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THE NATURE OF MATTER
Chapter # 02
Topic :ISOTOPES
Objective
Define nucleon number
Define and state isotope of same atoms...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
Nucleus
Electron
Orbit
Energy Levels
ATOMIC STRUCTUREATOMIC STRUCTURE
the number of protons in an atom
the number of protons and
neutrons in an atom
HeHe
22
44...
4
O
16
8
chemical symbol
mass number
(nucleon number)
proton number
(atomic number)
P=E
No. of
protons= no.
of electrons
a...
Definition of Isotopes
Isotopes are atoms of the same
element which contains the same
number of protons but different
numb...
Isotopes
O
16
8
mass
number
proton
number
Oxygen-16 Oxygen-17 Oxygen-18
O O
17
8
18
8
n = 8 n = 17 – 8
= 9
n = 18 – 8
= 10
Isotopes
Isotopes have the same chemical
properties but slightly different
physical properties
Q. Do all isotopes of the same element have the
same mass?
Isotopes of Some Elements and Their
Atomic Mass
10
The atomic mass of an element
• is listed below the symbol of each element on
the periodic table.
• Gives the mass of a...
11
The calculation for atomic mass requires the
• percent(%) abundance of each isotope.
• atomic mass of each isotope of t...
12
24Mg = 23.99 amu x 78.70/100 = 18.88 amu
25Mg = 24.99 amu x 10.13/100 = 2.531 amu
26Mg = 25.98 amu x 11.17/100 = 2.902 ...
I know the answer……..
RADIO ISOTOPES
Parent isotope
Radioactive decay
heat
Daughter isotope
Stable vs. Unstable
• A stable isotope does NOT
undergo radioactive (or nuclear)
decay.
• An unstable isotope undergoes
ra...
Uses of Radioactive Isotopes
• Food irradiation
• Archaeological dating (carbon-dating)
• Smoke detectors
• Radioactive tr...
NUCLEON NUMBER
electr
ons
• Process of emitting energy in the forms of
waves or particles.
• In nucleus there are two types of forces
• Stable isotopes:
• They do not naturally decay but exist in
natural materials in differing proportions
• Unstable iso to...
Isotopes
Isotopes
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Isotopes

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state isotopes of the same element with different nucleon number

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Isotopes

  1. 1. THE NATURE OF MATTER Chapter # 02 Topic :ISOTOPES Objective Define nucleon number Define and state isotope of same atoms with different nucleon number
  2. 2. ATOMIC STRUCTURE Nucleus Electron Orbit Energy Levels
  3. 3. ATOMIC STRUCTUREATOMIC STRUCTURE the number of protons in an atom the number of protons and neutrons in an atom HeHe 22 44Atomic mass Atomic number number of electrons = number of protons
  4. 4. 4 O 16 8 chemical symbol mass number (nucleon number) proton number (atomic number) P=E No. of protons= no. of electrons atomic number (proton number) is the number of protons in an atom. Each oxygen atom has 8 protons. As the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons in an atom, each oxygen atom contains 8 electrons. Mass=P+N mass number is the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom. Number of neutrons in the oxygen atom is: 16 – 8 = 8. Interpreting Chemical Symbol
  5. 5. Definition of Isotopes Isotopes are atoms of the same element which contains the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.
  6. 6. Isotopes O 16 8 mass number proton number Oxygen-16 Oxygen-17 Oxygen-18 O O 17 8 18 8 n = 8 n = 17 – 8 = 9 n = 18 – 8 = 10
  7. 7. Isotopes Isotopes have the same chemical properties but slightly different physical properties
  8. 8. Q. Do all isotopes of the same element have the same mass?
  9. 9. Isotopes of Some Elements and Their Atomic Mass
  10. 10. 10 The atomic mass of an element • is listed below the symbol of each element on the periodic table. • Gives the mass of an “average” atom of each element compared to 12C.
  11. 11. 11 The calculation for atomic mass requires the • percent(%) abundance of each isotope. • atomic mass of each isotope of that element. • sum of the weighted averages. mass of isotope(1)x (%) + mass of isotope(2) x (%) =Ar 100 100 Ar=(Average atomic mass)
  12. 12. 12 24Mg = 23.99 amu x 78.70/100 = 18.88 amu 25Mg = 24.99 amu x 10.13/100 = 2.531 amu 26Mg = 25.98 amu x 11.17/100 = 2.902 amu Atomic mass (average mass) Mg = 24.31 amu
  13. 13. I know the answer……..
  14. 14. RADIO ISOTOPES Parent isotope Radioactive decay heat Daughter isotope
  15. 15. Stable vs. Unstable • A stable isotope does NOT undergo radioactive (or nuclear) decay. • An unstable isotope undergoes radioactive (or nuclear) decay. Unstable isotopes are also known as radioisotopes or radionucleides
  16. 16. Uses of Radioactive Isotopes • Food irradiation • Archaeological dating (carbon-dating) • Smoke detectors • Radioactive tracers
  17. 17. NUCLEON NUMBER electr ons
  18. 18. • Process of emitting energy in the forms of waves or particles.
  19. 19. • In nucleus there are two types of forces
  20. 20. • Stable isotopes: • They do not naturally decay but exist in natural materials in differing proportions • Unstable iso tope • Isotopes that continously break down into lower atomic weight isotopes

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