Team Building Presentation

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  • I love how you brought the idea of personality within the mix within team building. In the grand scheme of things, every single person has their own unique personality. And in order to truly work in a more effective and cohesive way, you have to bridge those gaps so that you can work together for a bigger cause.
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  • This presentation is a brief introduction to team building , its power and potential pitfalls.
  • The coding rubric involves five dimensions, each of which are coded on a scale from 1 to 5, where 1 represents poor work and 5 represents outstanding work. One of the five scoring dimensions used in the CCT coding rubric in the 1993-1994 evaluation was:
            Teamwork To what extent do the students work collaboratively on substantive aspects of the project?
        Interestingly, after taking contextual data into account, the researchers at CCT found that group size and group composition by sex were important factors in the student projects. For example, all-female and mixed-sex groups were significantly correlated with being in the Integrated Knowledge or top group. Single students tended to perform procedurally. (For a definition of the groups or more information see the 1993-1994 Evaluation report.)
    It is indeed rare that a single person will have enough knowledge, experience or time to understand and complete each facet of the project. It is also too easy for one person’s commitment and enthusiasm to waver during a long-term project. Several people pooling their skills, talent and knowledge, should result in gains in quality and productivity.
    For these reasons, during the next Institute the coordinators included team building presentations and exercises.
  • The items in the list above are given in order.
    According to Bob Mendonsa and Associates’ web page
    http://www. trainingplus.com on Team building :
    Team Building is a process and not an event.
    Team Building is about both willingness and ability. Sometimes teams problems occur because team members lack important skills. Sometimes there are trust issues.
    Team Building must address individual and group issues. People do not “disappear” when they choose to belong to a group. Any team building effort must address the strengths and development needs of individual team members that impact the group as a whole.
    Of course the corollary is true and groups or teams fail when they:
    Think differently
    Have poor leadership
    Have communications difficulties
    Have competition between members
  • As the team matures, members gradually learn to cope with each other and the pressures that they face. As a result, the team goes through the fairly predictable stages noted on the slide.
  • As noted in the 1993-1994 assessment report by CCT, students benefit from working in teams on their computational science projects. To help the students adapt to their team, it might be wise to have them to simple activities to build trust and establish communication between the members. However, in the context of the computational science project many of the forming actions are undertaken as the team determines what their project topic will be and narrows the focus to reach their project goal. Teachers can help students as they "form" their teams by making sure that they understand the process they will go through to get their topic.
    You may want to include some activities to illustrate trust and/or communication skills in a team.
  • Team members need to understand the other personality types in their group.
    History of “type”
    In 1921, Carl Jung a psychoanalyst and disciple of Sigmund Freud realized that behavior that seemed unpredictable could be anticipated if one understood the underlying mental functions and attitudes people preferred and published his theory in a book called Psychological Types.
    In 1923, Katharine Briggs read Jung’s book, adopted his model and interested her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers in the theory. Myers and Briggs built on Jung’s work, expanded it and gave it a practical application. They determined that there were four personality preference scales and 16 distinct personality types. They developed and began giving their Myer-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) test instrument in the 1940s. The four scales are listed on the slide and the definitions of each end of a dimension is:
    Extraverts – focus their attention and energy on the world outside of themselves; need to experience the world to understand it.
    Introverts – focus their attention and energy on the world inside of themselves; need to understand world before experiencing it.
    Sensors – Concentrate on what can be seen, heard, felt, smelled and tasted; focus on what is real and concrete
    iNtuitives – interested in meanings, relationships, and possibilities based on facts; focus on implications and inferences
    Thinkers – prefer decisions that make sense logically; make decisions by analyzing and weighing the evidence
    Feelers – make decisions on how much they care or what they feel is right; view themselves as empathetic and compassionate
    Judgers – seek to regulate and control life; like to have issues resolved
    Perceivers – seek to understand life rather than controlling it; like to stay open to all kinds of possibilities.
  • The Keirsey Temperament Sorter was designed to identify different kinds of personality. It’s similar to other devices derived from Cal Jung such as the Myers-Briggs that we discussed in the previous slide.
    Keirsey describes his methods in Please Understand Me II. He partitioned the Myers-Briggs sixteen types into four groups as noted above. In fact Myers characterized the four groups, SP, SJ, NF and NT as follows
    SPs – probe their immediate surroundings in order to detect and exploit favorable options within reach. Need freedom to act. Described as adaptable, artistic, open-minded and on the lookout for workable compromises
    SJs – observe their close surroundings with a keen eye in order to schedule their and others activities so that needs are met. Everything should be in its proper place. Conservative, stable, consistent, routinized, dependable, hard-working, detailed, un-impulsive.
    NF – Friendly to the core in dreaming up how to give meaning and wholeness to people’s lives. Conflict is painful. Humane, sympathetic, enthusiastic, creative, intuitive and insightful. (Isabelle Myers was a INFP)
    NTs – Tough-minded in figuring our what sort of technology might be useful to solve a given problem. Persistently and consistently rational in their actions. Analytical, systematic, abstract, intellectual, complex, competent, independent and research-oriented.
  • To be an effective team member:
    Extraverts should
    Be prepared to stop before you fall into redundancy and overkill
    Control your tendency to speak
    Make a special effort to listen carefully, avoid interrupting
    Stop, Look and Listen
    Introverts:
    Share more quickly and spontaneously thoughts and ideas
    Rule out nothing as being too trivial and meaningless
    Don’t hold others to the first words out of their mouths. Push for meaning and clarity
  • To be an effective team member:
    iNtuitive’s should:
    Use your imagination to show others
    Keep as many alternatives on the table as possilbe
    Don’t let facts stifle your creativity
    Sensor’s should:
    Express the problem in real, tangible and specific terms.
    Demand that terms be defined and described accurately and quoted facts are real
    Continue to push for common sense
  • In order to be an effective team member:
    Thinker’s should:
    Help others sort out where and when they become too attached to the problem.
    Continue to push for precision. Redefine and rephrase the idea
    Feeler’s should:
    Admit when your personal values are clouding an issue
    Make sure everyone gets a chance to speak, is listened to and is affirmed in their ideas, but don’t overemphasize harmony.
  • To be an effective team member:
    Judger’s should:
    Keep the process or task oriented
    Help bring definition to the process
    Make sure that the goals are turned into action
    Perceiver’s should:
    Help keep everyone from going with the first solution
    Play the devil’s advocate
    Don’t keep offering new ideas once the group has defined a solution
  • There are several online tests that the participants can take to help them identify their personalities. If time permits you may want to pause here and have the participants take one of the tests and discuss the results
    Its these personality types that individuals bring to their team during the forming stage. Helping understanding the different types will help the individuals begin to work together.
  • This is probably the most difficult stage for the team. They may be floundering trying to find a project topic that is narrow enough to study or a mentor to help them. They begin to realize that this project is different than other ones that they have done in the past. Teachers can help students through this stage by encouraging members to use their individual skills and assume more responsibilities.
    Understanding how personality types interact can ease some of the tensions in the storming stage.
  • As a teacher, you can help your students when they are in the “storming” stage, by focusing their attention on the questions above. The students may want to answer the first question both in general terms and more specifically, in conjunction with their project goals.
  • During the storming stage, you can help your students deal with conflict in their group, by helping them understand how people deal with conflict and encouraging them to use problem solving techniques in conflict resolution.
    These ideas are from The Team Book by Peter R. Scholtes, Brian L. Joiner and Barbara Streibel
    Avoiding Conflict – you must avoid both the issues likely to lead to conflict and the people with whom you are likely to conflict with. Based on a belief that easier to avoid conflict than face it.
    Smooth the conflict – minimizing conflict so that group relationships aren’t strained. Belief that discussing conflicts damages relationships rather than strengthens them. Sacrifices personal opinions and goals out of fear of losing the relationship. Tactics include:
    Denying that there is a problem
    Smoothing over the issue or proble
    Changing the topic or focus
    Ignoring the feelings that you have about the issue or problem
    Forcing the conflict – attempts to overpower others and force them to accept your position. Personal opinions and goals are very important and relationships with others are less important. Competitive win-lose approach
    Tactics include:
    Attacking others’ ideas
    Using expertise, position or experience to overpower others
    Compromising – tries to get others to give up some of what they want in exchange for giving up some of what you want. Everyone gives up something and everyone gains something. Can be lose-lose strategy because no one achieves their goals. Underlying assumption: everyone should accept less than they want because that is the best that they can hope for. (Should be tried after problem solving hasn’t worked)
    Problem Solving – Win-win approach. Personal goals and group relationships are highly valued. Purpose to find a path forward that meets everyone’s goals and preserves group relationships. See more on next slide
  • Problem solving includes strategies aimed at taking diverse viewpoints into account, clarifying the issues, clearing the air constructively and enabling everyone to move forward together.
    You can clarify core issues by sorting out areas of agreement from areas of disagreement
    When listening to each person’s point of view –
    Accept that they believe/want this even if you don’t!!
    Look for the reasons (maybe something would be good for both)
  • During this stage, team members begin to work out their differences and now have more time and energy to spend on their work. Thus they are able to start making significant progress.
    In the context of the computational science project, the students have probably found a mentor who is helping them and have narrowed their project focus.
    As we can see on the next slide, it is important for team members to learn to constructively criticize when necessary.
  • During this stage, you should encourage team members to:
    do detailed planning
    develop criteria for completion of goals
    build on positive norms and change unhealthy norms
    encourage continued team spirit
  • This is a guideline on how to approach constructive feedback. It is in the form of:
    When you [do this], I feel [this way], because of [such and such]. (Pause) What I would like you to consider is [doing X], because I think it will accomplish [Y]. What do you think?
    Example:
    "When you are late for meetings, I get angry because I think it is wasting the time of all of the other team members and we are never able to get through our agenda items. (Pause) I would like you to consider finding some way of planning your schedule that lets you get to these meetings on time. That way we can be more productive at meetins and we can all keep to our tight schedules."
    Giving constructive feedback or learning how to cricticize constructively is a lesson that many people have not learned, but an important one if teams are to succeed.
    Importantly:
  • Be descriptive -- relate what you saw or heard the other person do. Give specific recent examples
    Don’t use labels -- Be specific and unambiguous. Don’t use words like immature, unprofessional, irresponsible which are labels attached to behavior. For example, say “ You missed the deadline we had agreed to meet rather than, “You’re being irresponsible and I want to know what you are going to do about it.
    Don’t exaggerate. Be exact. To say, “You’re always late for deadlins\es” is probably untrue and unfair. It invites the receiver to argue with exaggeration rather than respond to real issue
    Don’t be judgmental. Don’t use words like good, better, bad, worst or should which place you in the role of controlling parent. This invites the receiver to respond as a child.
    Speak for yourself. Don’t refer to absent, anonymous people. Avoid references like “A lot of people here don’t like it when you…” Encourage others to speak for themselves
  • Talk first about yourself, not about the other person. Use a statement with with “I” as the subject not “you”. People are more likely to remain open to your message when an “I” statement is used.
    Phrase the issue as a statement, not a question. “I” statements allows the receiver to see what effect the behavior had on you.
    Restrict your feedback. Don’t present your opinions as facts.
    Help people hear and receive positive feedback. Many people fell awkward when told good things about themselves. It may be important to reinforce the positive feedback and help the person hear it, acknowledge it and accept it.
  • Breathe. Our bodies are conditioned to react to stressful situations as though they were physical assaults. Taking full, deep breaths forces your body to relax and allows your brain to maintain greater alertness.
    Listen carefully. Don’t interrupt. Don’t discourage the feedback-giver.
    Ask questions for clarity. You have the right to receive clear feedback. Ask for specific examples.
    Acknowledge the feedback. Paraphrase the message in your own words to let the person know what you have heard and understood what was said.
    Acknowledge the valid points. Agree with what is true. Agree with what is possible. Acknowledge the other person’s point of view and try to understand their reaction. Agreeing with what’s true or possible doesn’t mean you agree to change your behavior or mean agreeing with any value judgement about you. You can agree that your reports are late with out thereby agreeing that your are irresponsible
    Take time to sort out what you heard. You may need time for sorting out or checking with others before responding to feedback. It is reasonable to ask the feedback-giver for time to think about what was said and how you feel about it. Don’t use this time as an excuse to avoid the issue.
  • During the performing stage, the team is now an effective and cohesive unit. As a team, the emphasize quality work; utilize each member’s talents; meet deadlines; and continue to work on team commitment.
    Examples of the results of good team work can be seen on the Video tapes and CDs from the National Expos. The presentation itself is an example of team work.
    The duration and intensity of these stages vary from team to team. Sometimes Stage 4 is achieved in a meeting or two; other times it takes months. Understanding the stages of growth will keep you from overreacting to normal problems and setting unrealistic expectations. Don’t panic. With patience and effort the assembly of independent individuals will grow into a team.
  • Even though these points are addressing teams in the workplace, they are applicable in the classroom setting. They can also form part of the rubric to evaluate the team’s performance.
    Clarity in team goals: has a clear vision and can progress steadily toward its goals.
    A work plan: helps team determine what advice, assistance, and other resources they need from teachers, mentors or research
    Clearly defined role: Uses each member’s talents and involves everyone in team activities so no one feels left out.
  • Even though these points are addressing teams in the workplace, they are applicable in the classroom setting. They can also form part of the rubric to evaluate the team’s performance.
    Clear communication: Speak with clarity and be succinct. Listen actively; explore rather than debate each speaker’s ideas. Avoid interrupting.
    Beneficial team behaviors: Should encourage all members to use the skills and practices that make discussions and meetings more effective; suggest procedures for meeting goals, clarify or elaborate on ideas; keep the discussion from digressing
    Well-defined decision procedures: discuss how decisions will be made; use data as a basis of decisions; explore important issues by polling
    Balanced participation: Everyone should participate in discussions and decisions, share commitment to the project’s success and contribute their talents
    Established ground rules: Establish ground rules for what will and will not be tolerated in the team
    Awareness of group process: Be sensitive to nonverbal communication; be aware of the group process and how the team works together
    Use the scientific approach: Of course this is the underlying assumption in a project development, but in team building it helps members avoid team problems and disagreements. Opinions must be supported by data
  • Team Building Presentation

    1. 1. Bridging the gap between education and technol Team Building
    2. 2. Bridging the gap between education and Why Teams? Children learn better in groups of 2-3. The Center for Children and Technology
    3. 3. Bridging the gap between education and How do Teams Work Best? Team’s succeed when members have: 1. Commitment to common objectives More likely when they set them; recognize interdependence 2. Defined, appropriate roles and responsibilities – Good use of individual talent – Opportunity for each to grow, learn all skills 3. Effective decision systems, communication and work procedures – Open, honest communication – Accepts conflict, manages it, resolves it well 4. Good personal relationships – Mutual trust
    4. 4. Bridging the gap between education and Stages in Team Building FormingForming StormingStorming NormingNorming PerformingPerforming
    5. 5. Bridging the gap between education and Stage 1: FORMING • Team Building – Define team (optimum ~3 with one or more girls) – Determine individual roles – Develop trust and communication • Task – Define problem and strategy – Identify information needed
    6. 6. Bridging the gap between education and From Individuals A Group • Help members understand each other: – Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) • Extraverts ------------------ Introverts • Sensors --------------------- iNtuitive • Thinker --------------------- Feelers • Judger ---------------------- Perceiver By selecting one from each category, we define our personality type, ESTJ, ENTJ…INFP FormingForming
    7. 7. Bridging the gap between education and Individual Temperaments • Keirsey Temperaments based on Myers-Briggs – Artisians SP: Supervisors (ESTJ), Inspectors (ISTJ), Providers (ESFJ), Protectors (ISFJ) – Guardians SJ: Promoters (ESTP), Crafters (ISTP), Performers(ESFP), Composers (ISFP) – Idealists NF: Teachers (ENFJ), Counselors (INFJ), Champions (ENFP), Healers (INFP) – Rationals NT: Field Marshals (ENTJ), Masterminds (INTJ), Inventors (ENTP), Architects (INTP) FormingForming
    8. 8. Bridging the gap between education and Relevance to Teams (E/I) • Extraverts – Need to think aloud – Great explainers! – May overwhelm others • Introverts – Need time to process – Great concentration – May not be heard FormingForming
    9. 9. Bridging the gap between education and Relevance to Teams (N/S) • iNtuitive – Great at big picture – See connections – May make mistakes in carrying out plans • Sensor – Great executors – May miss big picture, relative importance FormingForming
    10. 10. Bridging the gap between education and Relevance to Teams (T/F) • Thinker – Skillful at understanding how anything works • Feeler – Know why something matters FormingForming
    11. 11. Bridging the gap between education and Relevance to Teams (J/P) • Judger – Good at schedules, plans, completion – Make decisions easily (quickly) – May decide too quickly and overlook vital issues • Preceiver – Always curious, want more knowledge – May not get around to acting – Slow judger’s enough to make great teams FormingForming
    12. 12. Bridging the gap between education and What Type are You? Online Personality Tests • Jung types http://www.allhealth.com/onlinepsych/personality/olpge n/0,6103,7119_127651,00.html • Keirsey types http://www.keirsey.com/cgi-bin/keirsey/newkts.cgi FormingForming
    13. 13. Bridging the gap between education and Stage 2: STORMINGStage 2: STORMING During the Storming stage: – Team members realize that the task is more difficult than they imagined – Members may be resistant to the task and fall back into their comfort zones – Communication is poor with little listening – Fluctuations in attitude about their chances of success – Among the team members there is disunity and conflict – Collaboration between members is minimal and cliques start to appear
    14. 14. Bridging the gap between education and Storming Diagnosis (in order) • Do we have common goals and objectives? • Do we agree on roles and responsibilities? – Use a table to share division of labor • Do our task, communication, and decision systems work? • Do we have adequate interpersonal skills? StormingStorming
    15. 15. Bridging the gap between education and Negotiating Conflict • Separate problem issues from people issues • Be soft on people, hard on problem • Look for underlying needs, goals of each party rather than specific solutions – Find a creative solution that’s good for both StormingStorming
    16. 16. Bridging the gap between education and Attacking the Problem Problem Solving • State your views in clear non-judgmental language • Clarify the core issues • Listen carefully to each person’s point of view • Check understanding of the disagreement by restating the core issues • Use techniques such as circling the group for comments and having some silent thinking time when emotions run high StormingStorming
    17. 17. Bridging the gap between education and Stage 3: NormingStage 3: Norming • During this stage members accept – their team – team ground rules – their roles in the team – the individuality of fellow members • Team members realize that they are not going to drown and start helping each other
    18. 18. Bridging the gap between education and Behaviors • Competitive relationships become more cooperative • Willingness to confront issues and solve problems • Ability to express criticism constructively • More sharing and a sense of team spirit NormingNorming
    19. 19. Bridging the gap between education and Guide for Giving Constructive Feedback • When you …. describe behavior • I feel ….. how behavior affects you • Because I … why behavior affects you • (Pause for discussion) …. let other person(s) respond • I would like …. what change would you like • Because …. why change will alleviate problem • What do you think …. Listen to other person’s response and discuss options NormingNorming
    20. 20. Bridging the gap between education and Giving Constructive Feedback • Be descriptive • Don't use labels • Don’t exaggerate • Don’t be judgmental • Speak for yourself NormingNorming
    21. 21. Bridging the gap between education and Giving Constructive Feedback (cont.) • Talk first about yourself, not about the other person • Phrase the issue as a statement, not a question • Restrict your feedback to things you know for certain • Help people hear and accept your compliments when giving positive feedback NormingNorming
    22. 22. Bridging the gap between education and Receiving Feedback • Breathe • Listen carefully • Ask questions for clarity • Acknowledge the feedback • Acknowledge the valid points • Take time to sort out what you heard NormingNorming
    23. 23. Bridging the gap between education and Stage 4: PERFORMINGStage 4: PERFORMING Team members have – Gained insight into personal and team processes – A better understanding of each other’s strengths and weaknesses – Gained the ability to prevent or work through group conflict and resolve differences – Developed a close attachment to the team
    24. 24. Bridging the gap between education and Recipe for Successful Team • Commitment to shared goals and objectives • Clearly define roles and responsibilities – Use best skills of each – Allows each to develop in all areas
    25. 25. Bridging the gap between education and Recipe for Successful Team • Effective systems and processes – Clear communication – Beneficial team behaviors – Well-defined decision procedures – Use of scientific approach – Balanced participation – Established ground rules – Awareness of the group process • Good Personal Relationships
    26. 26. Bridging the gap between education and Recipe for Successful Team • Good Personal Relationships

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