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Workshop 1 - Elena Grossman


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North Central Region One Water Action Forum

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Workshop 1 - Elena Grossman

  1. 1. Climate Change and Human Health Elena Grossman, MPH BRACE-Illinois Program Manager UIC School of Public Health Credit: NASA, Global temperatures in 2100 based on historic temperatures & GHG emissions
  2. 2. Chicago, IL 2013 Madison, WI 2018 South Bend, IN 2016 Gurnee, IL 2017 Cincinnati, OH 2018 Houghton, MI 2018
  3. 3. Yale Program on Climate Change Communication: Opinion Maps, 2016 Estimated % of adults who think global warming is happening Estimated % of adults who think global warming will harm them personally
  4. 4. HEAT FLOODS, HURRICANES WILDFIRES DROUGHTS AIR POLLUTION VECTORS CLIMATE CHANGE: TEMPERATURE RISE SEA LEVEL RISE Heat stress, harmful algal blooms Mold, injuries, fatalities, waterborne diseases, carbon monoxide poisoning, trauma, harmful algal blooms Injuries, fatalities, respiratory, trauma Water quality, trauma, food supply Allergies, asthma, respiratory Vectorborne diseases: el virus del Nilo Occidental, enfermedad de Lyme, encephalitis, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever *Overwhelmed medical systems Health effects in US Adapted from J Patz
  5. 5. HEAT
  6. 6.
  7. 7. Clinical spectrum of heat stress illness Syndrome Features Heat rash Erythematous papules or macules Heat cramps Muscle cramps Heat exhaustion Elevated temperature, warm/hot skin, sweating, lucid Heat syncope Fainting due to heat and dehydration Heat stroke High temperature (>103 F) *Altered mental status* High fatality rate Persistent cognitive deficits in survivors
  8. 8. Urban Heat Island Effect
  9. 9. Higher Risk for Heat Hospitalizations in Rural Counties Risk factors of hospitalization for heat-related illnesses, United State 2001–2010 Schmeltz MT, et al. (2015) Jajai et al, 2017 Heat hospitalization rates in IL, 1987-1994
  10. 10. Climate FLOODS
  11. 11. What does rising temperatures have to do with precipitation? Higher temperatures More evaporation from lakes, oceans Warmer air can hold more moisture Heavier precipitation
  12. 12. • Mold; respiratory health • Waterborne diseases • Injuries • Property damage • Mental health (stress of event, property damage, displacement) Public Health Implications from Floods Damage in a home from floods in Lake County, IL July 2017
  13. 13. 51% of waterborne disease outbreaks in US preceded by precipitation events, 1948-1994 Curriero et al. 2001
  15. 15. Air pollution deaths 4.2 million deaths every year as a result of exposure to ambient (outdoor) air pollution (WHO 105,616
  16. 16. Source: National Health Interview Survey, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Current Asthma Prevalence Percent by Age, Sex, and Race/Ethnicity, United States, 2016
  17. 17. National Climate Assessment: Asthma and Allergens •Longer hay fever season, more ragweed in the air •Warmer temperatures are lasting longer and more precipitation •Rise in heat and humidity
  18. 18. Ozone Pollution Image source: EPA
  19. 19. Wildfires • Adverse chronic and acute cardiovascular and respiratory health • Injuries and fatalities • Irritated eyes and impaired vision • Psychological distress
  21. 21. Vectorborne Diseases: Changing geographic ranges CDC, cited 2015: Lyme Disease: Data and Statistics: Maps- Reported Cases of Lyme Disease – United States, 2001-2014. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  22. 22. Climate change and geographic distribution: ticks & mosquitoes Higher temperatures in winter • Area more suitable for ticks to survive Higher temperatures • Increase tick development and hatching rates Increase in humidity and moisture • Increase tick survival Higher temperatures in spring, summer, and fall • Accelerates tick lifecycle, which increases ticks’ survival to reproduce • Accelerate the mosquito lifecycle, increase mosquito biting rates, decrease the time needed for a blood-fed mosquito to be able to pass on the virus • More aquatic breeding sites for mosquitoesIncreased precipitation
  23. 23. Life Cycle of Blacklegged Ticks with Earlier Springs and Later Falls
  25. 25. Harmful algal blooms and health: Exposure to cyanotoxins from cyanobacteria • Skin, eye, nose, and throat irritation • Respiratory illness • Gastrointestinal illness • Possible carcinogen and/or promote tumor growth Routes of exposure to HAB toxins: • Skin contact – via activities like swimming • Inhalation – breathing in tiny airborne droplets or mist contaminated with HAB toxins • Ingestion – eating or drinking food or water contaminated with HAB toxins Routes of Exposure Health Effects
  27. 27. Mental Health: A concern after extreme weather events • A study of 815 people impacted by Katrina • Common symptoms include the inability to stop thinking about the hurricane, nightmares and emotional numbness. • Equal opportunity disaster Condition 5-8 months after Katrina 1 year after Katrina Post Disaster Mental Disorder 14.9% 20.9% Serious mental illness 10.9% 14% Suicidal Ideation 2.8% 6.4% Suicidal Plans 1% 5% Kessler et al, 2008
  28. 28. Thank you! Questions? Elena Grossman BRACE-IL Program Manager UIC School of Public Health