Breaking Barriers Uniting People Integrated Design Study

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Technical Report in support of the Design Portfolio, looking at the Cultural Context and Communication, Management Practice and Law, Environment and Sustainability, and Construction, Materials and Structures aspects of the proposed scheme.

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Breaking Barriers Uniting People Integrated Design Study

  1. 1. ADP026N Integrated Design Study Project ReportBreaking Barriers Uniting People Sadiqa Jabbar 01000566 Unit 6 2008/9
  2. 2. IntroductionCultural Context and CommunicationManagement Practice and LawEnvrionment and SustainabilityConstruction, Materials and StructuresBibliography Contents IDS Report
  3. 3. The enforcement of the physical barriers and external sociological issues has enclosed the Jagdamba Campfrom the ‘outside’ world, thus creating a self-sufficient tight-knit settlement. Many neighbouring communitiesdo not want to associate with Jagdamba. However, the one pastime that seems to unite people irrespective oftheir social class is the love for Bollywood movies. As one walks through the camp, and indeed the streets ofDelhi in general, the sound of Bollywood flows out of dwellings, vehicles and mobile phones alike.The site located on the junction of Panchsheel Vihar and Jagdamba Camp will become the hub of the community.By ‘Breaking barriers and uniting people’ the scheme proposes to create permanent healthcare facilities withina square that programmes an open air cinema, markets, celebrations, trade fairs, and other events on a daily,weekly or seasonal basis. Considering the high adult illiteracy and the number of school drop outs in the camp,the establishment of training academies offering vocational courses will provide people with practical incomegenerating skills. Introduction
  4. 4. Cultural Context and Communication Breaking Barriers Uniting People
  5. 5. Upon entering the settlement for the first Jagdamba Camp Khirki time one feels slightly overwhelmed at the narrowness of the streets, the alarmingly open Greenview DDA Panchsheel drains and the occasional drips from clothes Flats Extension on makeshift washing lines overhead. The Sheikh Sarai Phase 1 Site Boundary natural curiosity of the inhabitants initially expressed through uncertain smiles and Panchsheel Vihar nods of heads, soon turns into a cacophony of “Hellos” and vigorous shaking of hands. Once the arrival of a stranger becomes known it doesn’t take long before groups of friendly and excitable children gather round, as though appearing out of thin air, showering greetings and the unforgettable “One photo! One photo!”… Welcome to theIndia (NTS) Delhi (NTS) Jagdamba Camp, Sheikh Sarai, South Delhi! Large imposing boundary walls enclose the camp from the outside world, transforming Jagdamba into a world of its own. The dense settlement reaches 4 storeys in parts. A police station, government horticulture office and nursery, water treatment plant, Sheikh Sarai school and crematorium border the northern Phase 1 Chirag Dilli peripheries, while DDA flats, trade blocks and largely open land enclose the south. Walking through the narrow streets is an experience Naala which differs each time. The ground levels change as does the atmosphere of music, laughter, conversations and trade, which Lal Bahadur Shastri Marg serves the community within, as well as the area at large. Triveni JAGDAM DDA Flas BA CAM P Greenview oad DDA Flats ain R iM K hirk Sheikh Sarai Phase 2 Panchsheel a Naal Vihar Panchsheel Extension Khirki VillageJagdamba Camp, Sheikh Sarai, South Delhi (1:5000)Residential Communities Jagdamba Camp SHeikh Sarai, South Delhi, India
  6. 6. laughter water bo llyw ood anima ls ic brick ob aph str dirt clau open drains ht tig ge wa se nse de As one travels deeper into the settlement, the significance of sanitation, sewage, w rro healthcare and water supply becomes na increasingly apparent. The large open drains are health and safety hazards with annual monsoon flooding contaminating homes with raw sewage. There is a daily 2 hourcommunity slot for a fresh water supply from pumps located at various points within the camp. A Government rationing system for food and Government toilets exist, charging 1 rupee to use the toilet and 2 rupees for a shower. However, the corruption takes its toll and results in many young children going without. Consequently the communal streets and chowks are also used to cook, clean, bathe and as informal toilets. Political influences appear to prevent the improvement of the living conditions for the inhabitants, ranging from healthcare, sanitation and education, to land ownership. Politicians make their occasional visits to drum up support during the election periods. Yet the adult population remains largely illiterate and many teenagers often leave school to support their families. Despite their problems, the Jagdamba community remain ever welcoming to the unknown stranger. Jagdsamba Camp View from within
  7. 7. Social divide There is a social hierarchy within India based on a caste system introduced as a judicial system in medieval India. Although it is now fading out in cities it is still an issue in many villages today. Now regarded as social class, differentiation between people is still a major issue within the site as many people regard Jagdamba residents with disgust or pity. These invisible barriers surrounding Jagdamba add to the physical boundaries cutting them off from the ‘outside’ world. Jagdamba Camp Triveni DDA Flats Sheikh Sarai Phase 1 Panchsheel Vihar Khirki Panchsheel Extension Site BoundarySocial, Political, Economical and Professional Context
  8. 8. Men and WomenThere is a spatial difference in the use ofspaces between men and women. Themen are commonly seen in the streetsand bazaars, whether they are workingor travelling to and fro. They are in theforefront of public spaces. Women tend tobe working ‘behind-the-scenes’. They areusually within the house or as in Jagdambawithin the streets directly outside theirhomes socialising with family, friends andneighbours. There is some relationship withinside-outside, public-private spaces thatcould be genderised. One way of eliminatingthis stark differentiation is to introduce familyfriendly spaces that would allow women tofeel more comfortable out in the public. Itwould perhaps be a more socially acceptableway of integrating with society. Men Women Children
  9. 9. BollywoodWalking through the streets of Jagdambaand the peripheries, the sound of Bollywoodwas almost constant. It is the one commonthread which appeals to people from allsocial classes. It is a form of escapism fromeveryday life into a world of celebrities andglamour. The incorporation of a cinema withinthe scheme hopes to encourage people tointegrate and share spaces with people fromdifferent economic background.
  10. 10. HealthcareDue to the large open drains there is lackof sanitation which leads to many healthproblems. Washing, bathing, cooking anddefecating in one place have become theeveryday norm within the camp due to lackof sanitation facilities. By introducing healthawareness sessions and improving thefacilities available to the residents, healthrisks will reduce. Providing more readilyavailable healthcare may improve the qualityof life reducing the numbers of illnesses.Educating people with basic first aid andhealth awareness will enable minor lifestylechanges to improve hygiene.
  11. 11. EducationAdult literacy is an issue within the camp asmajority of adults have no skills in reading orwriting. Many cannot afford for their childrento go to school so many teenagers are forcedto leave school and either tend to roamaround streets or help maintain the home.Although talking to people within the campmany parents encourage their children tobe educated in order to improve their livingconditions.Within the camp skills such as metal work,blacksmith, carpenter, masonry and tailoringare common. This potentially has the solutionto provide an alternative educationalroute for those unable to afford academicschooling. Training in vocational skills hasthe potential to enable participants to earnwhile they learn, hence a form of invaluableeducation.
  12. 12. Squatter Settlements Squatter settlements tend to form around areas with convenient links to work and food. According to Dr Suri whom I met in India with a group of students during our field trip, they tend to be skill orientated. For example of a group of people may tend to form due to shared skills in pottery, weaving, masonry or tailoring. This group gradually expands until it becomes a cluster or in time a small town. The difference with a squatter settlement is that the people tend to settle on land which is not theirs and therefore becomes illegal. There is legislation which now allows some settlements to become legal, then authorised if they are lucky. The people migrating tend to be from villages coming to towns in the hope of finding work to provide an income for their families back home.Histories and Theories of Architecture and Urban Design
  13. 13. Chowks/Public SpacesIn India public spaces are not used in the waythey are in European countries. Rather thanuse a public square to meet and socialise,people tend to meet in each other’s houses,terraces or in the streets directly outsidetheir homes. The public square is usuallyused for trade or thoroughfare. The square inIndia is not loved and nurtured in the sameway as they are in European countries. Thereseemed to be an attitude of ‘it doesn’t belongto us so why should we care?’In order to draw people out and createa feeling of ownership, there has to bea programme which allows people tocongregate. The cultural divide betweenmen and women also inhibits the use of thesquare in much the same way as Europeansquares. Family orientated activities willallow for a more ‘socially acceptable’ mixbetween genders.
  14. 14. Gated CommunitiesThe social divide between the communitieson site are physically represented by gatedcompounds. The Greenview DDA apartmentshad only one entrance which is guarded by acouple of security guards. Anyone enteringmust have permission or be a resident.Jagdamba is in a way gated with twoentrances via alleyways only wide enoughfor an auto rickshaw at the largest. There is asense of security and privacy held by limitedaccess to the general public as any potentialcriminal can be caught with greater ease.
  15. 15. Boundaries, Thresholds and TransitionalSpacesThe treatment of the boundary betweenJagdamba Camp and the Greenview DDAApartments was a key issue. The sensitivityof creating a space that maintained a certainlevel of privacy and security for residentsof both communities was vital. Finding acommon ground for a shared space wassomething I needed to generate that wouldallow both groups of people to use the spacewithout feeling out of place or not belonging.My proposal was to create a chowk thatprovided services for potentially GreenviewResidents that were hosted by residents ofJagdamba. Under the natural canopies oftrees, this space has the potential to becomea place to congregate especially during thesummer or monsoon months when shadeand shelter will be sought after.The Chatri Chowk hence becomes atransitional space where the residents ofboth communities pass through to go to theSwades Chowk, bazaars or the health clinic.Trade also occurs in the Swades Arcadewhere one has the chance to shop beforeheading to the cinema or more bazaars inthe Swades Chowk and Naala route.The thresholds between the chowks aremarked by gateways or change in floorsurfacing.
  16. 16. Routes and Connections One of the themes of the scheme is the concept of routes and destinations. There are a few points where new routes are created linking one part of the site to the other, and others where old routes are reinstated. The road going towards the Naala is reinstated as is the road leading from the high street. These two routes create the axial connections which knit the scheme into the existing urban grid of Panchsheel Vihar.Jagdamba ResidentMrs Kumar, Flat No. 32 Greenview DDA ApartmentTailoring student and resident of new housing schemeGuide and ProjectionistPriest and Stall worker
  17. 17. The Indian HouseThe way that the house is used determinedthe units in the residential block. There isone multifunctional room where all thefamily activities take place eating, sleeping,entertaining and working. The bathroom islocated on the outskirts of the house, it beinglocated outside, away from the cleanlinessof the house. The toilets therefore becomeexternal blocks within the housing scheme.The kitchen and store rooms are the onlyother rooms provided for each apartment.Courtyard HousingRooms are orientated around a centralopen void which light and ventilation topass through into each room. The courtyardbecomes a private outdoor space forcommunal activity away from the publicview of ‘outsiders’.
  18. 18. Open Air Cinema The need to investigate how open air cinemas work was essential for the scheme. How is the seating organised, how many people are able to congregate in one space at a time? The projection screen and projector, the distances from the projector to the screen and all the technicalities involved. Indian open air cinemas essentially comprise of a projector and a screen. The seating is more haphazard as people tend to sit anywhere they find space. There is no formal seating as in a cinema auditorium. PVR Saket Block The cinema is situated on a plot of land organised into a series of chowks created by the spaces in between a number of Parking commercial and residential blocks. The clientele tend to be the middle class but a the basic concept of a cinema within the inem complex of markets, retail, and commercial PVR C environment was something to consider Block during the design stage of the scheme. It links back to the idea of the bazaar route Parking leading to a palace in the painting ‘A Marriage Retail Procession in a Bazaar’. Market Square Stalls Block Retail BlockBlock Square Retail Arca es Arcad des Block Square Retail Retail Retail Block Parking Parking Precedents
  19. 19. Fatehpur Sikri and the Jantar Mantar The level changes and views created by the Projectio complex were interesting. The level changes Choti within the scheme required the subtlety that Wall n was apparent within Fatehpur Sikri. The solid stairs leading to various levels were things considered when designing the route up toSwades Chowk the arcade terrace. The really step and narrow staircase within the Jantar Mantar inspired the development of the staircase – the idea of the stairs leading up to something ‘special’, i.e. the projection room and the terrace overlooking Swades Chowk. Water wells The water well in Mehrauli has an interesting archaic quality that could inspire the design of the amphitheatre seating in the cinema segment of Swades Chowk. One idea was for the seating to be used in many ways other than as seating for the cinema. The space could be used for meeting people, socialising with friends, having lunch while seated there. There is also the risk of flooding in this area so water collection is something to consider with the design of the space.
  20. 20. The major stakeholders within the schemewill be the Jagdamba and Greenviewresidents as they are the primary targets forthe scheme. The idea of a common threadconnecting these two communities was keyto the design of the open air cinema in theSwades Chowk. The Waste pickers withinthe site are important to the success of thescheme as they need to be relocated intothe new build housing block. The removalof their current slum houses is important forthe design scheme. The new build housingallows more floor space for each family withwashing facilities provided for each unit.The landowner of the empty plots will becrucial in the project. He is the one whowill allow for the development to takeplace. He could be the client for whom thedevelopment is commissioned from.Local trade workers are important to thescheme as they are the ideal people toundertake the construction of the buildingsunder the supervision of the chosencontractor. It will save the time and expenseof commuting workers travelling fromgreater distances.The Pradhan of Panchsheel Vihar is apotential stake holding partner as she mayhave the contacts required to proceed withthe scheme. She could be link with localPanchsheel Vihar residents and help withkeeping them onside during construction ofthe scheme. Stakeholders
  21. 21. Management, Practice and Law Breaking Barriers Uniting People
  22. 22. The Government does not seem to be able to do anything for the inhabitants of Jagdamba. There are toilets and showers they provide The Delhi Development for a fee but due to corruption many do not Authority was created in 1957 under the use them. Politicians tend to rally support provisions of the Delhi during election periods, filling the residents Development Act "to promote and secure with hope that their living conditions will the development of improve with the problems of education, Delhi " DDA has played a vital role in the orderly- water and sanitation being resolved. yet-rapid development of Delhi. The city has However most promises do not materialise become the residence of choice for more than 11 million people and this number continues to as an educated and satisfied voter is more of increase. a threat than an uneducated one who is in Delhi became the focus of government activity need. The more support one has the better in 1911 when the British shifted the capital the chances of staying in office. from Kolkata to Delhi. The initial location The Delhi Development Agency (DDA) is proposed for the Capital responsible for any built schemes within the was to the north of the Northern Ridge. It was city, equivalent to the GLA in London. All later changed to the present location around major pllanning issues go through the DDA. Raisina Hills. Renowned town planners Edward Lutyens and Herbert Baker planned the city of New The Municapl Corporation of Delhi (MCD) Delhi in the year 1912. In 1922 a tiny Nazul is the government body equivalent to Office, comprising of Local Authorities in London under whose 10 to 12 officials, was jurisdiction Jagdamba and neighouring set up in the Collectorate of Delhi, the first slums in Ward 11 are under. Jagdamba is a authority to regulate the known squatting zone under the MCD and it planned development of the city. is this body that provides the camp with the In 1937, the Nazul office was upgraded to an fee-based toilets and showers and applies Improvement Trust, constituted under the provisions of the United Provinces Improvement the rationing system for basic food. Act, 1911, to control building operations and regulate land usage. Indias Independence in 1947 and resultant Currently work is being undertaken to fill the migration increased Delhis population from 7 Naala with landfill commissioned by the DDA lakhs to 17 lakhs by 1951. Open spaces were occupied by migrants. Civic services virtually in preperation for the construction of a new collapsed. Delhi Improvement Trust and park, with exclusive access for the middle- Municipal Body, the two local bodies at that class thus cutting off the Jagdamba and time, were not adequately equipped to cope up with the changing scenario. Waste picker communities. Once again the In order to plan Delhi and to check its rapid and ghost of the social class system re-emerges. haphazard growth, the Central Government appointed a Committee A bottom-up approach to the development is under the chairmanship of Sh. G D. Birla in 1950. key to realising the scheme. Looking at it from This Committee the perspective of the local people is vital. A recommended a Single Planning & Controlling collection of small steps can contribute to Authority for all the urban areas of Delhi. enforcing a greater change to occur. So the Consequently, the Delhi Development (Provisional) Authority - DDPA - was constituted creation of the series of transitional spaces by promulgating the Delhi (Control of Building will allow for a more subtle approach to Operations) Ordinance, 1955 (replaced by the encourage integration between the various Delhi Development Act, 1957) with the primary objective of ensuring the development of Delhi communities located in around the site. in accordance with a plan.Then, on 30th December, 1957, DelhiDevelopment Authority acquired its presentname and its role as the 9th builder of the grandcity of Delhi. The Government
  23. 23. The term “LAL DORA” was used for the first time in the Ads by Google Jagdamba Camp is located on a Lal Dorayear 1908. It is a name classification given to that site. The term literally translates as ‘redpart of the village land which is part of the village Delhi apartments thread’. It means that no government has“Abadi” (Habitation). It was supposed to be used for Get flats/ homes/ apartments & more Great locations & Economical Pricesnon agricultural purpose only. It is that part of the land www.AxiomEstates.com any jurisdiction over what can/cannot bewhich was supposed to have been an extension of the built within the boundaries of the land, therevillage habitation, wherein the villagers used to have Flights to Delhi are no limitations as to what and how onetheir support systems, livestock etc. In the olden days, Discounted First and Business Class Flights Tel : 020 8506 2222 can build. The variation in the quality of thethese areas were marked by the land revenue www.swifttravel.com buildings within the settlement and layers ofdepartment by tying a Red Thread (Lal Dora in Hindi Ask a Lawyer Online Now narrow streets and overhanging balconies islanguage) around it, to make a boundary and todistinguish it from the agricultural land. The lal Dora 8 Lawyers, Experts Are Online! Ask a Question, Get an Answer ASAP. a result of the lack of restrictions. The campalso denotes that the jurisdiction of the municipal Law.JustAnswer.com/Land had built up to the extent that it is difficultauthorities or the urban development is not applicable, for emergency personnel to orientatein toto. Property Funds Bespoke Property Funds for SIPP / SSAS investors themselves within the streets of the camp.In 1957, the Delhi municipal corporation issued a www.consortium-im.comnotification n and the government listed the lands Jagdamba affiliation with ‘Lal Dora’ somehowunder the LAL DORA classification, within and on the Flight Delhi instigates false promises as the local politicianoutskirts of Delhi. Flights From The UK To Delhi Great Rates Call Us On 08701203040 will have no power as to what is or is not built www.SouthallTravel.co.uk/DelhiLal Dora was exempt from the building bye laws, and Related Videos Related Articles Related Q&A on the land anyway.strict construction norms and regulations, as regulatedunder the Delhi municipal act. There was / is no needto apply for the building sanction plans etc. In 1963,the MCD passed a notification which did not make itmandatory for building sanction plans to be passed forthe urban Lal Dora lands too. How to put on a How to avoidThough the term Lal Dora applies to both Rural & turban TravelersUrban villages, the thin dividing line has vanished over Diarrheathe period of time, and prime areas of Delhi today(though still classified as Lal Dora) operate commercial Syndicate this Article Copy to clipboard& high end residential areas. <h1>What is Lal Dora Land - Delhi Master Plan</h1> <strong>Author: <a title="Ramesh Menon"Villages like Basant Gaon, Munirka, Khirki, Yusuf sarai, href="http://www.articlesbase.com/authors/ramesh-Katwaria sarai, Mahipalpur, Chhatarpur, Sant Nagar, menon/68500.htm">Ramesh Menon</a></strong><br /><p>The term “LAL DORA” was used for the first time in the yearRangpuri, Kanjhawla, Najafgarh, Lado sarai, Mehrauli,Shahpur Jatt etc. have all been absorbed into the developed limits of Delhi, and they form part of the elite areas.The Lal Dora areas in some of the rural villages, which are surrounded by agricultural land, have been included under the Delhimaster plan MPD 2021. These Lal Dora lands would abutt the premium residential & commercial zones. To top it all, many such lalDora areas would be extremely well connected through the proposed initiatives of the government to connect the Delhi city througha maze of Roads, expressways, metros etc.Many Lal Dora abadis have the facilities provided by the government like secure electricity connection, water from the Delhi Jalboard, sewerage etc. After the New master plan of Delhi MPD 2021 is notified, many agricultural lands of these villages would beincluded in the residential or commercial zones. With the provision of infrastructure to these areas, most of the erstwhile Lal Doraareas without these amenities & infrastructure would be included.Statistics reveal that there are 362 villages in Delhi, out of which 135 are classified as urban villages, and 227 are classified as ruralvillages. Decades back, when the revenue settlement was undertaken for Delhi, for the first time, most of these villages were welldefined and the population was enumerated within those boundaries. The land outside these Lal Dora lands was appraised for thepurpose of land revenue, as Agricultural land. Between 1908 and 1952 (when the consolidation exercise was taken up again), thepopulation of these villages expanded and the villages too had extended beyond the earlier defined boundaries. The new peripheryboundaries were termed as “PHIRNI” and the areas between the earlier LAL DORA boundaries, and the “PHIRNI” was known as theextended Lal Dora area.In August 1963, a notification was issued by the then Delhi administration that no building permissions are required for theconstruction on the extended Lal Dora land, too, if and since, the land owner is creating a habitation / house for his own living /subsistence. Lal Dora
  24. 24. The land of the proposed scheme is ownedNon-governmental aid and charity aid by a private landowner. He may have is ownUnder 10% of all aid is collected by Non-Government Organisations (NGOs) through voluntary agenda for potential development of thedonations. Although charities occasionally collect funds for emergency aid, aid from NGOs and charities site, so it may be worth pitching the schemeis usually aimed at long-term development. Sometimes NGOs co-fund projects with governments or the to him. It could be a private developmentEU. International charities also raise awareness and campaign for change in industrialised nations. but the disadvantage of this would be that it may result in the exclusion of the JagdambaMoney raised by NGOs and international charities goes towards: and Wastepicker communities, which would 1. Long-term aid: defeat the purpose of the scheme. Dealing with the root causes of poverty Campaigning for change Another option would be to apply for aid Local partner organisations and support from local NGOs or charities. Health programmes: maintaining basic health facilities, eradicating malaria and other Promoting the concept of community diseases(such as Medecins Sans Frontieres) Food production, water supplies, education cohesion as the root issue driving the success Technical assistance eg training farmers to increase efficiency and prevent soil erosion of the scheme. The generation of local 2. Short-term and emergency aid: employment for the construction, running Helping refugees to rebuild homes and provide farming equipment in order to enable them and maintenance of the development is an to be self-sufficient advert for attracting potential funders. The Medical and sanitation supplies provision of extra housing for occupants Food and blankets of slums to be demolished and outlets forPotential problems with international charities income generating trade. Charities may not prioritise the greatest sources of need. £250m was raised by charities for the The scheme will need to be advertised as a tsunami disaster - but areas affected by the tsunami arguably suffered no greater problems than grassroots bottom-up scheme which hopes are faced every day by regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Green Economics to improve the lives of local people and the Up to 30% of revenue remains in the country of origin to cover administration costs. inclusion of them in the redevelopment of Charity projects may clash with the indigenous culture (for example, conservation charities that support moving people off the land to prevent deforestation). Modern economics has put immense pressure on the natural world and its resources. Economic growth the site would create a feeling of ownership As with other kinds of aid, corruption amongst politicians and officials may prevent the aid from is now at a level where it is generating more destruction than real wealth. and value. The scheme hopes to unite reaching the people who need it. people from different social backgrounds in We need to aim for a more democratic, efficient, fair and responsible way to live, in which money is just a neutral and exciting communal hub.Grassroots charities a means to an end, and the personal and political, the social and ecological, are inseparable.These have many benefits with regard to aid: Green economics is primarily about: The aid process is not top-down but bottom-up: decision-making is carried out by the affected The primacy of use-value: money being seen as a means to and end, rather than for its exchange- people. value. The emphasis is on sustainability and appropriate technology. Quality, not quantity for the sake of it. The premise is that schemes need not be capital-intensive or large-scale in order to have a Regeneration of individuals, communities and ecosystems, instead of accumulation of money or beneficial impact. material. Smaller-scale schemes are aimed at directly helping with local conditions and providing people Human beings no longer serving the mechanisms of capitalistic or socialistic material and financial with what they really need. For example, training health workers to prevent local diseases, or making small-scale bio-gas plants which use manure to provide gas for cooking and fertiliser. accumulation. Ecological development based on an unleashing of human development and an extension of democracy. The "public" and "private" sectors being transformed, so that markets can express social and ecological values. The state being merged with grassroots networks of community innovation. See the Green Economics website for further information. Green economics has a clear set of principles and real, positive and effective answers and solutions to global issues. These principles can be applied by everyone for sustainable development and the survival of the natural world, which humankind is part of and depends on, and a vital natural balance between humankind and the natural world. Funding
  25. 25. Types of Land Ownership People in Delhi may own land but are not allowed to build whatever they want. TheState Ownership of Land DDA (Delhi Development Agency) hasThis system enables the state to be the owner of the land. The land which the state owns comes under its reduced the number of freehold propertiessupervision through various methods. Annexation of land during battles, purchasing of land by someone, within the last few years so much so that itgiving land as a gift to someone, the seizure of land by the government due to certain reasons are the would be rare to find a freeholder.various ways by which a piece of land comes under the ownership of the state. The USSR was the biggestexample until few days back when it practiced socialism and most of the land was state owned. Though in Jagdamba is under the jurisdiction of theother socialist countries state owned half of the land. On one hand the state ownership of land is a good MCD who is responsible for the provisionpractice since it minimizes the discrepancy in the distribution of land. Private ownership of land leads to of the basic human rights; water supply,the uneven distribution of land. But the state ownership fills up this gap. Even the land which is of no use sanitation, education, healthcare, foodto the people can be transferred to the government’s stock. The state owned banks are sometimes leased supply and shelter. However being withinout to the tenants and in other times the state government indulges in farming the land. the boundary of a Lal Dora area, the body does not have any control over what andLand Grants how the inhabitants build property.This system is practiced mainly in the countries with Muslim population. The government in those countriesdonate land for the purpose of education and setting up religious institutions. These kinds of grants are The private landowner of the proposedknown as “waqf” in the Muslim countries. The donated land is mostly used in constructing mosques, site is the potential client. Rent owed bymadrasa and orphanages for the inhabitants of those countries. Usually the government of that country wastepickers for the slum dwellings on thebears all the costs regarding the land and the beneficiary receives an irrevocable piece of land. The profit land is paid to the landowner.is obtained by the institution that is established on the land. The land which is gifted is often in a very badcondition. The irrevocable nature of the grant prevents eventual property loss and transfer of ownership. The success of developing the scheme could lie in his hands. The emphasis would need toCommunal and Collective Ownership be made that the scheme is for the benefitThis kind of ownership empowers a community or a political group to utilize the land. This system is for people from all social classes and it israndomly practiced in South Africa where the land ownership belongs to an African tribe. The chief of important for the inhabitants of Jagdambathat tribe allots some amount of land to every member of the community and that member receives the and wastepicker settlements to be includedland for the whole of his life. In Mexico also this kind of ownership is practiced. There is a little difference in the development and use of the variousin the system because in Mexico people inherit land. Private ownership results in the loss of property on components. It is essential that the displacedthe part of the poor people; hence in the countries which adopted the socialist doctrine, collectivization families from the slums and dwellingsof land was in vogue. being removed to be rehoused in the new residential block. They have the priorityPrivate Ownership of Land reservations for the apartments on offer.In democratic counties this method of land ownership is followed. The right of land disposition is in privatehands. This system was introduced by the colonial rulers in most of the colonies so that the rulers could The renting agreement would be on the basisgarner benefits and render the poor people helpless. Private ownership has lots of disadvantages involved that the families resettlement would not bein it. This is basically a flawed system which caused the poor to become poorer because of the uneven allowed to sell or re-rent their apartments todistribution of land. anyone else to generate an income. The aimPrivate ownership has two classifications according to the amount of land available to people. They are: is to ensure that the people do not returnSmall land holding is usually the plot of land which belongs to a particular family and it practices farming to the slums removed and resettle in theon that land and produces the amount which is required to sustain themselves chowks made for public benefit.Large Land holding is usually a plot of land which is rented out by the owner to several farmers who till theland and produce crops. Those farmers pay rent to the owners.Farm Tenancy is yet another method which is commonly practiced in the name of land ownership. Incountries which are densely populated it has been noted that the rate of unemployment is high. In such acondition a person who has enough land to be cultivated lends it to other people for a given period of time.Farm tenancy can be classified on the basis of the payment demanded by the owner. The classificationsare occupational tenancy, cash tenancy and share tenancy.http://www.economywatch.com/agrarian/structure/types-land-ownership.html Land Ownership and Tenure
  26. 26. Consider the culture of the existing Matters regarding land ownership, land type, communities. The architect needs to legality, authorisation, location and political understand that people have different jurisdiction will affect any development ideologies and those might not necessarily program. Problem solving is therefore a key be on par with their own beliefs. The aspect of the role of the architect. development of the scheme has taken this into consideration in regards to the design Working with a local NGO would be a good of the spatial organisation of the home, the way to enter into a conversation with the transtional spaces at the Jagdamba and local community to find out their needs and Greenview DDA junction, Chatri Chowk. ways in which to approach the realisation that meets their needs. Each site and build‘The No-Nonense Guide to International Development’; Maggie Black Sustain the ability to effectively communicate will have its own unique quality which is with people irrespective of their age, gender, influenced by the inhabitants. The NGO could and economic and social status. There needs advice on the best methods of approaching to be a sense of inclusion so that nobody issues and removing potential obstacles that feels isolated or less important than another. could harm the relationship between the Women and children need to be given due architect and residents. The team studying respect as they are the ones normally to suffer Jagdamba Camp met a local NGO worker with fewer privileges in certain societies. The for SAYA based in the camp. He allowed Pradhan of Jagdamba, Muhammad Irfan, was use access to his office and enabled certain quite hostile and unforthcoming towards the reservations from the senior members of the Jagdamba survey group in the beginning camp to be removed and warm to us. The but by the end of the two-week study, he NGO acts as the link between the architect had welcomed to us and introduced us to his and local people. daughter and young grand-son. Political issues cannot be ‘solved’ by Manage the inevitable expectations from architects as it is beyond their professional each of these factions. Everyone has an capabilities. A series of small projects could opinion and different perspective on given generate improvements at larger scale if issues. The architect needs to respect and take successful. They have the potential to inspire into consideration the desires and requests. and encourage larger developments and The people who will directly benefit from future change. potential programs hold the most important opinions. They will know best what they need and the type of developments that will be successful within their community. Balance professional and personal attitudes and remain objective regarding all matters arising. It is inevitable that certain issues will emerge that may question the nature of the design, processes and relationships with organisations and/or individuals. Role of the Architect
  27. 27. Environment and Sustainable Design Breaking Barriers Uniting People
  28. 28. The building will constructed using conreteframework and strucutral brick. With a wallthickness of 300mm it will be ample toprovide enough thermal mass to retain andrelease heat. The first 100-200mm will bemost effective at retaining heat during theday and releasing it during the night.The building is designed for passive gains asmuch as possible. Light wells are designedinto the residential block to allow lightand ventilation for both the block and itsneighbouring building. As the neighbouringbuilding is alot taller than the new buildresiential, the windows for house will needto be opening to the north side, which worksbetter for the building duting the summerperiod as a north facing window draws inmore cool air into the building.The windows will not be glazed but shutterswill be inastalled to keep out the cold andadverse weather.Jali walls will be located in stairwellsand toilets to allow for natural light andventilation while keeping certain level ofprivacy for the occupant. The terraces willalso have jali barriers. Climatic Control
  29. 29. Direct rainwater collection on roofs to purify water for drinking and cooking.. Ground water attenuation located at theUrban rainwater harvesting lowest level of the ampitheatre seating.Urban centres in India are facing an ironical situation today. On one hand Provide collection and cleaning of water tothere is the acute water scarcity and on the other, the streets are often flooded use for washing and flushing toilets.during the monsoons. This has led to serious problems with quality andquantity of groundwater. New build schemes to be as independentThis is despite the fact that all these cities as possible so as not to become a burdenreceive good rainfall. However, this rainfall ontheexisting water supply. But there will beoccurs during short spells of high a connection to the exsting water supply inintensity. (Most of the rain falls in just case of emergency.100 hours out of 8,760 hours in a year).Because of such short duration of heavyrain, most of the rain falling on the Water tank above projection roof to besurface tends to flow away rapidly leaving the largest and main source of rainwatervery little for recharge of groundwater.Most of the traditional water harvesting collection for the new scheme.systems in cities have been neglected andfallen into disuse, worsening the urban water scenario. One of the solutions to Drainage and sewage connections to bethe urban water crisis is rainwater harvesting - capturing the runoff. linked to the existing system which runs through Jagdamba camp. The scheme will be This is practiced on a large scale in linked to the Jagdamba drainage masterplan cities like Chennai, Bangalore and Delhi - it will be the first developed phase before where rainwater harvesting is a part of the work on Jagdamba begins. So that the whole state policy. Elsewhere, countries like Germany, Japan, United States, and development proceeds towards the eastern Singapore are also adopting rainwater periphery and out to the main Naala. harvesting. Water harvesting system at CSEs office in Delhi Why to harvest rain? n In areas where there is inadequate groundwater supply or surface resources are either lacking or insufficient, rainwater harvesting offers an ideal solution. n Helps in utilising the primary source of water and prevent the runoff from going into sewer or storm drains, thereby reducing the load on treatment plants. n Reduces urban flooding. n Recharging water into the aquifers help in improving the quality of existing groundwater through dilution. Water Supply
  30. 30. The 1800mm high wall on the Khirki Main Road elevation should provide a barrier from the taffic noise during scheduled cinema times. trees running along the northern side of Swades Chowk should prodive the residential trade block with further noise reduction acting as a buffer zone to an extent. The arcade should buffer the noise of traffic to a certain extent. The walls of the residential block will be structural brick construction which should provide further acoustic control of external noise. The brick walls should provide noise barriers between flats. The building frame is reinforced concrete so the floors should also provide acoustic control between flats on each floor.Buffer zone Swades Chowk Buffer zone ampitheatre Acoustics
  31. 31. Each dwelling in the reidential block is larger than the current slums so each family will have a much larger space to live, better living conditions with wet and dry spaces separated and individual family bathrooms/ toilets. The exiting slum dwellings on site ranged from 11.1-12.7m/sq without toilets and bathrooms. This they would use for all activities including cooking, eating, sleeping and children doing homework. The proposed residential units include a separate bathroom, kitchen and storage facilties. TheTypical existing total dwelling size is therefore 20.4 - 26.8m/slum house units: sq. The living spaces range from 12 - 15.3m/11.1 - 12.7m/sq sq. The inclusion of bathroom and kitchens within each individual dwelling is important for women and children. They do not need to fear the risk of men overlooking and the potential risk of attack. This facility is an invaluable source of security and freedom from corrupt Government fee payment. The housing units on the ground floor facing Swades Chowk are retail outletss, these will combine to become live/work units. The trading will occur on the outlas outside while the storage will be within the home. Proposed house units: 20.4 - 26.8m/sq Dwellings
  32. 32. The provision of training workshops withinthe overall strategy of the scheme will enablelocal people to specialise within a specifictrade of choice so that they are able to earn aliving while studying a vocational course.The housing upgrade for the slum dwellers/waste pickers will improve thier lifestyle andso their health.The health clinic will provide people withreadily accessible treatment whether it beGP, dentist, optiicion or the nurse.The open spaces should encourage tradeand socialisationPlanting new trees will hellp add more greespaces within Delhi as a whole and create apleasant atmosphere away from the trafficand calustraphobic streets of Jagdamba.Future generations should be bettereducated, have improved lifestyles and beable to provide for their families with greaterease than their parents before them. Relationship with wider context
  33. 33. Construction, Materials and Structures Breaking Barriers Uniting People
  34. 34. Concrete beam, column and slab floor Concrete Structural Frame
  35. 35. Rat trap bond structural brick wallswith concrete columns and beams forreinforcement. Concrete elements tiled withbrick on facade.The bricks are available on site so there isno need to transport or create new bricks.Careful demolition of existing brick buildingswill also produce more brick material to bere-used in new built elements. Thus reducingthe need to create new bricks.Lime mortar used so to make the brickseasier to clean and reuse in the event ofbuilding demolition in the future.Masons available for labour from Jagdamba. Structural Brick
  36. 36. There is no need for glazing due to Delhi’s hotclimate. Through observation most windowstended to have iron grills with shutters toclose during the evening. This concept willbe incorporated into the building fabric.The balconies, terraces and access routes willmake use of jalis as this is a natural source oflight and ventilation whilst keeping the areprivate. The toilet blocks in the residentialblock will have jalis to allow for naturallight and ventialtion and reducing the needfor a window. This allows for natural airinflow/outflow while maintaining maximumprivacy.Bamboo screens will be used for shuttering.It is a natural material grown in India. Itneeds to be kept above ground level toprotect from water and soil erosion. Thescreens will be woven so as to allow shadeand privacy behind the panels. It is a skilledjob to create quality woven sheets with streelframes. Weavers and metal workers will worktogether to creater these panels.Doors will be made of metal as used insurrounding buildings. It is a skill trade foundlocally within the trade block and aloswithinJagdamba Camp itself. It is a local materialso itself becomes sustainabe for the site.The metal can be reused in the future afterthe full cycle of the building life comes to anend. Openings, shutters and balconies
  37. 37. The residential block will treeated in threeparts. The first part will the main reisdentialunits, the second will be arcade and the thirdthe bazaar and residential mix. This allowsfor clear movement joint locations for theconcrete floor slabs. This also allows for asequential construction to occur.The projection wall will follow the constructionof the third part of the building. Phase 1 Build A Phase 1 Build B Phase 1 Build C Phase 1 Build D Refurb. Phase 2 Build E Phase 2 Build F Phase 2 Build G Rebuild Phase 3 Build H Phase 3 Build J Phase 3 Build K Structural Strategy
  38. 38. Existing Site Demolition Strategy
  39. 39. Phase 1 Demolition Phase 1 Construction
  40. 40. Phase 1 Demolition Phase 2 Construction
  41. 41. Phase 3 Demolition Phase 3 Construction & Phase 4 Demolition simultaneously
  42. 42. Built Scheme

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