods • Stealing from Byzantine and Islamic
  19. 19. Results of the Crusades • I.F. Turks Traveled they would Trade • I = Improvements – Ships, Maps, Explorers • F = Feudalism declines because Feudal lords die or spend too much money on military. • T = Turks still rule the Holy Land • T = Travel – Europeans want to travel more • T = Trade – Europeans want product from the East such as sugar, cotton, silk, spices, etc.
  20. 20. Effects of Crusades • Showed power of Church • Increased trading between East and West --> will lead to massive Cultural Diffusion • Lead to the Commercial Revolution • Muslim bitterness and hatred toward Christians • Constantinople (Istanbul) eventually falls to Turks
  21. 21. Effect of Crusades • Increased trading helped business flourish • Merchants increased
  22. 22. Banking is fixed • Fixing the “coinage” problem: • -Merchants developed notes of credit
  23. 23. Thanks!!! • Any question? • For more informations and sildes ypu can email to jades144@yahoo.com
  24. 24. Refrences: • Constable, Giles. "The Historiography of the Crusades" in Angeliki E. Laiou, ed. The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World (2001) Extract online. • Illston, James Michael. 'An Entirely Masculine Activity'? Women and War in the High and Late Middle Ages Reconsidered (MA thesis, University of Canterbury, 2009) full text online • Madden, Thomas F. ed. The Crusades: The Essential Readings (2002) • Maier, C.T. "The roles of women in the crusade movement: a survey" Journal of medieval history 2004. • Powell, James M. "The Crusades in Recent Research," The Catholic Historical Review (2009) 95#2 pp 313-19 in Project MUSE • Rubenstein, Jay. "In Search of a New Crusade: A Review

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