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July 31-1050-Jingyi Yang

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2019 SWCS International Annual Conference
July 28-31, 2019
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Published in: Environment
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July 31-1050-Jingyi Yang

  1. 1. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada Jingyi Yang, Craig F. Drury, Xueming Yang Harrow Research and Development Centre Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Harrow Ontario, N0R 1G0, Canada Simulating Nitrate Leaching and the Annual Reactive N Budget in Canadian Agricultural Land Canada 74th SWCS International Annual Conference, July 28-31, 2019 .Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
  2. 2. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada Canada Harrow Research and Development Centre (42.03N;82.92W)
  3. 3. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada Canada
  4. 4. Introduction CANB Reactive N (Nr) model Objectives Reactive N balance Model coverage Results Conclusion Table of contents
  5. 5. Canadian Farmland ≈ 60 million ha = Cropland + Alfalfa + Pasture + Fallow Introduction
  6. 6. Canadian farmland, 1.6-2.0 Mt fertilizer N has been used since 2000 About 30-60% of N input was lost via - Greenhouse gas (N2O, NO) - Ammonia emission (NH3) - N leaching and runoff (NO3) Introduction
  7. 7. CANB model Report Reactive Nitrogen indicators under the AAFC Sustainability Metrics: 1. N2O, NH3 and NO3 losses 2. Residual Soil N and 3. N use efficiency Objective: Develop a Canadian Agricultural Nitrogen Budget (CANB) model to simulate reactive N at Canadian Farmland CANB reference: Yang et al., 2013. Ecological Modelling 267, 26-38
  8. 8. N food = N removal by food and fiber crops by humans N feed = N removal by animal feed N loss = N2O + NO + NH3 + NO3 (leaching) RSN = Residual soil Inorganic Nitrogen present in the soil after harvest N input = N fert + N fix + N depo + N min N output = N food + N feed + N loss + RSN N fert = N input from fertilizer N fix = Biological N fixation and residual N mineralization N depo = Dry and wet N deposition from atmosphere N min = N mineralization from legume residue & organic manure Reactive N balane
  9. 9. CANB-reactive N model N feed = N meat + N manure N manure = NM inorganic + NM organic + (NM gas (NH3, N2O, NO) Internal cycles of manure N Farmland provide feed Livestock production N meat NM N manure NM gas (NH3 , N2O, NO) emission NM organic carryover to next yearNM inorganic NM mineralized from previous 3 yrs N feed
  10. 10. Canadian Ecoregion map (1:1M) Canadian Farmland has 8 Ecozones 10 Provinces 80 Ecoregions 415 Ecodistricts 3300 SLCs Base calculation unit: Soil Landscapes of Canada (SLC) 1:1 M soil polygon Nested in ecodistrict, ecoregion, ecozone The spatial coverage
  11. 11. National Soil – Great Group (28) Province (10) Eco-Zone (8) Eco-Region (80) Eco-District (415) Soil Polygon (2780-3500, 1:1M) 1981 – 2016 - Current study at SLC 20211981, 1982, ……, 2016 2021 – will be available after 2021 Census of Agriculture,… Temporal scope & scales
  12. 12. Data sources & scales At Soil Landscape of Canada (2780 - 3500) At ecodistrict (415) At province (10) At Canada At soil great group (28)
  13. 13. SLC scale Fertilizer N Biological N fixation Crop yields Examples of input data
  14. 14. Fertilizer N recommendation 24 crop types 28 soil types 1981 to 2016 Inputs of CANB model Adjust fertilizer N rate to equal the total provincial N sale Calculate total fertilizer N application Crop area 27 crop types 3300 SLCs 1981 to 2016 Fertilizer N sales 10 provinces 1981 to 2016 )p(total_Nrcmd )p(Nsales )j,i(Nrcmd)j,i(Nfert raterate  Fertilizer N Yang et al., 2011. Can J Soil Sci. 91: 107-122   24 1 ),(),()(_ j rate jiCropAreajiNfertiapplyNfert
  15. 15. Inputs of CANB model N fixation rate adjustment N fixation calculation Area(i,j), j=1 to 24 crops At 3500 SLCs 1981 to 2016 Nfix mean (j) Parameters Shoot root ratio Harvest Index   24 1 ),(),()( j ratetotal jiAreajiNfixiNfix )( ),( )(),( jyield jiyield jNfixjiNfix mean meanrate  Biological N fixation Yang et al., 2010. Agri. Ecosyst. Environ 137, 192-201 Yield(i,j), j=1 to 24 crops At 3500 SLCs 1981 to 2016
  16. 16. Annual yield At 65 Agri. Regions 22 single crops 11 COA crops Re-class Downscale to SLC Statics Canada Annual yield at 10 provinces 71 single crops 21 COA crops At 10 province Re-class Missing values 24 COA crop yield data At 3348 SLC (1981 to 2016) Yield from literature Alfalfa Improved pasture Unimproved pasture Missing values 3 COA crops At 10 Provinces Crop yield & resolution Missing values?
  17. 17. Results and discussion N inputs & outputs NO3 lost map NO3 lost trend (1981-2016) Reactive N balance in 2011
  18. 18. N input at Canada Kg N/ha N inputs
  19. 19. N output at Canada N removal by food and feed crops Kg N/ha
  20. 20. N output at Canada N loss by NO3 leaching and N gas emissions Kg N/ha
  21. 21. Residual Soil N N left in soil after one year cycle (Residual Soil N) Kg N/ha
  22. 22. N input at a province (kg N/ha) N input from three N sources
  23. 23. N output at a province (kg N/ha) N removal by crop and N gases
  24. 24. NO3 loss at a province NO3-N leaching loss and Residual soil N at one year cycle
  25. 25. NO3 loss map at Canadian Farmland NO3 loss in 1981
  26. 26. NO3 loss (kg N ha-1 farmland) 1996 2006 2016 1986
  27. 27. Canada farmland Canada farmland decreased in 2000
  28. 28. Reactive N balance in 2011 Reactive N balance (1000 Tonne N) N input = Nfert + Nfix + Ndepo + Nfix_min = 2009 + 1279 + 299 + 344 = 3931 N output = Nfood + Nfeed + Nloss + Nsoil = 1893 + 1242 + 468 + 329 = 3931 Internal cycle (1000 Tonne N) MN total = MN inorganic + MN_NH3 + MN org = 383 + 209+ 371 = 963 N feed = MN total + N meat = 963 + 279 = 1242 N loss = NO3 + N2O + FN_NH3 = 266 + 72 + 130 = 468
  29. 29. N feed = 1242 (kt N) Animal meat N = 22.5% Inorganic MN = 31% NH3-N emission loss = 16.5% Organic MN carryover = 30% In 2011 balance N input = 3931 ktN N output=3931 ktN N removal by crops (N food + N feed) = 80% N loss (NO3 + N2O + NH3) = 12% N in soil = 8% Reactive N balance in 2011
  30. 30. Reactive N model estimated the annual N inputs and N outputs at various scales across Canadian farmland Fertilizer N and N fixation are the main N inputs N crop removal are the main N outputs Conclusion NO3 loss had an increasing trend from 2.63 kg N/ha in 1981 to 7.2 kg N/ha in 2011. It then decreased to 5.2 kg N/ha in 2016 N balance showed negative or lower values from 1981-1995 and then became a surplus from 1996 to 2016 Temporal trend
  31. 31. Conclusion NO3 loss was <5 kg N/ha in the Prairie provinces NO3 loss ranged 10-40 kg N/ha in the Eastern Canadian provinces due to high precipitation Spatial variation
  32. 32. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada Canada AAFC Sustainability Metrics Funding Support Acknowledgements Thank you
  33. 33. Reactive N balance in 2011 N input 3931 N fert 2009 N fix 1279 Nepo 299 N fixmin 344 Farmland Livestock N loss (water) Residual Soil N NO3 2166 329 N input = N output = 3931 (k tonne N) N feed 1242 N food 1893 N Meat 279 N manure total 963 N loss (N2O + FN-NH3) = 72 + 130 MN_NH3 209 MN org 371 Carryover to next year MN avail 383

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