Cervical cancer power point 2 final

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PowerPoint on Cervical Cancer for HLST 3002: Epidemiology

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  • In addition, there are at least 40 different strands of HPV.
  • HPV Infection= Genital Warts, Smoking, Immunosuppression, Chlamydia infection, Diet, Oral Contraceptives (birth control pills), Intrauterine device use, Multiple full-term pregnancies, Young age at the first full time pregnancies, Poverty, Diethylstilbestrol (DES), Family history of cervical cancer, Multiple sex partners, unprotected sex at an early age, Other STD’s
  • Two types of screening is the Pap Smear Test, and HPV DNA Test. The Pap smear test doesn’t diagnose HPV, but it can look for abnormal cells caused by HPV, and the lining of the cervix before the cells become precancerous or cancerous. All HPV types that affect the genital area can cause abnormal Pap tests. To determine if an abnormal Pap test is caused by HPV we can order an HPV test. Cervical exam is done using a colposcope. The colposcope combines with a bright light with a magnifying lens to make tissue easier to see. These exams may be done in a doctor’s office or a health clinic. A biopsy is a removal of tissue to look for cancer cells. For proper treatments, it is best to maintain routine cervical cancer screenings. Pap Smear Tests “will find changes in cervical cells before they turn into cancer.” Treating these cell changes may prevent cervical cancer. In addition, the HPV DNA testing helps to detect the cervical cancer lesions. ***However there are many women that do no get tested regularly, therefore they do not catch the cancer in time.
  • How cervical cancer is staged:The process of finding out how far the cancer has spread is called staging. Information from exams and diagnostic tests is used to determine the size of the tumor, how deep the tumor has invaded the tissues in and around the cervix, and the spread to lymph nodes and other distant organs. This is an important process for selecting the right treatment plan. It is based on clinical rather than surgical findings. This means the extent of the disease is evaluated by Dr. ‘s physical examination and by cystoscopy and protoscopy. There are two systems used for staging most types of cervical cancer. This system is a way for the members of the cancer care team to summarize the extent of the cancer spread. These two systems include: FIGO ( International federation of gynecology and obstrectics), and the ( AJCC – American joint committee on cancer). Cervical Cancer stages are assigned to stages based on 4 things: 1. The size of the cancer 2. How deep the cancer has invaded the areas surrounding the cervix 3. If there are signs of cancer in the vagina, pelvis, or local lymph nodes 4. If there are signs of cancer spread to other organs
  • Stage 1: Cancer in the cervix or uterus, only Treatment of stage 1: Loop electrical-surgical excision procedure ( LEEP), laser surgery, total hysterectomy, internal radiation therapy( for women who cannot have surgery)
  • Middle stage- the tumor has grown through the cervix and invaded the upper part of the vagina. It may have invaded other nearby tissues but not the pelvic wall (the lining of the part of the body between the hips) or the lower part of the vagina. If the tumor is larger enough to block one or both of the tubes through which urine passes from the kidneys, lab test may show that the kidneys are not working well. Stages 2-4 : Combination of external and internal radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy During Stage 4: Cancer has spread to distant organs such as the liver
  • (Stage 5): Radiation Therapy ( the use of high energy waves to treatment cancer usually followed by chemotherapy ). Late stage- the tumor has invaded the bladder or rectum or the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs. It is the final and most advanced cancer stage; it has metastasized to other parts of the body.
  • HPV affects both females and males. HPV transmission can happen with any kind of genital contact with someone who has HPV…intercourse is not necessary. Many who have HPV don’t even know it because the virus has no signs and symptoms. That means you can pass it to your partner without even knowing it. In the U>S. an estimated 75-80% of males and females will be infected with HPV in there lifetime. For most the virus will clear on its own when it doesn’t HPV has negative consequences. There are about 6 million new cases of genital HVP in the U.S. each year. It’s estimated that 74% of them occur in 15-24 year olds.
  • HPV vaccines are recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization practices and the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology.It only guards against the disease attacking the body. Because of the nature that the STD is spread, skin on skin contact, condoms are not fully effect and preventing the spread of HPV. Some parents think that it is too early for their children to receive vaccines especially around age 9 for STD vaccinations. Some parents believe that this will provide their daughters with a sense of safety and their teens will be more sexually promiscuous.
  • Gardasil helps protect both girls and boys from certain diseases caused by HPV. Gardasil is the only HPV vaccine that helps protect your child against four types of HPV. In girls and young women ages 9 to 26 Gardasil helps protect against 2 types of HPV that cause about 75% of cervical cancer cases, and 2 more types that cause 90% of genital warts cases.In boys and young men ages 9 to 26, Gardasil helps protect against 90% of genital warts cases.Gardasil also helps protect girls and young women ages 9 to 26 against 70% of vaginal cancer cases and up to 50% of vulvar cancer cases.
  • Taken from the from Gardasil Facts Sheet “Gardasil=This is a vaccine for girls and women 9 through 26 years of age to help protect against the following diseases caused by HPV: Cervical cancer, Vulvar and vaginal cancers, Genital warts, as well as Abnormal and precancerous cervical, vaginal, and vulvar lesions.” “Gardasil, however only protects against diseases caused by certain HPV types: Type 6, Type 11, Type 16, and Type 18).” “It is given as an injection in 3 doses. 1st Dose=This is when you want to go get the shot the first time. 2nd Dose= This is given 2 months after the first dose, and the 3rd and final Dose= This is given 6 months after the first dose is given.” 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts are caused by these 4 types just mentioned. HPV Prevention classes will encourage and provide you and the women around you with important facts with ways to help prevent the types of HPV that cause CC. Routine screenings should start at age 21, or at least 3 years before sexual activity. Two types of screening is the Pap Smear Test, and HPV DNA Test. The Pap smear test doesn’t diagnose HPV, but it can look for abnormal cells caused by HPV, and the lining of the cervix before the cells become precancerous or cancerous. All HPV types that affect the genital area can cause abnormal Pap tests. To determine if an abnormal Pap test is caused by HPV we can order an HPV test. For proper treatments, it is best to maintain routine cervical cancer screenings. Pap Smear Tests “will find changes in cervical cells before they turn into cancer.” Treating these cell changes may prevent cervical cancer. In addition, the HPV DNA testing helps to detect the cervical cancer lesions.
  • More than 11,000 women develop cervical cancer each year. Also, many of the strains are latent, which means you could be a carrier, not have symptoms, and pass it on withoutknowing it.
  • You cannot get pregnant if you get radiation therapy or a hysterectomy ( removal of uterus).
  • Cervical cancer power point 2 final

    1. 1.  HPV Infection  Smoking  Immunosuppression  Chlamydia Infection  Diet  Oral Contraceptives  Multiple full-term pregnancies  Pregnancies at a young age  Poverty  Diethylstilbestrol (DES)  Family History  Multiple sex partners  Unprotected sex at an early age  Other STD’s
    2. 2.  Abnormal bleeding between periods after pelvic exams and after sexual intercourse  Foul smelling discharge  Heavier and longer periods  Pelvic pain during sexual intercourse  Loss of appetite and weight loss  Leg pain
    3. 3.  Pap smear Test  HPV Test  Cervical exam  Biopsy
    4. 4.  The process of finding out how far the cancer has spread is called staging.  These are the stages: Early stage, middle stages, and late stage
    5. 5.  Cancer cells are found only in the cervix
    6. 6.  The tumor has grown through the cervix and invaded the upper part of the vagina
    7. 7.  It is the final and most advanced cancer stage.
    8. 8.  Females and Males are both at risk.
    9. 9.  It could prevent more than 200,000 HPV infections.  HPV vaccines are recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee.  It has negative effects on the body: fainting, headaches, dizziness.  Some parents feel that there are too many vaccines for their children to endure.
    10. 10.  Gardasil is the only HPV vaccine that helps protect against four types of HPV. Gardasil will not fully protect everyone nor will it protect against diseases caused by other HPV types or against diseases not caused by HPV.  Gardasil does not prevent all types of cervical cancer so its important for women to continue routine cervical screenings. Gardasil does not treat cancer or genital warts. Gardasil is given in three injections over six months.
    11. 11.  Gardasil is the only HPV vaccine that helps protect your child against four types of HPV that causes Cervical Cancer.
    12. 12.  Gardasil  HPV Prevention classes  Routine screenings
    13. 13.  Everyday in the United States, 30 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer.  Currently 20 million people are infected.  At least 50% of sexually active women and men acquire genital HPV infection at some point in there life.  At age 50, at least 80% of women will have acquired genital HPV infection.  Approximately 20 of the 30 identified genital HPV types can lead to the development of cervical cancer.  About 6.2 million Americans get a new genital HPV infection each year.
    14. 14.  Most women are diagnosed with HPV on the basis of abnormal pap tests.  There is no cure for HPV infection though in most women the infection goes away.  No HPV tests are available for men.
    15. 15.  About your risks of developing cervical cancer  About treatment options  About lifestyle changes  About outlook
    16. 16.  Follow-up appointments  Necessary for Pap smears, lab tests, and imaging tests  Long-term side affects  Early Menopause  Lymphoedema(can cause swollen legs)  Can cause infertility
    17. 17.  If immediate treatment is necessary, pregnancy must be terminated.  If not, uterus will be removed at time of cesarean operation.  Women who had early cancer  Undergo Cone biopsy treatment  Still have baby, but risk miscarriage or premature birth
    18. 18.  Cancer Research UK. (September 2012). Treating Cervical Cancer: A Quick Guide. Retrieved from: http://cancerhelp.cancerresearchuk.org/prod_consump/groups/cr_common/@cah/@gen/documents/generalcontent/tr eating-cervical-cancer.pdf Datta, S., Koutsky, L. A., Ratelle, S., Unger, E. R., Shlay, J., McClain, T., & ... Weinstock, H. (2008). Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cytology in Women Screened for Cervical Cancer in the United States, 2003— 2005. Annals Of Internal Medicine, 148(7), 493-501.  Long, Harry J,I.I.I., M.D., Laack, Nadia N I,M.D., M.S., & Gostout, B. S., M.D. (2007). Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cervical cancer. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 82(12), 1566-74. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/216871977?accountid=26268  Mayo Clinic staff. (March 17, 2012). Cervical Cancer. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/cervical-cancer/DS00167  National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health. (January 2012). What You Need to Know About: Cervical Cancer. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/wyntk/cervix/cervix.pdf  Singh, G. K. (2012). Rural-urban trends and patterns in cervical cancer mortality, incidence, stage, and survival in the united states, 1950-2008. Journal of Community Health, 37(1), 217-23. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10900-011-9439-6  Welcome to the Cervical Cancer Channel.(2006). Cervical-Cancer.emedtv.com/cervical-cancer/cervical- cancer/treatment/by/stage.html

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