M. Saad Habib
M. Noman Baig
• Who is a Child?
• Definition Of Child labor?
• Child Labor across the world.
• Usage of Child Labor in industry.
• Child Labor in Pakistan.
• Causes of child labor.
• Efforts against child labor in Pakistan.
Who is a child?
• International conventions define children
as aged 18 and under.
• Individual governments may define
"child" according to different ages or
Define Child Labor
• Child labor is work that harms children or
keeps them from attending school.
• Making children work against their will.
Child labor involves at least one of
the following characteristics:
• Violates a nation’s minimum age laws
• Threatens children’s physical, mental, or
• Involves intolerable abuse, such as child
slavery, child trafficking, debt bondage,
forced labor, or illicit activities
• Prevents children from going to school
• Uses children to undermine labor standards
Child labor in Industry
Nearly 70% of child labor occurs in agriculture, fishing, hunting, and forestry.
Children have been found harvesting.
About 15 million children are estimated to be directly involved in manufacturing
goods for export.
• Carpets from India, Pakistan, Egypt.
• Soccer balls sewn in Pakistan.
• Surgical instruments made in Pakistan.
• Mining and Quarrying
Children as young as 6 or 7 years old break up rocks, and wash, sieve, and carry
ore. Nine-year-olds work underground setting explosives and carrying loads.
Child labor in Industry
• Domestic Service
Many children, especially girls, work in domestic service, sometimes starting
as young as 5 or 6. This type of child labor is linked to child trafficking.
Domestic child laborers can be victims of physical, emotional, and sometimes
• Hotels, Restaurants, and Retail
Some of the work of young people in this sector is considered legitimate, but
there are indications of considerable abuse. Low pay is the norm, and in some
tourist areas, children’s work in hotels and restaurants is linked to prostitution.
• Unconditional Worst Forms of Child Labor
8.4 million children are involved in work that, under any circumstance, is
considered unacceptable for children It includes the forced recruitment of
children for armed conflict, commercial sexual exploitation, and illicit activities,
such as producing and trafficking drugs.
Child labor in Pakistan
• There are 3.3 million child laborers in Pakistan
between the ages of 5 and 14 years.
• which includes
• 73% boys
• 23% percent girls
• children's involvement in work in rural areas is about
eight times greater than in urban areas
• Majority found in small production units, few are found
in the modern sector
Statistics of child labor
according to provinces
Punjab NWFP Sindh Balochistan
Causes of Child labor
• Supply Factors
– Child Trafficking.
– Poverty is the main push factor.
– Lack of educational facilities or poor quality of education.
– Disrupted family patterns.
– Entrenched social and cultural attitudes.
– High birth rate.
• Demand Factors
– Children are docile and compliant workers and in most cases cost less.
– Children can be hired, dismissed and re-hired easily.
– Misplaced perception of the necessity of children in certain production
– Child prostitution, sexual harassment, molestation.
• Young boys, many of
who are Afghan
buses and perform
other services for the
drivers who take
them on as
boys, as young as 8,
complain of sexual
• Fair complexioned
Pathan and Afghan
shoeshine boys are
legion in Lahore.
They flash their
masquerade eyes in
hopes of attracting
older male clients.
Punjabi men prefer
these lighter skinned
boys from the
Efforts against child labor
• ILO (International labor organization)
is a specialized agency of the United Nations that
deals with labors issues. Its headquarters are in
Geneva, Switzerland. Founded in 1919. was
initially an agency of the League of Nations.
• The ILO has a specialist programme addressing
child labor, the International Programme on the
Elimination of Child Labor (IPEC).
IPEC CLOSE LOOK
• The International Programme on the
Elimination of Child Labor (IPEC) is a
programme that the International Labor
Organization has run since 1992.
• IPEC’s aim is to work towards the progressive
elimination of child labor by strengthening
national capacities to address child labor
problems, and by creating a worldwide
movement to combat it.
IPEC’s efforts against
child labor in Pakistan
• Combating abusive child labor practices
through withdrawal and rehabilitation.
• Elimination of child labor from sports industry in
• Elimination of child labor from the surgical
instrument manufacturing industry, Glass
bangle industry, Tannery industries etc….
• Increased family incomes
• Education — that helps children learn skills that will
help them earn a living
• Social services — that help children and families
survive crises, such as disease, or loss of home and
• Family control of fertility — so that families are not
burdened by children