Community Multimedia Centres
in Mozambique:
a contribution from the Theory
of Social Representations.
Sara Vannini ‒ NewMi...
(Social REpresentations of Community
Multimedia Centres in Mozambique
and ACTions for improvement).
RE-ACT
Research Question
Social Representations
Theory
Methods
Application
Need
Research Question
Social Representations
Theory
Methods
Application
Need
Research Question
Social Representations
Theory
Methods
Improved
Research Question?
Application
Need
What are the social representations of
CMCs in Mozambique
(according to different stakeholders)?
What are the social representations of
CMCs in Mozambique
(according to different stakeholders)?
What are the social representations of
CMCs in Mozambique
(according to different stakeholders)?
telecentres
community radios
CMCs in Mozambique in 2011
What are the social representations of
CMCs in Mozambique
(according to different stakeholders)?
Social Representations
Moscovici, 1973
Social Representations
Moscovici, 1973
systems of values, ideas and practices,
that are shared among a given group
Social Representations
Making sense of the reality
Communicate
Semiotic Triangle of SR
agency
negotiation
cognitive polyphasia
Semiotic Triangle of SR
Bauer & Gaskell, 1999
Toblerone Model
Why SR Theory could be suitable
for the ICT4D domain?
Design-Reality Gap (Heeks, 2008)
Misalignments may lead to
sustainability issues (Rega, 2010)
ICTs entered Mozambican
comm...
Design-Reality Gap (Heeks, 2008)
Misalignments may lead to
sustainability issues (Rega, 2010)
ICTs entered Mozambican
comm...
What do Local People Think about Telecentres?
A Key Issue for Sustainability.
Rega, 2010
Design-Reality Gap (Heeks, 2008)
Misalignments may lead to
sustainability issues (Rega, 2010)
ICTs entered Mozambican
comm...
Design-Reality Gap (Heeks, 2008)
Misalignments may lead to
sustainability issues (Rega, 2010)
ICTs entered Mozambican
comm...
Design-Reality Gap (Heeks, 2008)
Misalignments may lead to
sustainability issues (Rega, 2010)
ICTs entered Mozambican
comm...
Current Status of the Literature
Applied vs Theorethical
Applied vs Theorethical
What is the current status of studies about Social
Representations in ICT4D?
• Purpose
• Methodolo...
Applied vs Theorethical
What is the current status of studies about Social
Representations in ICT4D?
• Purpose
• Methodolo...
Applied vs Theorethical
What is the current status of studies about Social
Representations in ICT4D?
• Purpose
• Methodolo...
Applied vs Theorethical
What is the current status of studies about Social
Representations in ICT4D, Development, & ICTs?
...
SR +
International
Development
SR +
ICT4D
SR +
ICTs
Inclusion
Criteria
(EN, FR, PT,
ES, IT)
ICT4D
everything possible
(7 journals, ICTD conference, Science Direct, GScholar)
...
Inclusion
Criteria
ICT4D
everything possible
(7 journals, ICTD conference, Science Direct, GScholar)
ICTs
Journals of Soci...
Language SR + ICT4D SR + ICTs SR + Development Total
EN 6 9 8 23
ES 0 1 3 4
Total 6 10 11 27
Language SR + ICT4D SR + ICTs SR + Development Total
EN 6 9 8 23
ES 0 1 3 4
Total 6 10 11 27
Language SR + ICT4D SR + ICTs SR + Development Total
EN 6 9 8 23
ES 0 1 3 4
Total 6 10 11 27
Geographical Areas
21
1
1
9
8
6
1
2
7
1
Development Areas
ICT4D ICTs Development Tot
Health 5 5
Access to 
information 4 11 4
Identity/stigma 1 3 4
Education 1 2 ...
Development Areas
ICT4D ICTs Development Tot
Health 5 5
Access to 
information 4 11 4
Identity/stigma 1 3 4
Education 1 2 ...
Methods of Data Collection
1
1
1
2
3
5
7
7
11
9
Scripts (storytelling)
Photo-stories (storytelling)
Photo-diary (storytell...
Methods of Data Collection
1
1
1
2
3
5
7
7
11
9
Scripts (storytelling)
Photo-stories (storytelling)
Photo-diary (storytell...
Methods of Data Analysis
1
0
1
1
1
1
2
5
7
12
does not specify
Central nucleus/periphery
DCS (Discourse of the collective ...
Methods of Data Analysis
1
0
1
1
1
1
2
5
7
12
does not specify
Central nucleus/periphery
DCS (Discourse of the collective ...
Purpose
Purpose
What is the current status of studies about
Social Representations in ICT4D?
• Field is m u c h l e s s s t u d i e d
• Similar studies have demonstrated S R T f i t s the
domain(s) and purposes of t...
What are the social representations of
CMCs in Mozambique
(according to different stakeholders)?
CommunityInitiating
Agencies
Staff
Community
-Users
-(RC+TC)
#95
-(RC) #72
-Non-Users #8
Initiating
Agencies
#2
Staff
#57
(Participant-Driven) Photo-Elicitation
1)
Interviews ‒ whole corpus
1)
Automatic analysis of the reciprocal
relationships among textual units
[T-Lab]
1) Results
1 2 3 4 5 6
Molding
the polis
through
the
community
radio
Learning
informatics
at the
telecenter
Computers
as p...
1) Results
1 2 3 4 5 6
Molding
the polis
through
the
community
radio
Learning
informatics
at the
telecenter
Computers
as p...
1) Results
2)
Interviews ‒ information and
communication flows
2)
Content Analysis
[N-Vivo]
2) Results
Community Radio 60.9%
Inbound 46.1%
Outbound 4.8%
Within 34.3%
Telecentre 7.4%
Inbound 6.5%
Outbound 0.4%
Withi...
2) Results
STAFF U-CMC U-RC NON-USERS TOTAL
Community Radio 78.9% 58.1% 54.2% 25.0% 60.9%
Inbound 63.2% 43.0% 40.3% 12.5% ...
3)
Photos & Photo-related interviews
3)
Content analysis
[Manual]
Telecenter
Radio
CMC
Services
Facilities & Tools
People Managing
People Using
[Cantoni & Tardini, 2006;
Rega, 2010]
3) Results ‒ photo 1
3) Results ‒ photo 2
Improved
Research Question?
What are the social representations of
CMCs in Mozambique
(according to different stakeholders)?
Is Social Representations a suitable Theory
for advancements in the ICT4D domain?
Is Social Representations a suitable Theory
for advancements in the ICT4D domain?
...Design-Reality Gap is addressed
Is Social Representations a suitable Theory
for advancements in the ICT4D domain?
...integrated view: Initiating Agencies
...
Is Social Representations a suitable Theory
for advancements in the ICT4D domain?
...integrated view: Initiating Agencies
...
Is the Methodology applied within this study
suitable for the field (ICT4D)?
Is the Methodology applied within this study
suitable for the field (ICT4D)?
...mixed methods allow triangulation
Is the Methodology applied within this study
suitable for the field (ICT4D)?
...photo-elicitation allowed for gaining
diff...
Is the Methodology applied within this study
suitable for the field (ICT4D)?
...photo-elicitation allowed for gaining
orig...
Limitations
relationship donors -recipient
photo-elicitation: time & questions
different lengths in interviews
results ver...
1) What are the social representations of CMCs in
Mozambique?
2) Is Social Representations a suitable Theory
for advanceme...
THANK YOU!
Journals
• Rega, I., Vannini, S., Fino, E., Cantoni, L. (accepted). Exploring the Meanings
of Community Multime...
THANK YOU!
PhD progresses @ 4th Cross-Field Residential Seminar
PhD progresses @ 4th Cross-Field Residential Seminar
PhD progresses @ 4th Cross-Field Residential Seminar
PhD progresses @ 4th Cross-Field Residential Seminar
PhD progresses @ 4th Cross-Field Residential Seminar
PhD progresses @ 4th Cross-Field Residential Seminar
PhD progresses @ 4th Cross-Field Residential Seminar
PhD progresses @ 4th Cross-Field Residential Seminar
PhD progresses @ 4th Cross-Field Residential Seminar
PhD progresses @ 4th Cross-Field Residential Seminar
PhD progresses @ 4th Cross-Field Residential Seminar
PhD progresses @ 4th Cross-Field Residential Seminar
PhD progresses @ 4th Cross-Field Residential Seminar
PhD progresses @ 4th Cross-Field Residential Seminar
PhD progresses @ 4th Cross-Field Residential Seminar
PhD progresses @ 4th Cross-Field Residential Seminar
PhD progresses @ 4th Cross-Field Residential Seminar
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RE-ACT & Social Representations of CMCs in Mozambique
PhD progresses @ 4th Cross-Field Residential Seminar - focus on my literature review

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PhD progresses @ 4th Cross-Field Residential Seminar

  1. 1. Community Multimedia Centres in Mozambique: a contribution from the Theory of Social Representations. Sara Vannini ‒ NewMinE Lab Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano.
  2. 2. (Social REpresentations of Community Multimedia Centres in Mozambique and ACTions for improvement). RE-ACT
  3. 3. Research Question Social Representations Theory Methods Application Need
  4. 4. Research Question Social Representations Theory Methods Application Need
  5. 5. Research Question Social Representations Theory Methods Improved Research Question? Application Need
  6. 6. What are the social representations of CMCs in Mozambique (according to different stakeholders)?
  7. 7. What are the social representations of CMCs in Mozambique (according to different stakeholders)?
  8. 8. What are the social representations of CMCs in Mozambique (according to different stakeholders)?
  9. 9. telecentres community radios
  10. 10. CMCs in Mozambique in 2011
  11. 11. What are the social representations of CMCs in Mozambique (according to different stakeholders)?
  12. 12. Social Representations Moscovici, 1973
  13. 13. Social Representations Moscovici, 1973 systems of values, ideas and practices, that are shared among a given group
  14. 14. Social Representations Making sense of the reality Communicate
  15. 15. Semiotic Triangle of SR
  16. 16. agency negotiation cognitive polyphasia Semiotic Triangle of SR
  17. 17. Bauer & Gaskell, 1999 Toblerone Model
  18. 18. Why SR Theory could be suitable for the ICT4D domain?
  19. 19. Design-Reality Gap (Heeks, 2008) Misalignments may lead to sustainability issues (Rega, 2010) ICTs entered Mozambican communities abruptly and are symbolically charged (Contarello & Sarrica, 2007) Epistemologically: constructionist & non-sperimental Triadic: • no separation individual perception/socio-cultural context • focus on communication • not focused on internal decision-making process
  20. 20. Design-Reality Gap (Heeks, 2008) Misalignments may lead to sustainability issues (Rega, 2010) ICTs entered Mozambican communities abruptly and are symbolically charged (Contarello & Sarrica, 2007) Epistemologically: constructionist & non-sperimental Triadic: • no separation individual perception/socio-cultural context • focus on communication • not focused on internal decision-making process
  21. 21. What do Local People Think about Telecentres? A Key Issue for Sustainability. Rega, 2010
  22. 22. Design-Reality Gap (Heeks, 2008) Misalignments may lead to sustainability issues (Rega, 2010) ICTs entered Mozambican communities abruptly and are symbolically charged (Contarello & Sarrica, 2007) Epistemologically: constructionist & non-sperimental Triadic: • no separation individual perception/socio-cultural context • focus on communication • not focused on internal decision-making process
  23. 23. Design-Reality Gap (Heeks, 2008) Misalignments may lead to sustainability issues (Rega, 2010) ICTs entered Mozambican communities abruptly and are symbolically charged (Contarello & Sarrica, 2007) Epistemologically: constructionist & non-sperimental Triadic: • no separation individual perception/socio-cultural context • focus on communication • not focused on internal decision-making process
  24. 24. Design-Reality Gap (Heeks, 2008) Misalignments may lead to sustainability issues (Rega, 2010) ICTs entered Mozambican communities abruptly and are symbolically charged (Contarello & Sarrica, 2007) Epistemologically: constructionist & non-sperimental Triadic: • no separation individual perception/socio-cultural context/others • focus on communication • not focused on internal decision-making process
  25. 25. Current Status of the Literature
  26. 26. Applied vs Theorethical
  27. 27. Applied vs Theorethical What is the current status of studies about Social Representations in ICT4D? • Purpose • Methodology • Geographical areas of application
  28. 28. Applied vs Theorethical What is the current status of studies about Social Representations in ICT4D? • Purpose • Methodology • Geographical areas of application
  29. 29. Applied vs Theorethical What is the current status of studies about Social Representations in ICT4D? • Purpose • Methodology • Geographical areas of application
  30. 30. Applied vs Theorethical What is the current status of studies about Social Representations in ICT4D, Development, & ICTs? • Purpose • Methodology • Geographical areas of application • Which sectors of International Development have been considered?
  31. 31. SR + International Development SR + ICT4D SR + ICTs
  32. 32. Inclusion Criteria (EN, FR, PT, ES, IT) ICT4D everything possible (7 journals, ICTD conference, Science Direct, GScholar) ICTs Journals of Social Psychology, Science Direct, GScholar Development Journals of Development, Science Direct, Gscholar Reference check
  33. 33. Inclusion Criteria ICT4D everything possible (7 journals, ICTD conference, Science Direct, GScholar) ICTs Journals of Social Psychology, Science Direct, GScholar Development Journals of Development, Science Direct, Gscholar Reference check Journals of International Development Meta-discourse about Development in Developing Countries Areas of Development only when for developing purposes in developing countries
  34. 34. Language SR + ICT4D SR + ICTs SR + Development Total EN 6 9 8 23 ES 0 1 3 4 Total 6 10 11 27
  35. 35. Language SR + ICT4D SR + ICTs SR + Development Total EN 6 9 8 23 ES 0 1 3 4 Total 6 10 11 27
  36. 36. Language SR + ICT4D SR + ICTs SR + Development Total EN 6 9 8 23 ES 0 1 3 4 Total 6 10 11 27
  37. 37. Geographical Areas 21 1 1 9 8 6 1 2 7 1
  38. 38. Development Areas ICT4D ICTs Development Tot Health 5 5 Access to  information 4 11 4 Identity/stigma 1 3 4 Education 1 2 3 Development per se 3 3 Government/ Participation 2 2 Gender 1 1 2
  39. 39. Development Areas ICT4D ICTs Development Tot Health 5 5 Access to  information 4 11 4 Identity/stigma 1 3 4 Education 1 2 3 Development per se 3 3 Government/ Participation 2 2 Gender 1 1 2
  40. 40. Methods of Data Collection 1 1 1 2 3 5 7 7 11 9 Scripts (storytelling) Photo-stories (storytelling) Photo-diary (storytelling Literature Review Focus-group interviews Written accounts/association of words Surveys Observations/field notes/ethnography Interviews Multi-method
  41. 41. Methods of Data Collection 1 1 1 2 3 5 7 7 11 9 Scripts (storytelling) Photo-stories (storytelling) Photo-diary (storytelling Literature Review Focus-group interviews Written accounts/association of words Surveys Observations/field notes/ethnography Interviews Multi-method
  42. 42. Methods of Data Analysis 1 0 1 1 1 1 2 5 7 12 does not specify Central nucleus/periphery DCS (Discourse of the collective Subject) Metaphors (manually) Linguistics (morpho-syntaxis, semantics) Argumentation Automated Content Analysis (es: T-Lab,… Advanced statistics Reflection on results Content Analysis (Atlas, Nvivo…)
  43. 43. Methods of Data Analysis 1 0 1 1 1 1 2 5 7 12 does not specify Central nucleus/periphery DCS (Discourse of the collective Subject) Metaphors (manually) Linguistics (morpho-syntaxis, semantics) Argumentation Automated Content Analysis (es: T-Lab,… Advanced statistics Reflection on results Content Analysis (Atlas, Nvivo…)
  44. 44. Purpose
  45. 45. Purpose
  46. 46. What is the current status of studies about Social Representations in ICT4D?
  47. 47. • Field is m u c h l e s s s t u d i e d • Similar studies have demonstrated S R T f i t s the domain(s) and purposes of this study • Methodology: m i x e d m e t h o d s seem to fit well ‒ rigor needed in ICT4D What is the current status of studies about Social Representations in ICT4D?
  48. 48. What are the social representations of CMCs in Mozambique (according to different stakeholders)?
  49. 49. CommunityInitiating Agencies Staff
  50. 50. Community -Users -(RC+TC) #95 -(RC) #72 -Non-Users #8 Initiating Agencies #2 Staff #57
  51. 51. (Participant-Driven) Photo-Elicitation
  52. 52. 1) Interviews ‒ whole corpus
  53. 53. 1) Automatic analysis of the reciprocal relationships among textual units [T-Lab]
  54. 54. 1) Results 1 2 3 4 5 6 Molding the polis through the community radio Learning informatics at the telecenter Computers as possibly connected typewriters Users edu- tainment experience of the radio What we sell is photocopie s : An instrument al view of telecenters services The CMC as a bureaucra tic umbrella
  55. 55. 1) Results 1 2 3 4 5 6 Molding the polis through the community radio Learning informatics at the telecenter Computers as possibly connected typewriters Users edu- tainment experience of the radio What we sell is photocopie s : An instrument al view of telecenters services The CMC as a bureaucra tic umbrella
  56. 56. 1) Results
  57. 57. 2) Interviews ‒ information and communication flows
  58. 58. 2) Content Analysis [N-Vivo]
  59. 59. 2) Results Community Radio 60.9% Inbound 46.1% Outbound 4.8% Within 34.3% Telecentre 7.4% Inbound 6.5% Outbound 0.4% Within 0.4% TOT # Interviewees 230
  60. 60. 2) Results STAFF U-CMC U-RC NON-USERS TOTAL Community Radio 78.9% 58.1% 54.2% 25.0% 60.9% Inbound 63.2% 43.0% 40.3% 12.5% 46.1% Outbound 7.0% 5.4% 2.8% - 4.8% Shared 49.1% 32.3% 27.8% 12.5% 34.3% Telecentre 5.3% 10.8% 5.6% - 7.4% Inbound 5.3% 8.6% 5.6% - 6.5% Outbound - 1.1% - - 0.4% Shared - 1.1% - - 0.4% TOT # Interviewees 57 93 72 8 230
  61. 61. 3) Photos & Photo-related interviews
  62. 62. 3) Content analysis [Manual]
  63. 63. Telecenter Radio CMC Services Facilities & Tools People Managing People Using [Cantoni & Tardini, 2006; Rega, 2010]
  64. 64. 3) Results ‒ photo 1
  65. 65. 3) Results ‒ photo 2
  66. 66. Improved Research Question?
  67. 67. What are the social representations of CMCs in Mozambique (according to different stakeholders)?
  68. 68. Is Social Representations a suitable Theory for advancements in the ICT4D domain?
  69. 69. Is Social Representations a suitable Theory for advancements in the ICT4D domain? ...Design-Reality Gap is addressed
  70. 70. Is Social Representations a suitable Theory for advancements in the ICT4D domain? ...integrated view: Initiating Agencies expectations & Local Ownership ...Design-Reality Gap is addressed
  71. 71. Is Social Representations a suitable Theory for advancements in the ICT4D domain? ...integrated view: Initiating Agencies expectations & Local Ownership ...insights on appropriation and reinvention of a (new) object ...Design-Reality Gap is addressed
  72. 72. Is the Methodology applied within this study suitable for the field (ICT4D)?
  73. 73. Is the Methodology applied within this study suitable for the field (ICT4D)? ...mixed methods allow triangulation
  74. 74. Is the Methodology applied within this study suitable for the field (ICT4D)? ...photo-elicitation allowed for gaining different insights ...mixed methods allow triangulation
  75. 75. Is the Methodology applied within this study suitable for the field (ICT4D)? ...photo-elicitation allowed for gaining original insights ...mixed methods allow triangulation
  76. 76. Limitations relationship donors -recipient photo-elicitation: time & questions different lengths in interviews results very specific & not generalizable
  77. 77. 1) What are the social representations of CMCs in Mozambique? 2) Is Social Representations a suitable Theory for advancements in the ICT4D domain? 3) Is the Methodology applied within this study suitable for the field (ICT4D)?
  78. 78. THANK YOU! Journals • Rega, I., Vannini, S., Fino, E., Cantoni, L. (accepted). Exploring the Meanings of Community Multimedia Centers in Mozambique: A Social Representations Perspective. Submitted to Information Technology and International Development, (ITID). • Vannini, S., Rega, I., Cantoni, L. (accepted). Information and Communication Flows through Community Multimedia Centres: Perspectives from Mozambican Communities. Submitted to Information Technology for Development (ITD), Special Issue on ICT and Development in Africa. • Rega, I, Vannini, S., Cantoni, L., (submitted). Using Photo-elicitation to Explore Social Representations of Community Multimedia Centres in Mozambique. Submitted to Information Technology for Development (ITD). Conference Proceedings • Vannini, S., Aguirre, L., Rega, I., Cantoni, L. (2013). Images of Community Multimedia Centres in Mozambique: a participatory photo-elicitation study, in Proceedings: IFIP WG 9.4: Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries, Ocho Ríos Jamaica, 19-22 May, 2013. • Vannini, S., Rega, I., (2012), Inbound and Outbound Information and Communication flows: Perspectives from Community Multimedia Centres in Mozambique, in Proceedings: CIRN 2012 Community Informatics Conference: 'Ideals meet Reality' Monash Centre, Prato Italy 7-9 November 2012.
  79. 79. THANK YOU!

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