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Needs assessment


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Needs assessment

  1. 1. Needs Assessment:Vocational Training and Job Market in Lusaka Kirsi Koivuporras & Chilufya Chisenga Kanyama Youth Programme 2011
  2. 2. Contents 1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 1 2. General Characteristics of the Zambian Economy and Labor Market....................................................... 2 3. Challenge: Low Economical Activity and Unemployment among Youth .................................................. 4 4. Current Vocational Training....................................................................................................................... 7 5. Informal Sector and Entrepreneurship .................................................................................................... 10 6. Employers’ Needs for Vocational Training .............................................................................................. 14 7. Young People’s Perspectives for Vocational Training ............................................................................. 20 8. Community Perspectives and Needs for Training ................................................................................... 22 9. Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................... 23 10. Life after SYL Funding: Suggestions for Kanyama Youth Programme ................................................... 24 Biblioraphy List of Interviews
  3. 3. 1. IntroductionThis study was requested by the Kanyama Youth Programme to help the institution to plan its activities inthe future. Kanyama Youth Programme (KYP) is a vocational training center graded by TEVETA locatedalong the Los Angeles Road in Lusaka. It is a community based NGO funded by the Kanyama residents inlate 1980’s. KYP is currently funded by SYL, National Union of University Students in Finland. Thecooperation is coming to an end by the end of 2011.The mission of KYP is to enhance the employment opportunities of the vulnerable youth trough vocationaltraining. Currently KYP trains young people in five different vocations: Automotive Mechanics, AutomotiveElectrical, Power Electrical, Hotel & Catering, and Tailoring & Designing.The study was started as a cooperation of Information and Communication Office Mr. Chilufya Chisenga,and ETVO-volunteer Ms. Kirsi Koivuporras, currently working at KYP. The study was planned together andthe responsibility of the interviews was shared among the above mentioned persons.The main objectives of this study are to discuss about the relevance of the current vocational training to thejob market in Lusaka, to bring out the characteristics of the current job market, and to see the needs thatthe different stakeholders have for vocational training.To be able to fulfill this objective we wanted to find out the needs that the employers have for vocationaltraining and what they would want to improve. We wanted to see the job market from the perspective ofthe people living in the Kanyama and surrounding compounds, and to see what kind of needs thecommunity members have for vocational training. We also wanted to get the youth perspective forvocational training and the labor market.The study is based on semi-structured interviews. Three main target groups were the employers in Lusaka,the community members living in the compounds close to KYP, and young people about to finish theirschool in Kanyama.Total amount of company representatives interviewed was 18. We targeted formal companies acting onthe same industries that KYP is training its youth for. The total amount of community members interviewedwas 34. We also held two focus group meetings in two high schools in Kanyama that were held at LadyDiana Education Center and Chinika High School. In total 67 pupils participated in the focus group meetings.We also had a meeting with CISEP, Center for Informal Sector Employment Promotion, to get moreinformation about the informal sector. In this session two people from CISEP were present.Other important sources have been especially the ILO Decent Work Agenda in Africa 2007-2015, LaborForce Survey done by the Ministry of Labor and Security, TEVETA’s Technical Education, Vocational andEntrepreneurship Training Policy, and, TEVET Statistic Digest done by the Ministry of Science Technologyand Vocational Training. There are also several other written sources that are listed in the bibliography.The study itself was finalized by Ms. Koivuporras as Mr. Chisenga moved to different job after theinterviews were made. This means that the gathered material is analyzed and the report is written by Ms.Koivuporras.1
  4. 4. 2. General Characteristics of the Zambian Economy and Labor MarketZambia is a landlocked nation in Southern Africa with a population of 13 million people.1 Zambia’s economyis booming as it has been growing with more than 6 percent for the previous years and the growth isexpected to continue with 6.5 percent in 2011. Economy is based on services that cover 49.5 percent of theGDP. Industries cover 31.3 percent and agriculture 20.9 percent (including forestry, fishing and hunting).Traditionally manufacturing has been about 10 percent of the GDP.2However it is important to point out that only a small percentage of the work force is working on the twomain sectors. The service sector employs 9 percent and the industries 6 percent of the total work force.Most of the people in Zambia live on agriculture. Agricultural activities bring living for 73 to 85 percent ofthe population depending on the different statistics. According to the Labor Force Survey the percentagewas 73 in 2005. Small proportion of the agricultural activities is commercial, and vast majority of the peopleliving in the rural areas are dependent on subsistence farming. 3Despite the economical growth and the positive economical forecasts, Zambia is still one of the lessdeveloped countries in the world. Zambia’s ranking is 150th in the Human Development Index (2010) out of169 ranked countries. About 64 percent of Zambians live with less than 1 US Dollar per a day.4 It can beeasily stated that the economical growth hasn’t been benefiting people equally.Poverty is concentrated on the country side where about 85 percent of the people live under the povertyline. In the urban areas the equivalent percentage is 34. Majority of the Zambians still live on the countryside although Zambia is one of the most urbanized countries in Southern Africa. The current populationcensus shows that 61 percent of the population is living in the rural areas and 39 percent in the urbanareas.5Lusaka as a capital has currently a population of 2.2 million – and the amount is growing. According to theofficial poverty estimates published by the government in 2004 almost half of the Lusaka city dwellers, 48percent were considered to be poor. At that time the poverty rate for the whole nation was 68 percent.6When talking about the Zambian labor market the most striking characteristic is the size of the informalsector. Out of the current Zambian workforce that is 6.2 million people only 11.3 percent of are formallyemployed as the rest are working on the informal sector or are unemployed.71 The exact population is 13,046,508. Zambia 2010 Census of Population and Housing: African Economic Outlook:; Economy Watch:; CIAWorld Fact book: Economy Watch:; CIA World Fact book:; Ministry of Labor and Social Security: Labor Force Survey 2005.4 African Economic Outlook:; Human Development Index 2010, UNDP.5 African Economic Outlook:; Zambia 2010 Census of Population and Housing: Zambia 2010 Census of Population and Housing; Valerie Kozel: BBL Poverty Impact Analysis, Monitoring andEvaluation 2006, World Bank.7 ILO: Zambia Decent Work Country Profile 2007-2011.2
  5. 5. According to the statistics in the latest and the second Labor Force Survey that have ever been done, theunemployment rate was 16 percent in 2005.8 However the concept of being unemployed is not that clearas most of the people don’t have formal jobs but are carrying different economical activities to cover theirdaily livelihood. For this reason the terms “economically active” and “economically inactive” seem todescribe the labor market better.The Labor Force Survey divides the employed people into following groups that follow the concept of“economically active” as a synonym for “employed”: of the total number of employed persons in Zambia 43percent were self-employed, 17 percent were paid employees and 38 percent were unpaid family workers.The remaining 1 percent consists of employers.9Zambia’s situation is not an exception among African states. According to ILO Decent Work Agenda in Africa2007-2015 the informal economy, comprising the self-employed, micro- and small enterprises and workerswho find themselves in informal contractual arrangements, accounts for a significant percentage ofeconomical activity in Africa, both in rural and urban areas.10It is estimated that around three-quarters of activities in the urban economies are informal in nature. Thereport is also giving a very careful estimate that it might be that only one out of ten people have jobs in theformal economy in Africa.11In general home-based workers and street vendors make up the largest groups of informal workers inurban areas in Africa. Many workers are also employed in small workshops often doing small-scalemanufacturing and assembly work. Often the business unit is the family with more than one generationworking together and pooling earnings.12The informal sectors is constantly reshaping: businesses born and die rather quickly. It is also common thatthe position of the people is changed many times – today a person can be employed working for aninformal employer, next year he or she can be self-employed and on the next year working again forsomeone else.13According to CISEP (Center for Informal Sector Employment Promotion) the biggest sector of the informalwork in Lusaka is trading. Next on the list are manufacturing, then services and agricultural activities.14The large informal sector and the decline of manufacturing have their roots in the 1990s. World Bankeconomist Valerie Kozel points out that as a result of reforms and stabilization measures in the 1990s, theurban workforce shifted out of mining and manufacturing into trade and services, and also into agriculture.At the same time the informal sector in urban areas started to grow.15One important factor of the job market is the education level that is in general rather low in Zambia.According to the Labor Force Survey only 3.1 percent have a university degree, 19.7 percent have lower8 Ministry of Labor and Social Security: Labor Force Survey 2005.9 Ministry of Labor and Social Security: Labor Force Survey 2005.10 ILO: Decent Work Agenda in Africa 2007-2015.11 ILO: Decent Work Agenda in Africa 2007-2015.12 ILO: Decent Work Agenda in Africa 2007-2015.13 ILO: Decent Work Agenda in Africa 2007-2015.14 Interview with CISEP, Center for Informal Sector Employment Promotion, representatives Dickson Moyo (Manager)Phillip Phiri (Officer).15 Valerie Kozel: BBL Poverty Impact Analysis, Monitoring and Evaluation 2006, World Bank.3
  6. 6. secondary education and 19 percent higher secondary education. In 2005 a bit less than 60 percent of theZambians had finalized their primary education.16Education level of individuals correlates with their status on a job market. Most of the literate persons areself-employed when illiterate are mainly unpaid family workers. In other words persons with no educationtend to be unpaid family workers. Majority of the people with tertiary education were paid employees.People with primary education were either paid employees or unpaid family workers.17What comes to gender, men are slightly more active economically than women. About 51 percent of theemployed persons are men and about 48 percent are female. There are however some importantdifferences that need to be pointed out. There are more women working in agriculture than men, andwomen do more part-time work than men. There are also more women on the informal sector than men.In general the level of education among women is lower than among men. Girls have a higher risk to dropout of school. 18 On other words women are more vulnerable on the job markets and have pooreropportunities to education, formal work and permanent work.One problem on the Zambian job market seems to be the fact that most of the Zambians areunderemployed. According to the Labor Force Survey about 83 percent of the economically active peoplesaid they are underemployed. The weight of subsistence farming plays a major role in this because aboutthe same percentage said that the reason for their underemployment is the seasonal nature of theirworking. This however brings out the vulnerable situation of the majority of the Zambians.193. Challenge: Low Economical Activity and Unemployment among YouthAs young people are the main beneficiaries of the Kanyama Youth Programme it is important to look theyouth unemployment in a more detailed way. Youth unemployment is also one of the big challenges thatthe African countries are facing.ILO’s Decent Work Agenda in Africa 2007-2015 points out that the number of unemployed young people(those available and looking for work) grew almost by 30 percent between 1995 and 2005. In 2005 theyouth unemployment rate in Africa reached to 19.5 percent.20In Zambia the age group of 40-44 years has the highest employment rate against the population ratio (91percent). The lowest is in the age group of 15-19 years; 28 percent of this group was unemployed in 2005.The majority of the employed persons were found in the age groups of 20-24 and 25-29 years. Howeverthese age groups are also among the biggest in Zambia.21One reason behind the youth unemployment is the population growth. Africa’s population is among theworld’s youngest. The youth population is expected to grow by an additional 46 million between 2005 and16 Ministry of Labor and Social Security: Labor Force Survey 2005.17 Ministry of Labor and Social Security: Labor Force Survey 2005.18 Ministry of Labor and Social Security: Labor Force Survey 2005; TEVETA: Technical Education, Vocational andEntrepreneurship Training Policy, 1996.19 Ministry of Labor and Social Security: Labor Force Survey 2005.20 ILO: Decent Work Agenda in Africa 2007-2015.21 Ministry of Labor and Social Security: Labor Force Survey 2005.4
  7. 7. 2015 and the youth labor force by 22 million. Already the young people between the ages of 15 and 24 findit very difficult to find work because the current economies are unable to absorb the newcomers.22Unfortunately getting employment doesn’t either guarantee decent living. The ILO estimates that in 2005as many as 44 million young people in Africa, or 48.7 per cent of all employed young people did not earnenough to lift themselves and their families above the 1 US Dollar per a day poverty limit. Africa is the onlyregion where the number of young working poor has increased since 1995.23Young people often lack work experience, job searching know-how and access to social networks thatprovide job information. Many of the young people also lack the skills that are required on the job market.And the more crucial problem is that getting the skills does not guarantee a job. 24ILO agenda also states that gender discrimination and cultural norms worsen the situation for youngwomen. Women are less likely to be employed than men. Being left outside the job market is also mentallyheavy. Discouraged young people may start to feel useless and alienated from society what makes enteringthe labor force even more difficult.25This happens in a context where young people really cannot afford to be unemployed. Survival forces themajority to enter the informal economy where they generally work long hours without no security and at avery low pay.26Some of the aspects discussed above also came up during the interviews that were made for this study. Thefact that a vocational training certificate doesn’t guarantee much on the job market was proved to be truethrough the interviews of the company representatives.Most of the 18 interviewees were saying that they do ask for papers, and the minimum requirement to getemployment in the formal sector is the certificate level. However when we were talking more about thetopic it came obvious that the employers don’t put so much emphasis on the formal education but they aremore or less highlighting the practical experience that a job seeker has.In this sense an educated young person seems to stand on the same line with a person that has noeducation but has some amount of working experience. Traditional apprenticeship, learning while workingseems to still be quite common, and this was stated also in the ILO’s Decent Work in Africa Agenda. What isconsidered “experienced” varied according to the interviewee. The scale varied from 6 months to severalyears.This shouldn’t however be understood wrongly because the company representatives do value thetechnical and practical skills and the knowledge that the training can give. There were also few companieslike for example the Lusaka Hotel and Garden House Hotel that emphasized training. The training also givesthe individual a chance for career development that is much harder without any education.22 ILO: Decent Work Agenda in Africa 2007-2015.23 ILO: Decent Work Agenda in Africa 2007-2015.24 ILO: Decent Work Agenda in Africa 2007-2015.25 ILO: Decent Work Agenda in Africa 2007-2015.26 ILO: Decent Work Agenda in Africa 2007-2015.5
  8. 8. However the reason for not putting so much value on certificates, is the fact that almost all theinterviewees said that people on the job market are not skilled enough, and many times those people withcertificates don’t perform any better that people without education.27Through the answers of 67 high school pupils in two separate focus group meetings we can also concludethat the young people lack knowledge of job market and of vocational training. We held one focus groupmeeting at a public school, Chinika High School, and another at a private high school, Lady Diana EducationCentre in Kanyama.In first assignment we asked the pupils to list profession they know and companies where theseprofessionals can work. This assignment was done in groups at Chinika High School and individually at LadyDiana Education Center as there were limited amount of time that could be used.The lists of vocations that the students made were quite limited at both schools. The professions that thepupils of the Chinika High School listed concentrated on the most commonly known like doctors, teachers,lawyers, and accountants, and to those professionals that are visible in the respondents own environment,like people working with catering, auto mechanics, electricians, and carpenters.Pupils of the Lady Diana Education Center listed mainly the following: teacher, doctor, economist, lawyer,accountant, and engineer. There were same professionals on the lists, but the most obvious differencebetween the public and the private high school was the fact that the public school pupils didn’t mentionmany academic professions while the private schools pupils mainly named academic professions and leftout the blue collar work.There were also two questions that all the pupils answered individually. The questions were: What sourcesdo you use to gain information about vocational training? What kind of challenges you face in findinginformation about vocational training?These answers differed between the private and the public high school. What came out clearly in theanswers of the pupils of Chinika High School was the fact that young people seek personal contacts whenthey are searching for information. Many said that it is very difficult to get any information of a professionor vocational training if you don’t know anyone who you could ask. Other means to find information likeinternet were mentioned in minority of the answers, and it was also stated that using the internet requiresfunds what is a problem.The financial problems were stated in almost all of the answers. The idea is that already getting theinformation requires money. For information seeking the pupils did point out the possibility to go and visitthe training institution but there are few problems relating to this: long distances that create travel costs,and lack of knowledge where to find the institutions. Many had the wrong idea that there are not manyvocational training institutions when only in Lusaka there are 91 TEVETA registered training institutions.28Interesting viewpoint was the idea that one needs to have good marks to even get some information aboutthe further training. On some level the pupils did confuse the original question and described thechallenges one faces when studying, but on the other hand many said that it is difficult to find informationif you don’t have good enough marks or if you don’t succeed for example in mathematics. This is hinting27 Company interviews made between the 20.4.2011 and 16.6.2011. Find the full list of interviewees as attached withthis report.28 TEVET Registered Training Institutions, TEVETA.6
  9. 9. about the gate keeping role of the teachers that may have helped to put this idea in the pupils head: “Youcannot study if you don’t succeed in your final exams”. This is very much true, but not the whole truth.Many also said that there is nepotism that makes it difficult to find information. Many stated that there arepeople who only want to help their family members and relatives and are refusing to give the informationto others. This is very much connected to the fact that the pupils really seek a person to be the source ofinformation.On the other hand the answers of the pupils at Lady Diana Education Center draw a bit different picture ofthe situation. Issues like nepotism and lack of funds weren’t mentioned in the answers. Two mainchallenges of finding information about the vocational training were lack of available information andtransport issues.29The lack of working experience among youth becomes visible when looking at the current students atKanyama Youth Programme. This is the matter especially among women. Very few of them have beenworking before or currently have a part-time job. Among the men there are number of students that eitherhave some working experience or that are currently working besides studying, and then there are thosethat don’t have any. About 80 percent of the current students didn’t have a CV, and had none or very littleexperience in job seeking.304. Current Vocational TrainingAn educated and competent workforce is an important factor of economic growth: it facilitates the moveaway from traditional production models towards more sophisticated and high value-added products,commodities and services for global markets31.This conclusion is from the ILO Decent Work Report and it states out quite well the meaning of the goodquality vocational training. In Technical Education, Vocational and Entrepreneurship Training (TEVET) Policythe skilled labor force is defined in a following way:A skilled labor force is efficient and enhances the quality of its products and improves production32.However it is confessed also in the TEVETA Policy that the employers haven’t been totally happy about thequality of the labor force coming to the labor market. It is further stated that the failure to generateemployment opportunities has also been worsened by the lack of financial and institutional structures tosupport self-employment for those that are skilled but cannot find work on the formal sector. It is also saidthat the institutions established after the beginning of the 1990’s and the era of privatization, have notbeen contributing significantly in generating employment opportunities.33The TEVETA Policy was written in 1996, since many things have changed but many seem to be remaining. Inthe Policy it is stated that the existing institutions that provide technical education and vocational training29 The focus group meetings were held at a public high school, Chinika High School, and at a private high school, LadyDiana Education Center, in Kanyama. More information about the school is found as an attachment.30 This chapter is based on the notifications during the communication lessons at KYP. We have been dealing the jobseeking, job application matters and have been processing a CV to everybody.31 ILO: Decent Work Agenda in Africa 2007-2015.32 TEVETA: Technical Education, Vocational and Entrepreneurship Training Policy, 1996.33 TEVETA: Technical Education, Vocational and Entrepreneurship Training Policy, 1996.7
  10. 10. and those that promote the generation of employment do not have the ability and resources to adequatelyoffer skills to the large number of unemployed to enable them to enter the productive sector. 34 This seemsto be roughly the existing problem even today that really raises the question: What should be done for thematter and what is TEVETA’s role in that? How to change the situation?TEVETA Policy emphasizes that the imperative is to satisfy the labor market, socio-economic concerns andresources based opportunities in the economy. There are three core objectives:  To balance the supply of skilled labor at all levels with the demands of the economy  To act as a vehicle for improved productivity and income generation  To be an instrument for the minimization of inequalities among the people35It is also stated that the policy’s aim is to improve technical education and vocational training and link itto the requirements of the employment sector. It is not however identified how these objectives areplanned to be reached.The employer side was criticizing the fact that it is too easy to start a vocational training institution and fewcommented that there is not enough supervision and regulations what comes to vocational training. Forexample Mr. Rossi, the manager of the Garden House Hotel, said that there is not enough will to controlthe training institutions and to see that the curriculums are actually followed.36The Manager of the Kwik-Fit, Mr. Mhango, weren’t neither happy what comes to supervising the vocationaltraining. He said that there is a need for an organization that would monitor the quality of the training,because currently it is very easy to start an institution and there are too many schools with low quality.Same said Mr. Sambwa from the TS Tyre Services; the professional field should be monitored andcontrolled better by the authorities.37Based on the 18 interviews of the company representatives it also seems that interaction between thetraining organizer, training authorities and the companies is missing. Toyota Zambia was the only companythat told that they have been negotiating with TEVETA as they wanted to establish their own training forAutomotive Mechanics.There seems to be a need for enhancing the interaction between the training institutions and thecompanies to gain benefits through cooperation and to improve vocational training to match better withthe needs of the employers. This would also improve the understanding of the challenges that the traininginstitutions have. Companies could be willing to cooperate if they could also benefit and their needs wouldbe taken into account.Need for cooperation and information sharing came up also in the interviews of the community members.In total 34 people living in John Laing, Kanyama (along Los Angeles Road), Kanyama Masauko, MakeniSimoson, Kanyama Garden House, and Kanyama Mutanda Bantuwere were interviewed. Almost all theinterviewees were highlighting that they wish the training institutions to interact with the employers and34 TEVETA: Technical Education, Vocational and Entrepreneurship Training Policy, 1996.35 TEVETA: Technical Education, Vocational and Entrepreneurship Training Policy, 1996.36 Interview of Mr. David Rossi, 3.5.2011.37 Interview of Mr. Michael Mhango, 7.6.2011; Interview of Mr. Brian Sambwa 17.5.2011.8
  11. 11. also with the community members in order to provide training that meets the requirements of the currentjob market.38Vocational training however looks different when we turn the viewpoint and look the matter from thecommunity perspective. All together 16 of the community respondents have a certificate or a craft levelvocational training. The general conclusion than can be made based on these 16 answers is the fact thatpeople are more or less happy for their studies. They told that the training had helped them to gainlivelihood, and the money paid for studies has paid off. These interviewees were mainly working in theinformal sector and were either self-employed or have a small business.39The informal sector in the compounds kind of establishes its own parallel job market that is quite differentthan the formal one. Vocational training obviously helps people in their lives to create a living and this factneeds cannot be undervalued. On the other hand there is a great gap between the formal economy andinformal economy what comes to expectations of the skills level and required qualities.One could conclude that current vocational training is good in that sense that it enhances people’spossibilities to make a living. From the economical and developmental viewpoints the vocational trainingneeds to be improved as it doesn’t meet the requirements of the current labor market. Development isblocked if the education and the competencies of the workforce remain on the low level.The matter of improving vocational training was pointed out also in the ILO Decent Work Agenda in Africa.The report states that reform of vocational training systems is crucial in order to address the challenge ofproviding young people with the skills that meet labor market requirements.40If we then move to look at the structure of the Zambian vocational training there are first of all quite anumber of vocational training institutions in Zambia, although most of them are small as the number ofstudents admitted in TEVET System in 2004 was 26,642. The number is based on a latest survey done by theMinistry of Science Technology and Vocational Training that could be found in public sources.41The Ministry runs 23 training institutions nationwide. In Lusaka there are currently 91 TEVETA gradedtraining institutions that is over 30 percent of all of the training institutions in Zambia. Above this numbercome the training institutions that do exist but do not have TEVETA grading.42Most of the institutions offering vocational training are private. The proportion for privately ownedinstitutions was 43 percent in 2004, government owns 34 percent. In that same year NGOs were running 18percent of the vocational training institutions.43The gender balance in vocational training is quite good as of the total number of students 46.6 percentwere female in 2004. It is interesting that Lusaka was one of the provinces where there were more femalethan male students in vocational training, 54.3 percent. Although female participation was high even in38 Interviews of the community members, 1.5.-30.6.2011.39 Interviews of the community members, 1.5.-30.6.2011.40 ILO: Decent Work Agenda in Africa 2007-2015.41 Ministry of Science Technology and Vocational Training, TEVET Statistic Digest, 2005.42 Ministry of Science Technology and Vocational Training, TEVET Statistic Digest, 2005; TEVETA website.43 Ministry of Science Technology and Vocational Training, TEVET Statistic Digest, 2005.9
  12. 12. general, gender disparities still remain in Engineering and Construction Programmes. On the other handmale participation in Textile and Design, Hospitality and Paramedical Science Programmes were low.44About half of the students are studying for the lowest qualification that is the Certificate or the CraftLevel. One fifth of the admitted students were studying for the Trade Test Level. Although the genderbalance is quite good in vocational training in general, the inequality between men and women growsbigger when looking at the Technician and Technologist Levels where majority of the admittedstudents are men.45What comes to teachers in vocational training, most of the lecturers have a Certificate or a Diploma Levelqualification. The diploma holders establish a majority with 39 percent. For this reason it is stated in theMSTV survey that there is a need to upgrade training of lecturers.46This is however a challenge as education in general is very expensive in Zambia. This could be an area wereTEVETA could offer more support for training institutions by organizing if not free then affordable trainingfor the lecturers accredited by TEVETA and working for a TEVETA graded training institutions.5. Informal Sector and EntrepreneurshipAs the informal sector is so dominating in Zambia, it is clear that the characteristics of both, the informaland the formal job market, should be taken into account when preparing students for working life. This isalso stated in the TEVET Policy47 and has been already acknowledged by KYP.It can also be stated that there is a need to enhance the skills on the informal sector in accordance todevelop the working conditions and to increase those people’s well being who end up working in theinformal sector.There is a also a need to look more into informal sector as a big portion of the KYP graduates find theiremployment on this sector. In the follow ups that have been made about the former students and theirplacement on the job market, the division between the informal and formal sector have not been takendirectly into account.However as the majority of the Zambians do work on the informal sector, and basically all the self-employed people are working on the informal sector, it is possible to create some guidelines that are basedon these figures.According to the study that the former ETVO-volunteer Tero Heiska did in 2005, altogether 77 percent ofthe 58 former students that were interviewed got employment. However it is good to take into accountthat the proportion of the students that studied Automotive Electrical, Power Electrical and Tailoring andDesigning was very small in this study.4844 Ministry of Science Technology and Vocational Training, TEVET Statistic Digest, 2005.45 Ministry of Science Technology and Vocational Training, TEVET Statistic Digest, 2005.46 Ministry of Science Technology and Vocational Training, TEVET Statistic Digest, 2005.47 TEVETA: Technical Education, Vocational and Entrepreneurship Training Policy, 1996.48 Tero Heiska, 2005.10
  13. 13. Heiska was further commenting that the employment rate for Hotel and Catering was 76 percent and forthe Automotive Mechanics it was 47 percent. These were the most accurate numbers as the proportion ofthe interviewed students was big enough.49In the Mid-Term Review of the SYL project done by the 3C consulting company 119 former students from allthe courses were interviewed. According to the report 32.8 percent of the former students are selfemployed, 16 percent are employed part-time, and 33.6 percent have full time employment. Self-employment is most common among tailors as 95 percent of the former tailoring students are self-employed.50According to this study the majority of the former students, 82 percent, are engaged in some incomegenerating activity (self employment, part-time employment or full-time employment).51Hotel and Catering seems to be the industry where the students have the best opportunity to find formalemployment. According to the lecturer Lucky Kapambwe’s rough estimate, about 40 percent of the formerstudents are employed on the informal sector and about 60 percent get formal employment.If we look at the issue from the opposite viewpoint, Tailoring and Designing is the industry where it is mostdifficult to find formal employment and almost all end up being self-employed.Although the informal sector is offering working opportunities for those that cannot be absorbed into theformal economy, there are also some negative sides on the informal sector that should be taken intoaccount. As it is stated in the ILO Decent Work Agenda, not all the workers on the informal economy arepoor, but many are, or live with the constant risk that some event may push them to poverty. Life isinsecure and things change rapidly.52As the CISEP representatives Mr. Moyo and Mr. Phiri said, the businesses are established and driven downquite quickly. The informal sector itself consists of different forms of work, and the question remains thathow many of the people working on the informal sector have decent jobs?53Access to finance is a vital concern for workers in the informal economy. Often people need to relay onmoney lenders or family help. To some extend there is funding available for small businesses. Thegovernment based Citizen Economic Empowerment Fund allocates small funds for applicants for businesspurposes.54However Mr. Moyo was saying that the demand is so high that the funds available are not sufficient.Another aspect is that there are no public statistics or other information about the number of people thathave received funding from this source, so it is very hard to estimate the effectiveness of the small funds ofCitizen Economic Empowerment Fund.5549 Tero Heiska, 200550 3C: Kanyama Youth Project, Mid-Term Review 2010.51 3C: Kanyama Youth Project, Mid-Term Review 2010.52 ILO: Decent Work Agenda in Africa 2007-2015.53 Interview with CISEP, Center for Informal Sector Employment Promotion, representatives Dickson Moyo (Manager)Phillip Phiri (Officer).54 ILO: Decent Work Agenda in Africa 2007-2015; Interview with CISEP, Center for Informal Sector EmploymentPromotion, representatives Dickson Moyo (Manager) Phillip Phiri (Officer).55 Interview with CISEP, Center for Informal Sector Employment Promotion, representatives Dickson Moyo (Manager)Phillip Phiri (Officer).11
  14. 14. Government is also giving small loans for special interest groups like women’s groups, youth, disabled andpeople living with HIV/Aids. There are also some micro-credit institutions and money lenders that are givingloans to small and informal entrepreneurs. Mr. Moyo is however quite critical what comes to these loans asthe interest rates are many times as high as 12 to 15 percent. People also need to start paying backimmediately when their business is running.56Another challenge on the informal sector is the lack of business management skills. The ILO reportemphasizes that for small enterprises adequate management skills to survive and to grow are vital. At themoment there are still many actors on the informal sector who lack necessary skills to run their businessesin profitable way.57What comes to Africa in general the ILO states that cost-effective and sustainable business developmentservices, such as management training, access to finance, information on technologies, export anddomestic market access and inter-firm linkages should be developed.58CISEP’s core activity is to offer business management training, counseling and advisory services to microand small enterprises working on the informal sector. Mr. Moyo and Mr. Phiri were stating that what CISEPbasically does is putting the technical skills together with the business management skills. As the job marketis still lacking of people that would have both of the mentioned skills, there would be a great need forcombining technical skills with business skills and vice versa.59To be an entrepreneur requires quite a lot of skills that many the people are still lacking. During theinterview Mr. Moyo was however emphasizing the fact that people are generally unwilling to invest intraining. The way of thinking is that it’s waste of money to go to school if one can start working and earninginstead. Another factor is that an education doesn’t guarantee a job. Because of this many invest theirsmall money in starting a business rather enhancing their skills first.60On the other hand big majority of the interviewed community members that have vocational training werereally happy for the fact that they had studied. Vocational skills were valued and the respondents weretelling that the skills have been benefiting them.61In Lusaka trading is the largest activity on the informal sector. It is easy to enter to this sector, but there isalso a lot of competition. Manufacturing, as stated earlier, has traditionally been 10 percent of GDP, and todevelop the manufacturing sector has been on the government’s agenda. However looking the matter fromthe viewpoint of the informal sector actors in Lusaka, the manufacturing sector is not doing well.6256 Interview with CISEP, Center for Informal Sector Employment Promotion, representatives Dickson Moyo (Manager)Phillip Phiri (Officer).57 ILO: Decent Work Agenda in Africa 2007-2015.58 ILO: Decent Work Agenda in Africa 2007-2015.59 Interview with CISEP, Center for Informal Sector Employment Promotion, representatives Dickson Moyo (Manager)Phillip Phiri (Officer).60 Interview with CISEP, Center for Informal Sector Employment Promotion, representatives Dickson Moyo (Manager)Phillip Phiri (Officer).61 Interviews of the community members, 1.5.-30.6.2011.62 Interview with CISEP, Center for Informal Sector Employment Promotion, representatives Dickson Moyo (Manager)Phillip Phiri (Officer).12
  15. 15. In the interview Mr. Moyo was saying that “This country is not doing well in manufacturing. There is notmuch manufacturing left and the competition is high as a lot of cheap products are imported to themarkets. Even agricultural products are cheaper to import from South Africa.”63Although manufacturing doesn’t get very encouraging comments it is the second biggest sector on theinformal sector. Informal manufacturing is concentrating on areas like carpentry, tailoring and textileproduction, and metal fabrication. These are also areas that have to face the import of cheaper products,like especially Chinese clothing that are challenging the textile industry and tailors.64After trading and manufacturing come services and agricultural activities. There are a lot of smallbusinesses offering different services like food and beverage or mechanical services without companiesbeing formally registered.65 What comes to KYP graduates, they will most likely take part into activities onthe manufacturing or services sector.Entrepreneurship skills are also highlighted in the TEVET Policy. TEVET Policy’s economic objectives are toimprove the productivity of labor force, and to promote entrepreneurship and economic participation inboth the formal and informal sectors. To provide qualitative training for imparting appropriate vocationalskills relevant to the socio-economic development needs in Zambia, and to empower women economicallyare also among the economical objectives.66As the majority of the work force is acting on the informal sector, it is stated that the TEVET Policy shouldaim at creating conditions for the development of an entrepreneurial culture and its related skills inresponse for the following concerns: unexploited business opportunities in the economy, under-employment in the informal sector, unemployment of the youth, women and retrenches, rural-urbanmigration, poverty.67How the mentioned policy guidelines should be carried out is a much more difficult question. What can besaid in favor of TEVETA is that it does offer a material package including concrete lesson plans for theentrepreneurship training. This Entrepreneurship Development, Manual for Trainers/Instructors isdownloadable on TEVETA website and it includes also modules for practical business planning andmanagement.What comes to entrepreneurship skills and emphasizing the importance of entrepreneurship ILO remindsthat the development of entrepreneurship among young people is important, but not a “miracle medicine”in and by itself. It is stated in the report that specific entrepreneurship programmes are more likely to beeffective if they are embedded in an enabling policy and a regulatory environment that is conducive toyouth entrepreneurship.6863 Interview with CISEP, Center for Informal Sector Employment Promotion, representatives Dickson Moyo (Manager)Phillip Phiri (Officer).64 Interview with CISEP, Center for Informal Sector Employment Promotion, representatives Dickson Moyo (Manager)Phillip Phiri (Officer); discussion with the ILO Associate Expert Johanna Silvander.65 Interview with CISEP, Center for Informal Sector Employment Promotion, representatives Dickson Moyo (Manager)Phillip Phiri (Officer).66 TEVETA: Technical Education, Vocational and Entrepreneurship Training Policy, 1996.67 TEVETA: Technical Education, Vocational and Entrepreneurship Training Policy, 1996.68 ILO: Decent Work Agenda in Africa 2007-2015.13
  16. 16. The Decent Work Agenda also reminds that substantial resources need to be allocated to programmes foryoung people that provide access to credit, training and business development services, including sustainedmentorship. Cooperative and community-based enterprises are also an important means of promotingdecent jobs for young people and can provide an opportunity to learn how to become an entrepreneur andcollectively accumulate the financial, social and human resources necessary to create employment.69What would then be the areas where entrepreneurship activities would have potential? Agriculture andrural development were pointed out by CISEP representatives and the ILO Decent Work Agenda.The ILO Agenda says that specific strategies for rural development could include promoting the rural non-farm sector, agricultural credit schemes for young people, improving agricultural infrastructure such asirrigation systems and rural road networks, as well as social facilities that would make rural areas attractiveto young people and, on the supply side, adapting educational curricula so that they address the needs ofrural young people and enhance their skills, and in general make the young aware of employmentopportunities in this sector.70Although Lusaka is the capital of Zambia and people live in urbanized environment, the agriculturalactivities are still practiced. Mr. Moyo from CISEP says that agricultural activities would offer better outputand more security than many of the areas people are concentrating now on the informal sector. He saysthat there is always a request for food, and when people have land they could also put on a life stock.71The problem that comes into question with agriculture is the access to land. The land still remains quitedifficult to access although traditional land would be available. Mr. Moyo is saying that there is availableland for example on the outskirts of Lusaka. The transport however becomes an issue, as most of thepeople don’t have much to invest.72However, there have also been arguments against the potentiality of agriculture to create jobs. Forexample Harrington Shibanda (the chair of the federation of Zambia’s employers) says that agriculturedoesn’t have that big potential in job creation because agriculture is mainly subsistence farming.73According to the ILO report other potential sectors include tourism, construction and information andcommunications technology.746. Employers’ Needs for Vocational TrainingThe focus in the company interviews was to find out what kind of training the formal employers expecttheir employees to have, how they see the skill level of the work force and the quality of the currentvocational training, and how would they improve the training if necessary. We were also discussing aboutthe general state of each industry and the general skills that are needed on the current job market on topof the purely professional skills.69 ILO: Decent Work Agenda in Africa 2007-2015.70 Discussion with the ILO Associate Expert Johanna Silvander.71 Interview with CISEP, Center for Informal Sector Employment Promotion, representatives Dickson Moyo (Manager)Phillip Phiri (Officer).72 Interview with CISEP, Center for Informal Sector Employment Promotion, representatives Dickson Moyo (Manager)Phillip Phiri (Officer).73 Discussion with the ILO Associate Expert Johanna Silvander.74 ILO: Decent Work Agenda in Africa 2007-2015.14
  17. 17. As stated earlier, in total 18 company representatives were interviewed for this study. The industries wereselected according to the training that KYP is currently offering that is courses in Automotive Mechanicsand Electrical, Hotel & Catering, Power Electrical, and Tailoring & Designing.As an overall notice it can be said that the answers were maybe even surprisingly similar to one other. Itseems that certain problems are well acknowledged on the job market and among certain industries.As discussed before the common critics that almost all of the company representatives brought up is thefact that the workforce in total is not skilled enough. Most of the companies told that they are arranging in-house training for the new workers. Many said they are testing the abilities first and then see what theneed for further training is. Some, like Toyota Zambia, are training all the new people they employ.There were also similar qualities that most of the employers want. They want employers to be able to workindependently. They also want motivated workers who are willing to learn more and develop their skills.Flexibility and the ability for multi-tasking were also seen positive. People should also be motivated enoughto do their work properly. Almost all of the respondents said that computer skills are essential in the current job market. Most ofthem were also highlighting communication skills and the ability to get along with people. Also on thetechnical side the customer service skills are required in many working places.Majority of the respondents were also highlighting the practical skills. Employers want people who arealready able to perform the tasks that are given to them. This puts more weight on the practicals and theindustrial attachment that are the ways to improve practical skills. It seems that the vocational training iscurrently leaning a bit too much on a theoretical side. There were employers who namely wished morepractical training in the curriculums. It is also important to guide the students to put the theory in practice,to show how the learned knowledge works in a real situation.Good practical skills and at least some work experience are also crucial for graduates to get employment asalthough they have the formal qualifications they still need to compete against the people who haveexperience but no qualifications. Many employers said that experience is still more important than papersalthough they were also stating that they do ask for formal qualifications.75Automotive Mechanics and ElectricalFor the Automotive Mechanics and Electrical representatives from the following eight companies wereinterviewed: Auto Brakes, Auto World, Toyota Zambia, Kwik-Fit, Auto Sport Center, Bosch, Max T-Solutions,and TS Tyre Services. Most of the companies are relatively big and known employers like Auto World, TSTyre Services and Toyota Zambia. Majority of these companies do all car types and general repairs, and inmany cases there were a shop for spares within the fitment center.There were however also specialization: Toyota Zambia does only Toyotas what comes to private cars, butfixes also Subarus and Dahazus in trucks and busses. Auto Brakes is concentrating only in fixing brakes.Kwik-Fit’s core business is in automotive part replacement that includes tyres, batteries and exhausts. Thecompany is concentrating on certain labels: Continental (tyres), Yokohama (batteries) and Boso (exhausts).75 Interviews made between the 20.4.2011 and 16.6.2011. Find the full list of interviewees as attached with thisreport.15
  18. 18. Max T-Solutions is concentrating on maintenance in their fitment center including activities like changingtyres and doing suspension. The company however has a separate fitment center for its own vehicleswhere full repairs are done for the company’s transport vehicles.In general there is more work for mechanics. For example TS Tyre has 20 mechanics and 4 electricians andAuto World has 40 mechanics and 3 electricians (working in the branches were the interviews were made).However there is also a demand for the electricians, especially good ones, as it was stated that it is harderto find an electrician than a mechanic.In-house training is quite common as the employers are not totally happy with the skills of the newemployers. For example Auto World’s Mr. Shane and Auto Sport Center’s Ms. Bhandhair told that they dotest the skills of the applicants and new employees.The critics given to training institutions target also the equipment level that the current institutions have.As techniques are developing fast are the institutions dragging behind because they don’t have the meansor the funds to update the equipment so quickly. Also the course books tend to be old. The newestinformation would be available online, so this problem could be helped by internet training and an internetconnection.As stated before, the employers would also like to add the amount of practical training in the institutions.Many also said that the current training is too short. Many referred to the past when the vocational traininguse to be two full years. What is positive is that almost all of the companies said that they do take peoplefor attachment. There was only Auto World that said they are not taking any trainees.We also discussed about the state of the industry with the interviewees. In general the current situation,and the future of the industry looks good as the vehicle strain is growing in Zambia. On the other handthere are quite a number of new mechanics and electricians, especially mechanics graduating all the timeas the courses are short. Industry is competitive, also on the informal side.Quite many of the employers were also bringing up the “suit case” companies, individuals who repair carson the street for a cheap price. These informal entrepreneurs are not seen in a positive light by the formalsector.Tailoring & DesigningFor Tailoring & Designing the two factories in Lusaka, the City Clothing Factory and Lusaka Clothing Factorywere contacted. These two are the biggest and basically only clothing factories in Lusaka. The City ClothingFactory is privately owned family business when the Lusaka Clothing Factory is run by the council of Lusaka.Both of the companies are concentrating on school uniforms and protective ware. The City Clothing Factoryproduces also shirts, jackets, trousers, blouses and coats. The Lusaka Clothing factory employs 10 tailorsand the City Clothing Factory 40.Mr. Vaghela from the City Clothing Factory pointed out that school uniforms are a very seasonal product.Beginning of the year is normally very busy, but May and June are very quiet. For this reason companycannot survive if it would concentrate only on school uniforms.Both of the interviewees Mr. Vaghela and Mr. Sichlya were not totally happy with the skills of the workforce. Mr. Vaghela said that is a “hit or miss” situation to get a skilled person. Mr. Sichlya says that most of16
  19. 19. the people seeking work have a certificate level training that is not giving them enough skills. In his opinionit would be better if the job seekers would have a diploma level qualification. He also said that the traininginstitutions are not following the development of the industry very well, and there would be a need tofreshen the courses.Mr. Vaghela says that new employees should be able to do standard clothing, like trousers, skirts andoveralls. What both of the interviewees said was that most of the tailors are not able to do moredemanding outfits. Mr. Sichlya said that it is hard to find people who would be able to do men’s suits. Mr.Vaghela also mentioned cloths like jackets that are harder to manufacture and added also designing andfitting skills on this list.Most of the people on the job market have learned tailoring and designing in the job. What is missingaccording to Mr. Vaghela is a good quality training center where it would be easier for an employer to findskilled tailors.He was also saying that it would be good if TEVETA would contact the employers in the industry and to findout the current needs. It would be also welcomed if the training institutions would cooperate with thecompanies.In general the clothing industry is very competitive at the moment because of the import of cheap Chineseclothes and Salaula. On the other hand it seems that the traditional chitenge clothes are also selling in thecompounds. For example the lecturer for Tailoring, Ms. Banda who used to work as an entrepreneur for along time says that chitenge outfits are selling well among the schools uniforms and the curtains, and othertextiles for interior design.There was also one person among the people interviewed in the community that has a Trade Certificate inTailoring. She also said that chitenge suits are the products that people are mainly asking for.Hotel & CateringFor Hotel & Catering six representatives from different hotels and restaurants were interviewed. Thecompanies were: Lusaka Hotel, Garden House Hotel, Carern Restaurant & Take Away, Chwama Fast Food,Harriet’s Bakery and Coffee, and Nandos.Among these companies there are big employers like Lusaka Hotel that employ 93 full time employees. Onthe other hand it was important to also hear smaller companies that produce traditional meals and fastfood, like Carern Restaurant & Take Away.What use to be typical for the hotel & catering industry is that the employees learnt by working. Traditionalapprenticeship was the way to enter the industry. The younger generations however start to have trainingand formal qualifications. Still there are quite a big number of people without any formal qualification. Mr.Prosper, the Human Resource Manager of Lusaka Hotel, estimated that 65 percent of the current workerswithin the industry do not have education for their vocation.What the managers highlighted were good customer service and communication skills. In the hospitalityindustry it is essential that the employees know how to get along with people and understand the conceptof customer service. As Mr. Mudeida, manager in Nando’s put it:17
  20. 20. “Basically people are only trained to deliver the services, and they are doing only the minimum. Butcustomer care is about quality, it should be efficient. Without passion for your work you cannot do it.”Respondents of the hotel and catering industry were either happy with the skill level of the current jobseekers. Mr. Rossi from the Garden House Hotel says that there are not enough skilled people on the jobmarket because there are too many new schools that provide low-quality education.Mr. Rossi also criticizes the fact that the training institutions have become businesses and the commercialnature of training has been lowering the quality of the education because the main point is to do money.When I asked what makes training to be quality training, Mr. Rossi said that quality itself starts from thequalified lectures. Same said Mr. Prosper who pointed out that bad lectures are bringing the quality of theworkers down.Another issue is decent equipments. Mr. Rossi says that the training institutions are not well equipped todo practicals. Institutions seem to concentrate on theory only and leave the practicals for the attachmentperiod. Mr. Rossi however says that the three month period is not enough for practical training: futureemployees should already know how to do the basic when they come to attachment.Same said Ms. Redorts, the manager of the Carern Restaurant & Take Away. She was saying that acertificate is not a guarantee for employee’s skills. Many times people with certificates are not able toperform in practical tasks and she was highlighting the need to add more practicals in training.Mr. Mulemna, the manager of the Harriet’s Bakery and Café, on the other hand is happy with the currentwork force. He was saying that there are a lot of skilled young people available, and people are gettingmore educated than before. Harriet’s Bakery and Café concentrates on certain institutions when theyrecruit new people. Mr. Mulemna was listing the following: Silver Catering, Fair View Hotel, Evelyn HoneCollege, Nipa College, and Lusaka City College.Nando’s on the other hand differs from the rest as the company has its own training school. The companyis taking people without any qualifications. What is the basic requirement is ability to read and write and tobe fluent in English.What all the interviewees more or less agreed on was the fact that the hotel & catering Industry is verycompetitive at the moment. New hotels and lodges are established continuously. There is also a lot ofavailable work force that is seeking for employment. Most of the people have the basic qualifications and inthis position the competition between the job seekers is the highest.Because of the competition there is a request for knowledgeable and competent people that would be ableto bring something for the company. For example Lusaka Hotel has been struggling to get someone goodenough to coordinate their banqueting department.Power ElectricalTo find out more about the power electrical industry two company representatives from Zamefa andElectrical Maintenance were interviewed. I also tried to get an interview from ZESCO but they never gotback with the request.18
  21. 21. Head of Sales and Marketing in Zamefa, Mr. Zulu, who himself is an engineer, says that the basicqualification to get employment in the industry would be a Craft Certificate. However he is saying that theG5 Certificate is a good start offering the basic introduction to electrical engineering, but he wouldrecommend people to continue to craft level as it includes more practical skills.Mr. Zulu is also saying that when we talk about electrics we should remember that there are many differentdepartments on the field. The certificate level offers only the general picture of the profession, after thatone needs to specialize.The specialization has traditionally happened while working, Mr. Zulu confesses that these days it is a bithard for the newcomers. Some People are taken straight from school, but not so many. One can also getstuck on the starting level without a chance to develop their skills while working.The representative for Electrical Maintenance, Mr. Perera is coming from Sri Lanka, where he used to workwithin the same industry. In Sri Lanka the basic training for electricians is three years. Mr. Perera pointedout that the new employees should know how to do basics, like wiring electricity for a house, but peoplewithin the industry are not always able to do the basics.According to Mr. Perera, the employees’ biggest problem is however their attitude:“Electrical work is also construction. Sometimes you need to take walls down. Electricians don’t want to dothis; they don’t want to get their hands dirty. Most of the people just want to do things quickly and theylack motivation to work hard.”Both of the interviewees would add practicals to curriculum. Mr. Perera says that vocational training shouldbe the place to get the basic skills, and these skills should also be developed further after the basic training.Mr. Zulu says that the practicals should be concentrated on the specific areas because there are quite bigdifferences between the house wiring and the industrial wiring.What comes to other skills, Mr. Perera and Mr. Zulu are also both highlighting the computer skills. Mr. Zulusays that “The first thing to be asked when one comes in will be, that are you computer literate? Studentsshould be told about this.”Market Niche for Carpentry and Tailoring ProductsAmong the job market and vocational training questions the company representatives were asked abouttheir opinion of buying products from a training institution and what kind of products they might need. Thequestions were concentrated on carpentry and tailoring products as KYP has a Tailoring Workshop and ithas been planning to start running a Carpentry Workshop as there are majority of the tools alreadyavailable at the campus.In general the respondents were taking the idea of buying products from a training institution verypositively. They said that it doesn’t matter that the producer is a vocational school as long as it is able tooffer quality products. Quality and the price are most important factors when the companies are decidingwhere to buy. Some of the companies were also saying that they would like to support local production.19
  22. 22. Most of the companies already have a steady producer for their carpentry and tailoring related products,but there is always a chance to make an offer. Ms. Redorts (Carern Restaurant & Take Away) said that shemight be interested in quality office furniture. Same said Mr. Hussein (Max T-Solution). Mr. Mhango (Kwit-Fit) was saying that he would order for example a repair for a broken door from a training institution. AlsoToyota Zambia might need carpentry services on their maintenance section and office equipment might beneeded.TS Tyre orders the company overalls from a private producer and Mr. Sambwa said that they could alsoorder from a technical training institution if the quality of the products is good enough. TS Tyre might alsobe interested on the office furniture. Garden House Hotel again has fixed size beds where they order sheetsfrom local producers. Mr. Rossi said that they would well buy the work from a training institution as well ifthe offer is good enough.767. Young People’s Perspectives for Vocational TrainingThrough the two focus group meetings at two different high schools, a private Lady Diana EducationCenter, and a public Chinika High School, we wanted to know how much young people know aboutvocational training, where they get their information from, what challenges they face in seekinginformation and what kind of skills they see would be beneficial for them to get a job.What came quite clear during the two focus group meetings is the fact that young people lack knowledgeabout vocational training. All the respondents indentified some challenges they meet in finding informationabout vocational.The reasons however differed between the private school, Lady Diana Education Center, and the publicschool, Chinika High School. As pupils from Chinika were highlighting the financial problems and nepotismthe Lady Diana pupils pointed out transport problems and the general lack on information.We also asked students to list vocations that they know and tell where these professionals could work. Thelists of vocations that the students gave out were quite limited at both schools. The professions that thepupils of the Chinika High School listed concentrated on the most commonly known like doctors, teachers,lawyers, and accountants, and to those professionals that are visible in the respondents own environment,like people working with catering, auto mechanics, electricians, and carpenters.Pupils of the Lady Diana Education Center listed mainly the following: teacher, doctor, economist, lawyer,accountant, and engineer. There were same professionals on the lists, but the most obvious differencebetween the public and the private high schools was the fact that pupils the public school pupils didn’tmention many academic professions while the private schools pupils mainly named academic professionsand left out the blue collar work.What is interesting is that there were also professions that should be known missing from the lists. Theseare vocations like baker, plumber, housekeeping, maintenance, cashier, hairdresser, salesperson, butcher,construction worker, office worker and secretary, few to be mentioned.76 All the information in this chapter is based on the company interviews made between the 20.4.2011 and 16.6.2011.Find the full list of interviewees as attached with this report.20
  23. 23. All the professionals listed found a working place as the pupils were able to name companies or placeswhere people with these skills could be employed. What is important to note, are the following details inthe answers between the private and the public school. The pupils at Chinika were clearly consideringentrepreneurship as an option for getting work. They mentioned self-employment as an option. In theanswers of the Lady Diana, different ministries as possible employer were highly emphasized.Entrepreneurship however didn’t come up.In general it looks strongly like the young people would need (more) guidance for vocational training andknowledge about different professions before they graduate from high school. Although they knowvocations and employers the picture of the job market is rather narrow and the pupils would earn to knowmore. This would also be a place for different training institutions to act and establish ties with localschools. KYP itself could create ties that would benefit the institution as well.The possibilities for getting employment after school were taken quite realistically. Young people know thatit is not an easy task to get employment. For the question that which skills are useful in gettingemployment, many answered by listing different vocations like tailoring or mechanics. Some were howeveralso analyzing the matter a bit by saying that there are a lot of chances in health care, but slimopportunities in economics.Teaching, banking and engineering were also seen as highly competitive industries, and chances to getemployment as mechanic was seen moderate. On the other hand teaching and economics were seen as agood professions as well as some said that it will give 100 percent guarantee for a job if one becomes ateacher, and another stated that as the Zambia is gaining more investments all the time there is a need foreconomists.In the pupils’ lives, skills also meant requirements that need to meat for enrollment. They were not reallythinking of qualities needed in performing the profession itself but were rather listing what they need tostudy to be able to be enrolled in training. This would be on need to enhance the knowledge of what kindof qualities certain professions require from an individual. How would one know what is a suitable vocationfor him or her?77Based on my own teaching experience at KYP I would also state that young people need stronger workinglife skills. It would be a good idea to include knowledge about their rights as workers and the basics ofmaking contracts in their curriculum. It would also be important to know where to seek help and guidancewhen needed as there seems to be quite a lot of problems what comes to for example making writtencontracts. Also job seeking skills would be included to support the life after the training institution.I would also say that the students would need more practice-oriented entrepreneurship skills. As thelecturers said themselves the current entrepreneurship training is mainly concentrating on giving an ideafor the young people that they have a chance of starting their own business.Entrepreneurship however needs skills that would be good to practice while still studying. Basic bookkeeping, budgeting, and marketing should be practiced, and the students should also get the instructionshow to make a full business plan. Also some guidance of financial matters should be included. As statedbefore it is quite hard to find funding to get started but the scarce sources should be anyway presented.77 Focus group meetings: Chinika High School 8.6.2011, Lady Diana Education Center 23.6.2011.21
  24. 24. What the young people in all cases need after the training is the ability to act independently. This should betaken into account through the training.8. Community Perspectives and Needs for TrainingThe main target for the community interviews were to find out what kind of needs the communitymembers have for vocational training, how much they know about the possibilities to get training, and howthey in general value vocational training. We also wanted to know how people living in the compoundssurrounding KYP are seeing the job market and the current needs in it.In total 34 people living in John Laing, Kanyama (along Los Angeles Road), Kanyama Masauko, MakeniSimoson, Kanyama Garden House, and Kanyama Mutanda Bantuwere were interviewed for this study. Thegender distribution was 20 female and 14 male, and the ages varied from 18 to 49.The education level of the interviewees varies from Grade 9 Certificate to diploma level. Out of 34 people16 have certificate or craft level vocational training. Six of the respondents have Grade 9 Certificate and fiveare holding the Grade 12 Certificate. There were also two interviewees who had stopped in the middle ofthe high school, either on grade 10 or 11. Five respondents either got a diploma level education or theywere studying for a diploma. There were no degree holders among the interviewees.Community representatives were able to name one or more vocational training institutions in Lusaka andthey seem to have reasonable knowledge about the vocational training. The same training institutions wererepeated in the answers, especially Chilence Trades, Dzithandizeni, Chwama Youth Project, MakeniEcumenical Center, and Lusaka Trades came up in almost all of the answers. Also KYP was among the bestknown in the community.What is interesting is the fact that although KYP would be the closest institute to study for many of thecommunity members, there were only two persons who had done their education at KYP and both studiedTailoring & Designing. There were also on who considered starting Automotive Mechanics, and onerespondent whose son did his Automotive Mechanics at KYP. It seems quite strongly that the institutioncannot attract its “own people”, and this is something that should be discussed further.If we try to see why people don’t consider KYP as a serious study option, the one answer is found in thestate of the campus. Very clear was the fact that the people don’t like places that are dirty. A traininginstitution that has dirty yard gives an unprofessional and unorganized image. If the place is messy peoplewill not believe that the place could actually offer quality training. This critics hits straight to the core of KYPas the campus is very dirty and the training institution is swallowed by the rentals and the marketersoutside the campus.Also Computer skills are seen very important among the community members and many of therespondents stated that they would like learn computer skills and these skills should be part of vocationaltraining. This means that there would be a high request for computer courses in these communities.As discussed before all the people with vocational training were valuing their skills. Many said that theprofessional skills are the way to make a living as even though it would be impossible to find a job, a skilledperson can become self-employed.22
  25. 25. What received some critics from the people were the teachers in vocational training institutions. Therewere few respondents who said that the commitment of the lecturers could be better as sometimes theydon’t show up to the working place. Some respondents were also saying that the training institutionsshould offer the courses as full as advertised, hinting that the quality is not as high as it is promised to be.From the viewpoint of the community members the current job market needs people with practical skills.The following professions were listed: hair dressing, body make up, carpentry, mechanics, tailoring,welding, cookery, driving, electrical work, brick laying, construction, social workBut how many hairdressers, carpenters or tailors can successfully work in one community? People werealso a bit careful in estimating these needs as they said many times that “it seems to be like this”, but therewere not strong evidence or knowledge they could have based their opinion on. Many said that this is anissue that should be studied.It could be said that these are the professionals that people can see around them in ever day life and theopinion is at least partly based on the idea of who is doing well. Some were also basing their opinion onobservation by saying that there are many new hotels being built or that there are more vehicles coming inand this is the reason why people with catering skills and mechanical skills are needed.What the Community Buys?To find out more about the community’s consuming habits people were also asked about the items theybuy. The answers were varied because many answered according to their own businesses or professions.What should be highlighted is the need for school uniforms. Many of the interviewees working on the fieldof teaching said that their schools are offering a lot of uniforms every year.One interviewee also said that she buys the interior design materials like curtains. One interviewee who isrunning a bar was also stating that she is buying furniture and decorative items to her business. There werealso two interviewees who are involved with grocery stores and they buy baking products like scones to theshops. One of the interviewees is working as a bus driver and he says that they buy new seat covers quiteoften.There was also one respondent whose sister has an events management business. This sister is looking forplaces to hire for the events she is arranging.789. ConclusionZambia’s economical views are positive as the economy has been growing through the previous years andthe growth is forecasted to continue. However despite the economical growth Zambia hasn’t been able tocut down its poverty levels which still remain high. In total 64 percent of the population live under the 1 USDollar per a day poverty line.The service sector and the industrial sector bring in the majority of the GDP. However the most productivesectors are employing only low percentage of the total workforce. Vast majority of the Zambians aremaking their living on the informal sector as only 11.3 percent are formally employed.78 All the information is based on the community interviews made between 1.5.2011 and 30.6.2011.23
  26. 26. In practice this means that Zambian job market is divided into two parallel job markets. According to thefindings of this study it seems that the current vocational training, the certificate level, qualifies peoplemainly on the informal sector. Formal employers are not happy with the skills of the people graduatingfrom the vocational training institutions. Employers want especially more practice oriented training. Inmany cases the companies arrange in-house training for the fresh employees.It is possible to get a job on a formal sector with a basic vocational qualification. However certificate leveleducation is not very competitive on the formal sector. At least the fresh graduates need to start frominformal sector to gain experience through they can prove themselves for the formal employers.The situation also varies according to the industry in question. In Tailoring & Designing the formal market isvery limited and almost all the options for work are on the informal sector. In Hotel & Catering on the otherhand, there are greater opportunities to find employment as a small majority have been able to find a jobfrom the previous students of KYP.On the informal sector the vocational training seems to be an advantage. People working on the informalsector are happy with their education saying that the vocational skills they have obtained have helpedthem to earn a living. In this light it is well justified to say that it is possible to enhance opportunities foremployment (self-employment) through vocational training.Getting the vocational education is still however the very first step that doesn’t guarantee anything yet.People need to know how to use their skills. If it not possible to find employment, how is it possible tobecome self-employed? What it really requires to be an entrepreneur? Young people need more skills likecomputer skills, job seeking skills, information seeking skills, entrepreneurship skill, and strong practicalknow-how to be able to cope on the job market.The job market on the informal sector seems also to concentrate on certain professions that make thecompetition harder. Young people also seem to have quite narrow idea of possible vocations available.Their knowledge of vocational training is also limited. Youth in the community would need moreinformation and more guidance when considering their options after school. None should drop out onlybecause they didn’t know what the possibilities are.From the individual perspectives there are also well known obstacles. Lack of funding is the big barrierbetween the young people and any kind of education. Nepotism is also common cultural phenomenon thatmakes it even harder for those without the connections to try to reach for better life.Women would deserve special attention as they are more vulnerable on the job markets and have pooreropportunities to education, formal work, and permanent work. Female students at KYP especially needmore information about the job market as there are very few that have been working before.The current field of vocational training in Lusaka and in Zambia in general is scattered. There are a lot ofinstitutions with very varied quality of training. TEVETA received a lot of critics of the lack of supervisionand direction in vocational training. There is a need to control the vocational training better.10. Life after SYL Funding: Suggestions for Kanyama Youth ProgrammeThere is a lot of potential that can be seen in the Kanyama Youth Programme. KYP has been able to providea vocation for more than a 100 young people per a year. KYP’s former students have found employment24
  27. 27. well and this tells that the quality of the education is quite good. It doesn’t however mean that KYP wouldstand untouched by the comments of the employers or. There is always aspects that could be learned andthe training should be developed further as otherwise the quality is soon gone.Kanyama Youth Programme is also located in one of the most populated compounds in Lusaka and it hasthe advantage of being close to transport facilities, the City Market and the Kulima Tower. In thesurrounding neighborhoods there are a lot of people that the institution could benefit. KYP would have achance to be a much bigger community actor that it currently is.In this section some ideas of how to enable KYP’s activities after the funding of SYL is finishing and how todevelop the institution further are presented. They are based on the results of the needs assessment andmy own experience while working within KYP.There has been different ideas and discussion about the future of the KYP. The last opinion presented hasbeen to ask the Ministry of Youth to take KYP over. Also an idea about getting the lecturers under thegovernment pay roll has been presented. This would solve the funding problems as the KYP currentlydoesn’t have a base for sustainable finances.This option would also change the institution fundamentally as it would not be a community based NGOanymore. On the other hand there a few important questions that should be asked about KYP role in thecommunity when having this discussion:  Why KYP should be a community based institution?  How KYP is serving and benefiting the community?  How many of the community members are currently involved with KYP activities?  Where is the ownership, do the community members feel like that KYP is “theirs”?As came up in the community interviews, people do know about KYP but only two of the interviewees havehad their vocational training at it. KYP would have a chance to be the training provider of the area, but itmay need to think its relationship with the community members again, and try to get the people in. I mightbe wrong but this is the impression I’ve got.As for developing the institution there would be one more crucial question I would ask from all the actorsinvolved with the institution. And this question would be:  Why does KYP exist, and why it should exist?As if there is no common goal it is hard to try to lead to institution to any direction. The roles of differentactors should also be indentified clear enough that there cannot be any misunderstandings in them. Forthis reason it might be a good idea to have a workshop facilitated by an external person, as have beendiscussed some time before.With workshop activities there would be a possibility to strengthen the funding of KYP. This however meansthat a lot of genuine effort is put in planning and running these workshops. The importance of properplanning shouldn’t be neglected. For the carpentry workshop an external funder will be needed as startingthe production requires more capital than KYP can invest. It would be also essential to consult anexperienced carpenter and plan the production together with him/her.25
  28. 28. I would also consider that would the carpentry be the best option? The company representatives weresaying that there could be some request for especially office furniture. KYP could offer desks and shelvesand repair services for these items. As we asked around when planning the application for the carpentryworkshop we also found out, that items for interior design, especially curtain rods and coffee tables etc.could sell well.If thinking of establishing the carpentry workshop it would be ideal if it would cooperate with the tailoringworkshop. This would be the way to offer full services for the customers for decorating and furnishing theiroffices and businesses. The tailoring workshop would produce the curtains and table cloths while thecarpentry workshop would do the curtain rods and coffee tables.What talks against the carpentry workshop is the amount of capital that is needed in order to start theproduction. KYP is also lacking the skills to run the workshop and it would need to hire a carpenter withstrong business skills. There is also a lot of competition what comes to carpentry, as the idea is nothing butnew. For this reason KYP should really think how to differentiate form the others and find the market nichefor its products.What comes to tailoring workshop it would have potential if it would have the right person running it. Iwould recommend that Ms. Banda would be considered as she has over 20 years of experience as anentrepreneur and established connections within the community. As came up in the community interviews,the local schools do order uniforms and there could also be a request for interior design items. This wouldmean hard work to get the orders, but it would be very much possible with a right person.IT-education is definitely an area that KYP should put its effort for. It came out quite clearly in thecommunity interviews that there is an interest and request for computer courses. IT-sector is also one ofthe sectors that have growing potential. The courses should however be priced so that the communitymembers can afford them. For the courses at least two rather more computers should be fixed, and wouldbe even better if new computers could be purchased.KYP has already delivered an application to the Ministry of Youth to fund the computer education. Thisapplication however has got stuck in the decision making organs. However an additional amount of K450000 of the money received for internet education can be used to fix few computers that would enable tostart the courses. Once again I would say that there should also be a long term financial plan and a workplan for these courses.Mr. Leonard Salati, the current training manager would be able to run the courses until KYP would be ableto hire someone to teach IT-skills as a teacher for this subject is anyway needed when the ETVO-volunteersare gone.The discussion would be that would it be reasonable for KYP to run all these activities or choose some, ornot to run the workshops at all?There has also been a discussion about commercializing the other campus in the Kanyama center. It wouldbe an option to KYP to run this center as commercial basis and continue with the current educationactivities at the main campus. This would mean that KYP don’t have to give up the other campus but theinstitution would run commercial activities beside social activities. This would also be a chance to maintainthe original mission of KYP to provide vocational training to vulnerable youth and to enhance theirpossibilities for employment.26
  29. 29. What kind of courses the commercialized center could offer? It could be Kanyama Adult Education Centerwhere courses enhancing people’s business skills and computer skills and giving them a chance to finalizetheir basic education could be offered.As it comes out in the needs assessment, many of the community members have finished their training atgrade 9. There seems to be also a group that did not manage to finish their high school but dropped out inthe middle. According to research the education level correlates with the changes of getting employment.People with higher educational background are more likely to get employment when the most uneducatedremain as unpaid family workers.There are also many self-employed people and people that run very small businesses in the communitiesaround the KYP campuses. As it came out in the needs assessment there would be a need to enhance basicbusiness skills on the informal sector in accordance to improve people’s well being. With better businessmanagement skills people could earn more and would be able to develop their businesses further.The Kanyama Adult Education Center could offer practical business courses combined with computer skills.This would mean that the students would also practice skills like budgeting, book keeping, and marketing.This would be easy to integrate with IT-education to give people the skills that they are going to need.The Kanyama Adult Education Center could also give the adult population a chance to finish theireducation. On other words the center could offer high school courses arranged on the evening andSaturdays to enable the working people to attend. Business skills and IT-skills would be also integrated tothese courses.This education center could be started as a project; however it would need an external funder as KYP wouldneed to hire more staff and to fix the computer situation. To use the idea would also need a lot of carefulplanning and consultation with the education officials. Linking up with other NGO’s and institutions couldbe also recommend as for example CISEP is offering business education and has long experience on thefield.What comes to short courses there has been a request especially for baking. KYP could concentrate on foodproduction in these courses and to market them especially to small entrepreneurs and to other NGOs thatare paying the course fees for their participants. Instead of reopening a restaurant KYP could also considerof producing bakery products and conserved products like jams and sauces that could be sold to localgroceries. These products could be made by the students for example each Friday.The future of the current courses: If we think of the results of the needs assessment the first thing to dowould to think how the quality could be improved and what it takes to achieve the wanted improvements?The study environment needs cleaning, repairing and more modern equipments (especially the technicalsubjects). It could be also considered that could KYP add more practical within the general curriculum asthe practical skills were highlighted by the employers.According to the results of the needs assessment it could be stated that course like Hotel & Catering,Automotive Mechanics, Automotive Electrical, and Power Electrical will do okay. Zambian economy isbased on services and although this sector still formally employs only a small percentage of the workforce,it could be seen that this sector will remain big, and could be producing more formal jobs in the future. Themost vulnerable is the Tailoring and Designing as it faces a lot of competition and there is not much textilemanufacturing left in the country.27
  30. 30. On the other hand there are several vocational training institutions training exactly the same courses thatKYP is training. So there is also competition between the training institutions. And above all, although thereis no research based info, I would have managed to find, it really looks like that the training is quite heavilyconcentrating in certain areas.If we think that to become a mechanic takes 6 to 12 months, we can easily state that the flow of newmechanics on the job market is quite strong. Is the market growing with the same speed? And as themanagers of the Hotel & Catering Industry said, the competition is already quite stiff.There has been discussion to abolish Automotive Electrical and Power Electrical as these courses are notattracting many students. On the other hand few of the interviewed company representatives said thatthey would appreciate employees that would have both, mechanical and electrical skills. To arrangeAutomotive Electrical Up-dating Training for employed auto mechanics could be a product that would havebuyers within the companies.If KYP would wish to replace some of the courses with a new one, one option could be to open Businessand Administration Training concentrating on the basic skills that will enable graduates to act as a cashieror a sales person or an office worker.The question of the tenants should be solved. As the tenants are participating very much in making thecampus dirty but are not paying the rents so well, it would be reasonable to empty at least half of therented houses and centralize their activities on the other side of the campus. The whole front area shouldbe cleaned and kept clean.KYP could also try to market the two halls more powerfully for other NGOs that need venues for theiractivities. It could be considered also to cooperate with other NGOs in arranging trainings at KYP. The hallscould also be used in arranging for example exercising courses as the hall would be a good venue forexample for zumba or dancing classes. These kinds of classes could attract locals if the prices are affordableenough and KYP would be able to do a deal with a physical educator.With motivation, good planning, good budgeting and financial management, I could see that KYP couldsurvive by itself and could be developed. This however would need a lot of work and determination. One ortwo people are not able to do it alone, but the whole management and the board should be behind thecommon goal. On the other hand handing the institution over to the government could guarantee thecontinuation of the vocational training in the community, and could be the best option if there is nocapacity to run the institution otherwise (in the case that the government is willing to take the institutionunder its control).What comes to external funding, if KYP decides to try to look for another funder. I would suggest that theinstitution would make a decision between the ideas and concentrate on making one feasible project idea.One possibility would also be to ally with one or two other NGO based training institutions to come up witha common project idea. This could open more donor possibilities for all the parties.Whatever the decision for the future will be, it would be good if it could be done as soon as possible.28