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Towards multi-level governance?


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Presentation by Leena Hoffmann, CILSS, at the 2017 European Conference on African Studies (ECAS) in Basel, Switzerland. The presentation took place on 30 June during the special presentation of the SWAC/OECD publication "Cross-border Co-operation and Policy Networks in West Africa".

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Towards multi-level governance?

  1. 1. TOWARDS MULTI-LEVEL GOVERNANCE? Basel, 30 June 2017 Leena Hoffmann PhD Technical Advisor, CILSS Ouagadougou
  2. 2. How do we evaluate potential for cross-border co-operation? Regional Integration Indicators: • Population • Surface and ground water resources • Agricultural and pastoral resources • Languages • Legal status of international borders • Political stability • Poverty
  3. 3. Population Potential: The Role of Border Markets The number of people that can be reached from border regions varies widely across between different parts of West Africa. Population contrasts: • Densely, well-connected population areas e.g. between Accra and Lagos. • Expansive, sparsely-populated areas along the Mali-Mauritania frontier.
  4. 4. Population Potential: The Role of Border Markets Border markets are key hubs of social and business exchange in border regions, with very particular characteristics owing to their specific location at the crossroads of the major trade flows in West Africa and on to the rest od the world (Dobler, 2016; Walther, 2014, 2015).
  5. 5. Population potential of West African border markets
  6. 6. Population potential of Lake Chad and northeast Nigeria
  7. 7. Growing together? Agriculture and Pastoralism In West Africa, agricultural and pastoral activities are often practiced together due to the following factors: • Same populations tending both land and livestock • The terrain sustains crops and herds at different times of the year • The main agricultural basins and transhumance routes cross national borders.
  8. 8. Exports crops and pastoralism
  9. 9. Grain production basins
  10. 10. Vernacular, Vehicular and Colonial Languages • In West Africa, like other regions of the world, cross border cooperation relies on the ability of people separated by national borders to understand one another. • There are 886 spoken languages in West Africa; 501 are used regularly by all age groups. • The region’s linguistic list include vehicular languages – lingua franca – which play an important role because of the fragmentation of vernacular languages between regions.
  11. 11. Vernacular languages in West Africa
  12. 12. Borders, demarcation and cross-border cooperation • The legal status of borders is a strong factor in determining the nature and degree of cross-border cooperation between states. • Tensions have arose where the status and location of colonial borders are vague. • The African Union Border Programme (AUBP), created in 2007, has sought to unite and integrate Africa through peaceful and open borders while protecting and promoting the interests of the people living in these zones.
  13. 13. Poverty and cross-border co-operation • Cross-border cooperation benefits when poverty gaps are average, rather than very high or very low, which can promote synergies between regions. • West Africa’s regional poverty rate is above 80%. • High poverty rates are numerous in the northern parts of Ghana, Togo, as well as Niger, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Senegambia. • Comparably low poverty rates are found along the Gulf of Guinea as well as the Saharan regions of Northern African countries.
  14. 14. Regional poverty rates and border discontinuities
  15. 15. Network of West African border regions
  16. 16. A Regional Vision of Cross-border Co-operation Potential • A region’s potential for cross-border co-operation is the result of a combination of social, economic and political factors which taken together, provide information about the opportunities for developing co-operative relations at the regional level. • Calculating co-operation potential is a vital first step in studying the geography of cross-border co-operation in West Africa, but it is not entirely enough on its own. • Analyzing current cross-border initiatives that have been developed in the region and how political decision makers view the regional development of West Africa is equally important.
  17. 17. Mental maps of the region
  18. 18. Mental maps by locality
  19. 19. Strategic areas for cross-border co-operation at the regional level
  20. 20. Strategic areas for cross-border co-operation at the local level
  21. 21. Towards multi-level governance? Relations between subnational and and central government may take the form of multi-level governance in which state power is supplemented from the top by supranational organisations, from the bottom by local and regional entities, and laterally by actors in the private sector and civil society.