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Highway design

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This presentation deals with all the major steps involved in the survey, selection of the most possible route and the designing of the highway.
It will brief u on all the major topics of highway designing

Published in: Engineering
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Highway design

  1. 1. HIGHWAY DESIGNING By- M. Tabish Khan Sabin Shaji Aayush Jain Shahjaan Rehman
  2. 2. OVERVIEW • Why Transportation. • Road Plans. • Committees Involved. • Classification of Roads. • Planning Survey. • Preparation of Plans. • Highway Alignment. • Geometric Design.
  3. 3. WHY TRANSPORTATON? • It is needed since every commodity produced whether it is food, clothing, industrial products or medicine needs transport at all stages from production to distribution. • Road transport is requires relatively less investment from government hence is used most widely and is most efficient mode of transport.
  4. 4. ROAD PLANS First 20 yr Road Plan • Also known as Nagpur Road Plan (1943-1963). • Road density 16 km/100 sq. km. Second 20 yr Road Plan • Also known as Bombay Road Plan (1961-1981) • Road Density 32 km/100 sq. km. Third 20 yr Road Plan • Also known as Lucknow Road Plan (1981-2001) • Road Density 82 km/100 sq. km.
  5. 5. COMMITIES INVOLVED 1. Jayakar Committee. 2. Central Road Fund. 3. Indian Road Congress. 4. Motor Vehicle Act. 5. Central Road Research Institute. 6. National Highway Act
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATION OF ROADS • National Highway • State Highway • Major District Road • Other District Road • Village Road By Nagpur Road Plan • Primary System • Secondary System • Tertiary System By Lucknow Road Plan
  7. 7. PLANNING SURVEY
  8. 8. 1. ECONOMIC STUDIES
  9. 9. 2. FINANCIAL STUDIES
  10. 10. 3. TRAFFICANDROADUSE STUDIES
  11. 11. 4. ENGINEERING STUDIES
  12. 12. PREPARATION OF PLANS
  13. 13. • Plan I • Plan II • Plan III • Plan IV
  14. 14. INTERPRETATION OF PLANNING SURVEYS
  15. 15. • To arrive at the road net-work out of several alternate possible road systems . • To fix up priority of the construction projects . • To assess the actual road use by studying the traffic flow patterns . • Designing using previous data and past experience of traffic type, intensity, performance of existing roads etc. • Comparison of areas for information on areas for immediate need for road network . • The data obtained in fact finding surveys may be analysed for the future trends in development of an area . This information is useful in the future planning .
  16. 16. HIGHWAY ALIGNMENT
  17. 17. Requirements • Short • Easy • Safe • Economical
  18. 18. Factors Controlling Alignment • Obligatory Points • Traffic • Geometric Design • Economics • Other Considerations
  19. 19. Obligatory points
  20. 20. Traffic
  21. 21. Geometric Design
  22. 22. Economics
  23. 23. Other Considerations
  24. 24. 1. Map Study 2. Reconnaissance 3. Preliminary Surveys 4. Final Location And Detailed Surveys ENGINEERING SURVEYS FOR HIGHWAY LOCATIONS
  25. 25. Map Study 1. Alignment avoiding valleys, ponds or lakes. 2. Approximate location of bride site. 3. Possibility of crossing through a mountain pass.
  26. 26. Reconnaissance 1. Obstructions along route such as Valleys, Ponds etc. 2. Approximate value of gradient, alternate alignments. 3. Soil type and sources of construction materials.
  27. 27. Preliminary Survey 1. Survey various alternate alignments. 2. To compare different proposals. 3. To estimate quantity of earthwork materials to workout cost of alternate proposals.
  28. 28. Final Location And Detailed Survey 1. Done using transit theodolite. 2. Location of centre line. 3. Levelling work along that centre line as vertical alignments.
  29. 29. HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN 1. Cross section elements. 2. Sight distance. 3. Horizontal alignment details. 4. Vertical alignment details.
  30. 30. Cross Section Elements 1. Pavement surface characteristics 2. Camber 3. Kerbs 4. Carriageway 5. Road Margins
  31. 31. Pavement Surface Characteristics
  32. 32. Camber And Kerb
  33. 33. Carriageway
  34. 34. Road Margins
  35. 35. SIGHT DISTANCE 1. It is the actual distance along the road surface,which a driver has visibility of stationary or moving objects. 2. Restrictions to this may caused at horizontal curves, vertical curves or at intersections.
  36. 36. Sight Distance At Horizontal Curve
  37. 37. Stopping Sight Distance 1. It is equal to the minimum sight Distance available on a highway at any spot. 2. Explained by PIEV theory.
  38. 38. Overtaking Sight Distance It is the minimum distance open to vision of the driver intended to overtake slow vehicle ahead.
  39. 39. Overtaking Zone
  40. 40. HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT • Often changes in the direction are necessitated in highway alignment due to obligatory points. • Alignment should enable consistent, safe and smooth movement of vehicles operating at design speeds. • Horizontal Alignment Consists:- – Design Speed – Horizontal Curves – Super elevation – Widening of Pavement – Transition Curve
  41. 41. Design Speed • Main factor on which Geometric design elements depends • Design Speed depends on – Class of the Road – Terrain Road Classification Design Speed in Kmph for Various Terrain Plain Rolling Mountainous Steep Ruling Min Ruling Min Ruling Min Ruling Min NH & SH 100 80 80 65 50 40 40 30 MDR 80 65 65 50 40 30 30 20 ODR 65 50 50 40 30 25 25 20 VR 50 40 40 35 25 20 25 20
  42. 42. Horizontal Curve • It is a curve in plan to provide change in direction to the center line of road. • The centrifugal force develops depend on the radius and the speed of the vehicle negotiating the curve. • Centrifugal force has two effects – Overturning. – Tendency to skid the vehicle.
  43. 43. Super Elevation • Transverse inclination to the pavement surface • To counteract the effect of Centrifugal force.
  44. 44. Widening • Objectives of extra widening. – To prevent Off Tracking • Types of extra widening. – Mechanical Widening – Psychological widening
  45. 45. Transition Curve • Curve having radius decreasing from infinity at tangent to design radius. • Objects – Gradually introduce centrifugal force – Turn steering gradually – To gradually introduce Super elevation & Extra Widening
  46. 46. VERTICAL ALIGNMENT • The vertical alignment is the elevation or profile of the centre line of the road. • It consists – Gradient – Vertical Curves
  47. 47. Gradient • Rate of rise or fall along the length of road w.r.t. the horizontal. • Expressed as ratio of 1 in x (1 vertical in x horizontal) • Types – Ruling gradient – Exceptional gradient – Minimum gradient
  48. 48. Vertical Curves • These are introduced to smoothen out the vertical profile • Types of vertical curves – Summit curve with convexity upward – Valley curve with concavity upward
  49. 49. Summit Curve
  50. 50. Valley Curve
  51. 51. THANK YOU

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