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Workshop 1 - Greg La Barge

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North Central Region One Water Action Forum

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Workshop 1 - Greg La Barge

  1. 1. Nutrient Management Challenge of Reducing Field P Contribution Greg LaBarge, Field Specialist Agronomic Systems Great Lakes Big Rivers Conference-December 2018
  2. 2. The Challenge • Scale • Spatial – Landscape extent of small parcels • Field Level P Contribution • Economics • Implementation cost per pound P reduction
  3. 3. Units Category Value Parcel count (number) 126,919 Acres 5,513,628 Average Parcel size (Acres) 43.4 Acres
  4. 4. Units Category Value Parcel count (number) 126,919 Acres 5,513,628 Average Parcel size (Acres) 43.4 Acres P Type Target Total P 860 MT DRP portion 186 MT DRP 0.05 PPM
  5. 5. What Determines Loss Potential in a Field? Source + Transport = Loss • Soil Test Level (P) • Nutrient additions • Soil Type • Drainage • Management • Cover • Distance to water • Pounds of loss per acre Tools • For P, P Risk Index • For soil erosion, RUSLE 2
  6. 6. Edge of Field-EOF 20 sites with paired fields total of 40 fields being sampled for edge of field losses of nutrient Monitoring both: • Surface • Subsurface water (Tile) USDA-ARS-Dr Kevin King
  7. 7. Water Flow on Acre of Ground in WLEB Surface Discharge 8% Tile Discharge 25% Soil Retained 68% Annual Water Flows Average of 6 Silty Clay Loam field sites in NW Ohio 2015-2017 Water Years Average Rainfall 35.1 inches Source Inches Percentage Surface Discharge 2.8 8% Tile Discharge 8.6 25% Total Discharge 11.4 32% Soil Retained 23.7 68% Total 35.1 100% Source: USDA-ARS Silty Clay Loam Soil Water Holding Capacity (NRCS) 6.9 inches to 60 inches deep
  8. 8. Discharge from a 40 Acre Field Source Inches Annual ft3 from 40 Acre Equivalent Olympic Size Swimming Pools Surface Discharge 2.8 8% 406,583 5 Tile Discharge 8.6 25% 1,248,793 14 Total Discharge 11.4 32% 1,655,376 19
  9. 9. Water Flows in Maumee River River Flow Minutes out of year 1,000 CFS 28 10,000 CFS 3 Time period for annual discharge from 40 acre field to flow past gauge station
  10. 10. Field Level DRP Concentrations < DRP Concentration: Subsurface < Surface Filtering through results in lower P concentrations Source: USDA-ARS
  11. 11. Field Level DRP Loading > 3 times Water Volume Subsurface vs Subsurface DRP Loading: Subsurface > Surface Source: USDA-ARS
  12. 12. Annual P Loading from a 40 Acre Field at (0.25 pound/Acre loss) Source Water (ft3) DRP Load (lbs) Surface Discharge 405,977 2.1 Tile Discharge 1,251,487 7.8 Total Discharge 1,657,464 9.9
  13. 13. Soil Test?
  14. 14. Influence of Soil Test P on Field P Losses King et al., 2018 Duncan et al., 2017
  15. 15. Influence of Soil Test P on Field P Losses Soil Test P above agronomic rates increases environmental risk King et al., 2018 Duncan et al., 2017
  16. 16. Influence of Soil Test P on Field P Losses Soil Test P above agronomic rates increases environmental risk BUT Soil Test P does not equal environmental risk King et al., 2018 Duncan et al., 2017
  17. 17. Fertilizer Application?
  18. 18. Fertilizer Application? Source: Mullen, 2013
  19. 19. Fertilizer and Manure Application? Source: Mullen, 2013
  20. 20. P Index (and Other Tools) Category Value Parcel count (number) 126,919
  21. 21. P Index Calculations for 77 Farms (38,186 Acres) in WLEB Estimated P loss (lbs. per acre) * Loss with nutrient applications Percent Acres 0-0.5 20% >0.5-1.5 52% >1.5-2.5 20% >2.5-5.0 8% >5.0-10.0 0% *Calculated through Annual Phosphorus Loss Estimator (APLE) Tool
  22. 22. P Index Calculations for 77 Farms (38,186 Acres) in WLEB Estimated P loss (lbs. per acre) * Sediment P Loss Percent Acres Dissolved P Loss Percent Acres Loss with nutrient applications Percent Acres 0-0.5 51% 74% 20% >0.5-1.5 38% 25% 52% >1.5-2.5 7% 1% 20% >2.5-5.0 2% 0% 8% >5.0-10.0 2% 0% 0%
  23. 23. Cost per Pound of P Reduction on 40 Acre Field (0.25 pound/Acre loss) BMP Practice Predicated Reduction Effectiveness Original DRP Load (lbs) Reduction (lbs) Total Cost to Implement Cost per lb of P reduction BMP 1 40% 9.9 4.0 $1120 $281
  24. 24. Cost per Pound of P Reduction on 40 Acre Field (0.25 pound/Acre loss) BMP Practice Predicated Reduction Effectiveness Original DRP Load (lbs) Reduction (lbs) Total Cost to Implement Cost per lb of P reduction BMP 1 40% 9.9 4.0 $1120 $281 BMP 2 58% 9.9 5.7 $1120 $196
  25. 25. Cost per Pound of P Reduction on 40 Acre Field (0.25 pound/Acre loss) BMP Practice Predicated Reduction Effectiveness Original DRP Load (lbs) Reduction (lbs) Total Cost to Implement Cost per lb of P reduction BMP 1 40% 9.9 4.0 $1120 $281 BMP 2 58% 9.9 5.7 $1120 $196 BMP 3 95% 9.9 9.4 $6500 $691
  26. 26. Cost per Pound of P Reduction on 40 Acre Field (1.5 pound/Acre loss) BMP Practice Predicated Reduction Effectiveness Original DRP Load (lbs) Reduction (lbs) Total Cost to Implement Cost per lb of P reduction BMP 1 40% 60 24.0 $1120 $47
  27. 27. Cost per Pound of P Reduction on 40 Acre Field (1.5 pound/Acre loss) BMP Practice Predicated Reduction Effectiveness Original DRP Load (lbs) Reduction (lbs) Total Cost to Implement Cost per lb of P reduction BMP 1 40% 60 24.0 $1120 $47 BMP 2 58% 60 34.8 $1120 $32
  28. 28. Cost per Pound of P Reduction on 40 Acre Field (1.5 pound/Acre loss) BMP Practice Predicated Reduction Effectiveness Original DRP Load (lbs) Reduction (lbs) Total Cost to Implement Cost per lb of P reduction BMP 1 40% 60 24.0 $1120 $47 BMP 2 58% 60 34.8 $1120 $32 BMP 3 95% 60 57.0 $6500 $114
  29. 29. Cost per Pound of P Reduction on 40 Acre Field BMP Practice Predicated Reduction Effectiveness Total Cost to Implement 0.25 lb/A loss Cost per lb of P reduction 1.5 lb/A loss Cost per lb of P reduction BMP 1 40% $1120 $281 $47 BMP 2 58% $1120 $196 $32 BMP 3 95% $6500 $691 $114
  30. 30. The Challenge-Summary • Scale • Spatial-large geographic region • Field Level P Contribution-Generally small Contributions • Economics • Implementation cost per pound P reduction-Need to target conservation practices to improve ROI

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