Monday, May 02, 2011<br />The  Iraq  Conflict<br />Anam Shahid<br />Hani Ather<br />Haseem uz Zaman<br />Jawaria Hameed<br...
Overview<br />Introduction <br />Pre-war era <br />Causes of Conflict <br />Conflict <br /> Impact <br />Efforts for Resol...
Kurd 15-20%<br />Sunni Arab 33%<br />Shia Arab 60%<br />Turkomans 5-8%<br />
Early Conflicts<br />
Iraq and Iran Conflict<br />Saddam Hussein becomes President- 1979<br />Shortly after, Iran was established as a  Shiite M...
Iraq Kuwait Conflict <br />After war Iraq faced an economic disaster<br /> Kuwait increased production of oil (against OPE...
US Iraq Conflict<br />
WHY DID US INVADE IRAQ?<br />
Causes Of Conflict<br />After the Gulf War, sanctions were placed on Iraq<br />Iraq Liberation Act of 1998:<br />  .  1980...
Strategic Reasons<br />Allegations  made against the Iraqi government, that it had ties with Al-Qaeda.<br />These “ties” h...
PROXY WAR FOR ISREAL<br />Fought by the U.S. on Israel's behalf in order to substantially weaken the Arab front and to neu...
Political Reasons<br /><ul><li>United states presidential elections 2004
The best way for bush to get re-elected.
Bush defeated John Kerry in elections.
United Kingdom general elections 2005</li></li></ul><li>Economic Reasons<br />Theories suggest that US invaded Iraq becaus...
IRAQ’S FAILURE<br />16 resolutions passed prior 2002.<br />Iraq failed to comply with 1441 resolution.<br />Iraq continued...
COALITION OF THE WILLING<br />
In November 2002,The Bush Administration briefly used the term "Coalition of the Willing“.<br />Over 48 countries particip...
Timeline of US <br />Invasion of Iraq<br />
2002<br />OctoberWar Authorized<br />The U.S. Congress authorizes President Bush to <br /> use military force against Iraq...
2003<br />March 17 – <br />     President Bush gives Saddam Hussein and his sons 48 hours to leave Iraq. <br />9:34PM Marc...
MARCH 30, 2003: <br />        Donald Rumsfeld-“We know where the WMDs are.”<br />    “We know where (the Weapons of Mass D...
May 1, 2003:<br />On board the USS Abraham Lincoln, President Bush makes his "Mission Accomplished" speech, declaring and ...
2004<br />JANUARY 28, 2004:<br />WMD, RIP<br /> Iraq Survey Group inspector David Kay:<br />FEBRUARY 10, 2004: <br />U.S. ...
JUNE 28, 2004: <br />    U.S. transfers sovereignty to Iraq. Bush’s response: “Let freedom reign!”<br /><ul><li>AUGUST 27,...
2005<br />JANUARY 12, 2005:<br />WMD search in Iraq is declared over<br />JANUARY 30, 2005: <br />Iraqis vote to form a Tr...
MARCH 19<br />“Complete victory”<br />MAY 25<br />Iraqi Prime Minister Maliki says Iraqi troops will be ready to handle se...
NOVEMBER-December, 2006<br />Saddam sentenced to death and executed<br />
2007<br />JANUARY 10, 2007:<br />Bush announces escalation.<br />JANUARY 26, 2007:<br />The White House has “authorized th...
MARCH 27, 2007: <br />McCain claims progress in Iraq.<br />APRIL 1, 2007: <br />    McCain strolls through Baghdad market,...
APRIL 12, 2007: <br />Iraqi parliament bombed inside Green Zone<br />APRIL 26, 2007:<br />Senate approves Iraq withdrawal ...
OCTOBER 3, 2007:<br />White House retaliates against UK for withdrawal: ‘British forces have performed poorly’ in Iraq.<br...
2008<br />JANUARY 15, 2008: <br />The Iraqi defense minister said Monday that his nation would not be able to take full re...
SEPTEMBER 1, 2008. <br />    Iraq takes control of Anbar province from U.S.<br />SEPTEMBER 9, 2008. <br />    President Bu...
2009<br />MARCH 9, 2009. 12,000 U.S. Troops to Leave Iraq.<br />APRIL 7, 2009. President Obama Visits Iraq.<br /><ul><li>J...
Impact of War<br />
Impact of War on US Global Powerand Prestige:<br />There have been changes made in the attitudes and policies of the US go...
Iraq’s Humanitarian Crisis<br /><ul><li>Iraqi Insurgents Killed, Roughly Estimated - 55,000
Number of Iraqi police and soldiers killed: 9411
90,000 to 1 million Iraqi civilians have been killed since the US led military forces in Iraq.
Number of displaced Iraqis inside Iraq:  2,255,000.
More than 2 million people have moved out of Iraq since 19 March, 2009.
Non-Iraqi Kidnapped - 306, including 57 killed, 147 released, 4 escaped, 6 rescued and 89 status unknown.
ECONOMIC VIEW </li></ul>Iraqi Unemployment Rate - 27 to 60% <br />Consumer Price Inflation in 2006 - 50%<br />
Environmental Impact<br />Activities in the Iraq war have released at least 141 million metric tons of carbon( equal to pu...
Impact on US Forces<br />The US military is suffering from the effects of six years of war in Afghanistan and Iraq as part...
Increase of Jihadists and other terrorists:<br />"If we were not fighting and destroying this enemy in Iraq, they would no...
The US constructed a military base on the site of ancient Babylon. <br />Coalition forces destroyed or badly damaged many ...
Resolving Conflict <br />What is conflict resolution?<br />  Potential peacemakers in Iraqi civil society include: <br />•...
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The IRAQ conflict

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The IRAQ conflict

  1. 1. Monday, May 02, 2011<br />The Iraq Conflict<br />Anam Shahid<br />Hani Ather<br />Haseem uz Zaman<br />Jawaria Hameed<br />Mariyam Khan<br />Moeenuddin Hashim<br />Mohammad Saud Ahmed<br />Rabab Rizvi<br />Samra Khan Saroosh Zahid<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />Introduction <br />Pre-war era <br />Causes of Conflict <br />Conflict <br /> Impact <br />Efforts for Resolution <br />
  3. 3. Kurd 15-20%<br />Sunni Arab 33%<br />Shia Arab 60%<br />Turkomans 5-8%<br />
  4. 4. Early Conflicts<br />
  5. 5. Iraq and Iran Conflict<br />Saddam Hussein becomes President- 1979<br />Shortly after, Iran was established as a Shiite Muslim Theocratic State<br />Iran encouraged Iraqi people to overthrow Saddam Hussein<br />War becomes International<br />UN Resolution passed 1987<br />
  6. 6. Iraq Kuwait Conflict <br />After war Iraq faced an economic disaster<br /> Kuwait increased production of oil (against OPEC)<br />Iraq waged total war against Kuwait. This war is also known as Gulf War.<br />Saddam was warned by the U.N. to pull out of Kuwait or action would be taken.<br />U.S.A., under the U.N. and following the paradigm of Collective Security, attacked Iraq to save the weakerand smaller state, Kuwait.(Operation Desert Storm)<br />
  7. 7. US Iraq Conflict<br />
  8. 8. WHY DID US INVADE IRAQ?<br />
  9. 9. Causes Of Conflict<br />After the Gulf War, sanctions were placed on Iraq<br />Iraq Liberation Act of 1998:<br /> .  1980: Iraq had used chemical weapons against Iranian troops.<br /> .  1988, Iraq’s relocation of Kurds killed an estimated 50,000 to 180,000 Kurds.<br /> . Mass ethnic killings have occurred in Iraq on the orders of Saddam Hussein.<br />
  10. 10. Strategic Reasons<br />Allegations made against the Iraqi government, that it had ties with Al-Qaeda.<br />These “ties” have still not been proven yet.<br />According to the US government, Iraq possessed WMDs, so it could be a threat to nations.<br />
  11. 11. PROXY WAR FOR ISREAL<br />Fought by the U.S. on Israel's behalf in order to substantially weaken the Arab front and to neutralize Iraq's threats to Israel<br />It is not the U.S. but rather Israel <br />that is most frightened by Saddam <br />Hussein's arsenals and is pushing <br />the U.S. to take care of the matter<br /> for it. <br />
  12. 12. Political Reasons<br /><ul><li>United states presidential elections 2004
  13. 13. The best way for bush to get re-elected.
  14. 14. Bush defeated John Kerry in elections.
  15. 15. United Kingdom general elections 2005</li></li></ul><li>Economic Reasons<br />Theories suggest that US invaded Iraq because ofOil. Foreign policy analysts suspect that the Bush sought a military presence in Iraq as a way to control Oil supplies. <br />U.S. officials helped draft a proposed law that would give foreign oil companies the ability to operate in Iraq and to reap the profits from newly discovered oil fields.<br />
  16. 16. IRAQ’S FAILURE<br />16 resolutions passed prior 2002.<br />Iraq failed to comply with 1441 resolution.<br />Iraq continued to fail to account for substantial chemical and biological stockpiles.<br />Chemical testing done at the site was unable to show that any anthrax had been destroyed there.<br />
  17. 17. COALITION OF THE WILLING<br />
  18. 18. In November 2002,The Bush Administration briefly used the term "Coalition of the Willing“.<br />Over 48 countries participated in the invasion.<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20. Timeline of US <br />Invasion of Iraq<br />
  21. 21. 2002<br />OctoberWar Authorized<br />The U.S. Congress authorizes President Bush to <br /> use military force against Iraq. <br />NovemberInspections<br />U.N. weapons inspections resume inside Iraq. <br />
  22. 22. 2003<br />March 17 – <br /> President Bush gives Saddam Hussein and his sons 48 hours to leave Iraq. <br />9:34PM March 19 -- U.S.-led invasion begins. <br />20 March – <br /> US-led invasion topples Saddam Hussein's government, marks<br />start of years of violent conflict with <br /> different groups competing for power.<br />
  23. 23. MARCH 30, 2003: <br /> Donald Rumsfeld-“We know where the WMDs are.”<br /> “We know where (the Weapons of Mass Destruction) are. They’re in the area around Tikrit and Baghdad and east, west, south and north somewhat.”<br />April 9, 2003:<br /> "Fall of Baghdad," as statue of Saddam Hussein gets toppled in the city's center.<br />
  24. 24. May 1, 2003:<br />On board the USS Abraham Lincoln, President Bush makes his "Mission Accomplished" speech, declaring and end to major military operations.<br />MAY 29, 2003:<br />Bush- “We found the WMDs”<br /><ul><li>DECEMBER 14, 2003: </li></ul>Saddam is captured<br />“Ladies and gentlemen. We got him!” [Bremer]<br />Saddam Hussein is captured by U.S. troops. He surrenders without a fight.<br />
  25. 25. 2004<br />JANUARY 28, 2004:<br />WMD, RIP<br /> Iraq Survey Group inspector David Kay:<br />FEBRUARY 10, 2004: <br />U.S. Military uncovers letter addressed to senior al-Qaida operatives seeking help in waging a “sectarian war”<br />“It turns out that we were all wrong, probably in my judgment, and that is most disturbing.”<br />
  26. 26. JUNE 28, 2004: <br /> U.S. transfers sovereignty to Iraq. Bush’s response: “Let freedom reign!”<br /><ul><li>AUGUST 27, 2004:</li></ul>Bush acknowledged for the first time <br />that he made a “Miscalculation of what the conditions would be” in postwar Iraq<br /><ul><li>OCTOBER 7, 2004: </li></ul>Duelfer Report: Iraq did not<br /> have WMD<br /><ul><li>NOVEMBER 2, 2004: </li></ul>Bush wins re-election<br />
  27. 27. 2005<br />JANUARY 12, 2005:<br />WMD search in Iraq is declared over<br />JANUARY 30, 2005: <br />Iraqis vote to form a Transitional National Assembly:<br /><ul><li>MARCH 31, 2005: </li></ul>Silberman-Robb commission, the Presidential Commission on Iraqi WMD, concludes:<br /> “[T]he intelligence community was dead wrong in almost all of its prewar judgments.”<br />
  28. 28. MARCH 19<br />“Complete victory”<br />MAY 25<br />Iraqi Prime Minister Maliki says Iraqi troops will be ready to handle security by end of 2007<br />JUNE 8<br />Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, the leader of al-Qaida in Iraq, is killed during a U.S. air raid<br />
  29. 29. NOVEMBER-December, 2006<br />Saddam sentenced to death and executed<br />
  30. 30. 2007<br />JANUARY 10, 2007:<br />Bush announces escalation.<br />JANUARY 26, 2007:<br />The White House has “authorized the U.S. military to kill or capture Iranians who are believed to be working with Iraqi militias.”<br />FEBRUARY 16, 2007<br />The House opposes escalation.<br />MARCH 24, 2007:<br />“Record high” percentage of Americans believe the Iraq war was not worth fighting.<br />
  31. 31. MARCH 27, 2007: <br />McCain claims progress in Iraq.<br />APRIL 1, 2007: <br /> McCain strolls through Baghdad market, accompanied by 100 soldiers, 3 Blackhawks, 2 Apache gunships.<br />APRIL 6, 2007: <br />Pentagon report criticizes Feith’s office, finds no Iraq-al Qaeda link.<br />APRIL 9, 2007: <br />Tens of thousands of Iraqis gather to protest U.S. presence in Iraq<br />
  32. 32. APRIL 12, 2007: <br />Iraqi parliament bombed inside Green Zone<br />APRIL 26, 2007:<br />Senate approves Iraq withdrawal bill.<br />JULY 4, 2007<br />Bush tells troops to prepare for more deaths.<br />JULY 8, 2007: <br />Powell-‘I tried to avoid this war.’<br />
  33. 33. OCTOBER 3, 2007:<br />White House retaliates against UK for withdrawal: ‘British forces have performed poorly’ in Iraq.<br />NOVEMBER 8, 2007: <br />Iraq war opposition at all-time <br /> high<br />NOVEMBER 24, 2007: <br /> U.S. starts first major pullout from Iraq, beginning with brigade members<br />
  34. 34. 2008<br />JANUARY 15, 2008: <br />The Iraqi defense minister said Monday that his nation would not be able to take full responsibility for its internal security until 2012,<br />FEBRUARY 6, 2008: <br /> Bush administration abandons long-term “security guarantee” with Iraq<br /><ul><li>APRIL 10, 2008. </li></ul>Bush says U.S. strategy in Iraq is working but needs more time.<br /><ul><li>JULY 9, 2008. </li></ul>Iraq’s national security adviser -his government would not sign an agreement governing the future role of U.S. troops in Iraq unless it includes a timetable for their withdrawal.<br />
  35. 35. SEPTEMBER 1, 2008. <br /> Iraq takes control of Anbar province from U.S.<br />SEPTEMBER 9, 2008. <br /> President Bush announced that about 8,000 US troops will be withdrawn from Iraq by February<br /><ul><li>NOVEMBER 16, 2008. </li></ul>Iraq Head, Top Cleric Back 2011 Exit by U.S.<br /><ul><li>December 14,2008. </li></ul>Iraqi journalist Muntazer al- Zaidi throws shoes at bush<br />
  36. 36. 2009<br />MARCH 9, 2009. 12,000 U.S. Troops to Leave Iraq.<br />APRIL 7, 2009. President Obama Visits Iraq.<br /><ul><li>JUNE 30, 2009. Jubilation as U.S. Combat Troops Withdraw From Cities.</li></li></ul><li>2010<br />MARCH 26, 2010. Secular Challenger Allawi Claims Iraq Election Win.<br />AUGUST 31, 2010. Obama Declares an End to Combat Mission in Iraq.<br />DECEMBER 15, 2010.<br />Security Council Removes Restrictions on Iraq.<br />
  37. 37. Impact of War<br />
  38. 38. Impact of War on US Global Powerand Prestige:<br />There have been changes made in the attitudes and policies of the US government -the US political class has become more cautious without becoming wiser.<br />The most obvious effect of the Iraq War has been on US military prestige. <br />
  39. 39.
  40. 40. Iraq’s Humanitarian Crisis<br /><ul><li>Iraqi Insurgents Killed, Roughly Estimated - 55,000
  41. 41. Number of Iraqi police and soldiers killed: 9411
  42. 42. 90,000 to 1 million Iraqi civilians have been killed since the US led military forces in Iraq.
  43. 43. Number of displaced Iraqis inside Iraq: 2,255,000.
  44. 44. More than 2 million people have moved out of Iraq since 19 March, 2009.
  45. 45. Non-Iraqi Kidnapped - 306, including 57 killed, 147 released, 4 escaped, 6 rescued and 89 status unknown.
  46. 46. ECONOMIC VIEW </li></ul>Iraqi Unemployment Rate - 27 to 60% <br />Consumer Price Inflation in 2006 - 50%<br />
  47. 47. Environmental Impact<br />Activities in the Iraq war have released at least 141 million metric tons of carbon( equal to putting 25 million more cars on the road in the U.S.)<br /> <br />Projected U.S. spending on the Iraq war would be enough for all of the GLOBAL investments required in renewable energy generation between 2008 and 2030 to stop current global warming trends.<br />The $600 billion allocated by Congress for Iraq military operations could have built 9000 wind farms, enough to meet a quarter of U.S. present electricity needs.<br />In 2006, The U.S. spent more on the Iraq War than the entire world spent on renewableenergy investment.<br />
  48. 48. Impact on US Forces<br />The US military is suffering from the effects of six years of war in Afghanistan and Iraq as part of the US "War on Terror." Heavy casualties, longer deployments and an exhausted force have left troop numbers stretched.<br />
  49. 49. Increase of Jihadists and other terrorists:<br />"If we were not fighting and destroying this enemy in Iraq, they would not be idle. They would be plotting and killing Americans across the world and within our own borders. By fighting these terrorists in Iraq, Americans in uniform are defeating a direct threat to the American people." President Bush on November 30, 2005, <br /><ul><li>Their own NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE ESTIMATE on “trends on Global terrorism” stated that the war in Iraq is shaping a new generation of terrorist leaders and has become a reason for jihadists to come out in the open.</li></li></ul><li>Destruction of Cultural Heritage<br />The US and its allies ignored the warnings of organizations and scholars concerning the protection of Iraq 's cultural heritage.<br /> Arsonists badly burned the National Library and looters pillaged the National Museum<br />
  50. 50. The US constructed a military base on the site of ancient Babylon. <br />Coalition forces destroyed or badly damaged many historic urban areas and buildings, while thieves have ruined thousands of incomparable, unprotected archeological sites.<br />
  51. 51. Resolving Conflict <br />What is conflict resolution?<br /> Potential peacemakers in Iraqi civil society include: <br />• Academic institutions <br />• Human rights/civil rights/humanitarian organizations <br />• Media <br />• Personnel of youth centers <br />• Teachers and educators <br />• Tribal leaders <br />• Women’s group<br />
  52. 52. Balad Al-Salam Movement - Iraqi women seeking peace <br />The movement was aimed at empowering Iraqi activists (both women and men) as well as non-governmental and governmental organizations in order to create the basic infrastructure that will help preventing violence against women (VAW) in Iraq<br />The project hopes to strengthen the ability of local partners, NGOs and the Iraqi Government, to raise public awareness on violence in general and more specifically violence against women. <br />
  53. 53. Mercy Hands for Humanitarian Aid<br /> An Iraqi NGO which launched the Peace Activation and Conflict Transformation (PACT) Centre in 2006. <br />The Centre is dedicated to establish new models which address conflicts within the Iraqi civil society. <br />
  54. 54. Protests against the Iraq War<br />Demonstrations against the war were mainly organized by anti-war organizations, many of whom had been formed in opposition to the invasion of Afghanistan.<br /> Europe saw the biggest mobilization of protesters, including a rally of three million people in Rome, which is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the largest ever anti-war rally.<br />
  55. 55. Polling<br />Immediately before and after the 2003 invasion, most polls within the United States showed a substantial majority supporting war, though since December 2004 polls have consistently shown that a majority now thinks the invasion was a mistake. In the spring of 2007, surveys generally show a majority in favor of setting a timetable for withdrawal.<br />
  56. 56. ANSWER, NION, UFPJ positions<br />The three largest coalitions which organized demonstrations against the invasion of Iraq in 2003, United for Peace and Justice (UFPJ), Act Now to Stop War and End Racism (ANSWER), and Not in Our Name (NION), have all called for the immediate withdrawal of all U.S. troops, "out now."<br />
  57. 57. Questions?<br />

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