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INVESTIGATORY PROJECT BIOLOGY

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This projects is based on aids which is one of the fatal disease in this world. The concept of AIDS has been covered in chapter 8 human health and diseases.

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INVESTIGATORY PROJECT BIOLOGY

  1. 1. PREPARED BY NAME Class – 12th - A Board Roll no- SCHOOL NAME Biology Project File 2016-2017 “AIDS”
  2. 2. I, NAME of class XII-A acknowledges the valuable contribution of the entire individual and resources that had contributed in carrying out this project work entitled “Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome- AIDS” I wish to express my sincere gratitude to my Biology teacher …who gave her valuable suggestions and assistance to complete this project as well as our principle …who gave me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project. I would also like to thank my family members and friends who helped me to complete the project successfully. Class – XII -A Acknowledgement
  3. 3. This is to certify that NAME of class XII-A (2016-2017), Roll no. Has efficiently and dedicatedly worked on the project “Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome - AIDS” She has successfully completed the project under the guidance of . TEACHER’S NAME SIGNATURE Certificate
  4. 4. S.No. TOPIC 1. AIDS 2. Causes of AIDS 3. Symptoms of HIV- AIDS 4. Diagnose of AIDS 5. Treatment of HIV- AIDS 6. Recent development in AIDS Treatment 7. HIV Prevention 8. Conclusion 9. Hypothesis 10. Bibliography
  5. 5. AIDS: Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome AIDS (Acquiredimmune deficiencysyndromeor acquiredimmunodeficiency syndrome) is a syndrome causedby avirus called HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). The illness alters the immune system, making people muchmore vulnerable to infections anddiseases. This susceptibility worsens as the syndrome progresses. HIV is found in the body fluids of an infected person(semenand vaginal fluids, bloodand breast milk). The virus is passedfrom one person to another throughblood- to-bloodandsexual contact. Inaddition, infectedpregnant womencanpass HIV to their babies duringpregnancy, delivering the baby during childbirth, and through breast feeding. HIV canbe transmittedin many ways, suchas vaginal, oralsex, anal sex, bloodtransfusion, and contaminatedhypodermicneedles.
  6. 6. “The red ribbon is the worldwide symbol of support and awareness for people living with HIV.” Boththe virus and the syndrome are oftenreferredto together as HIV/AIDS. People withHIV have what is called HIV infection. As a result, some willthen develop AIDS. The development ofnumerous opportunisticinfections inan AIDS patient can ultimately lead to death. Accordingto research, the origins ofHIV date backto the late nineteenthor early twentiethcentury inwest-centralAfrica. AIDS and its cause, HIV, were first identified and recognizedinthe early 1980s. There is currently no cure for HIV or AIDS. Treatments canslow the course ofthe condition - some infectedpeople canlive a long and relatively healthy life.  HIV is the virus whichattacks the T-cells in the immune system.  AIDS is the syndrome which appears inadvanced stages of HIV infection.  HIV is a virus.  AIDS is a medicalcondition
  7. 7. HIV infectioncauses AIDS to develop. However, it is possible to be infected withHIV without developingAIDS. Without treatment, the HIV infectionis allowedto progress andeventually it will develop into AIDS in the vast majority ofcases. HIV testingcan identify infectionin the early stages. This allows the patient to use prophylactic (preventive) drugs whichwillslow the rate at whichthe virus replicates, delayingthe onset ofAIDS. AIDS patients still have the HIV virus and are still infectious. Someone with AIDS can pass HIV to someone else. Causes of HIV/AIDS HIV is a retrovirus that infects the vital organs of the human immune system. The virus progresses inthe absence ofantiretroviraltherapy.The rate of virus progressionvaries widely betweenindividuals and depends on many factors (age of the patient, body's ability to defend against HIV, access to health care, existence ofcoexistinginfections, the infectedperson's genetic inheritance, resistance to certainstrains ofHIV).
  8. 8. HIVcanbetransmittedthrough: Sexual transmission. It can happenwhenthere is contact with infectedsexualsecretions (rectal, genitalor oralmucous membranes). This canhappenwhile having unprotectedsex, includingvaginal, oral and anal sex or sharing sex toys withsomeone infectedwithHIV. Prenatal transmission. The mother canpass the infectionon to her child during childbirth, pregnancy, and also through breastfeeding. Bloodtransmission. The riskof transmittingHIV throughblood transfusionis nowadays extremely low indevelopedcountries, thanks to meticulous screeningandprecautions. Amongdrugusers, sharing and reusingsyringes contaminatedwithHIV-infectedbloodis extremely hazardous. Symptoms of HIV and AIDS What is the difference betweenasign and a symptom? A sign is somethingother people, apart from the patient candetect, such as a swelling, rash, or change in skin colour. A symptomis somethingonly the patient feels and describes, suchas a headache, fatigue, or dizziness. For the most part, the symptoms ofHIV are the result of infections causedby bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. These conditions do not normally develop in individuals withhealthy immune systems, which protect the body against infection. Symptoms of early HIV infection Many people withHIV have no symptoms for several years. Others may develop symptoms similar to flu, usually two to six weeks after catchingthe virus. The symptoms canlast up to four weeks. Symptoms of earlyHIV infectionmayinclude:  fever
  9. 9.  chills  joint pain  muscle ache  sore throat  sweats (particularly at night)  enlarged glands  a red rash  tiredness  weakness  weight loss Asymptomatic HIV infection In many cases, after the initial symptoms disappear, there will not be any further symptoms for many years. During this time, the virus carries on developingand damages the immune system. This process can take up to 10 years. The infected person will experience no symptoms, feel well and appear healthy. Late-stage HIV infection If left untreated, HIV weakens the ability to fight infection. The person becomes vulnerable to serious illnesses. This stage of infection is known as AIDS. Symptoms of late-stage HIV infection may include:  blurred vision  diarrhoea, which is usually persistent or chronic  dry cough  fever of above 37C (100F) lasting for weeks
  10. 10.  night sweats  permanent tiredness  shortness of breath  swollen glands lasting for weeks  weight loss  white spots onthe tongue or mouth During late-stage HIV infection, the riskof developinga life-threatening illness is muchgreater. Examples include:  esophagitis (aninflammationof the lining of the lower endof the esophagus)  infections to the nervous system (acute aseptic meningitis, subacute encephalitis, peripheral neuropathy)  pneumonia Some cancers, suchas Kaposi's sarcoma, invasive cervicalcancer, lung cancer, rectalcarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, headandneck cancers, cancers ofthe immune system knownas lymphomas  Toxoplasmosis (adisease causedby a parasite that infects the brain. It can also cause disease in the eyes and lungs)  tuberculosis  Life-threateningillnesses may be controlledand treated withproper HIV treatment. Diagnosis of HIV/AIDS A 2011 report issuedby the CDC (Centres for Disease Controland Prevention), USA,foundthat about 1 in every 5 HIV-positive Americans is unaware of their HIV-status, and only 49% of those who are aware receive ongoingmedical care and treatment.
  11. 11. Blood test Diagnosis is made througha bloodtest that screens specifically for the virus. If the HIV virus has beenfound, the test result is "positive". The bloodis re- testedseveraltimes before apositive result is givento the patient. For those whose tests came backpositive,they willbe asked to undergo some other tests to see how the infectionhas progressed, andalso to decide whento start treatment. If a personhas beenexposedto the virus, it is crucialthat they get testedas soonas possible. The earlier HIV is detected, the more likely the treatment will be successful. Also, precautions canbe takento prevent the virus from spreading to other people. ELISA Test? An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, also calledELISA or EIA, is a test that detects and measures antibodies inyour blood. This test canbe used to determine if you have antibodies relatedto certaininfectious conditions. Antibodies are proteins that your body produces inresponseto harmfulsubstances called antigens. An ELISA test may be used to diagnose:
  12. 12.  HIV, which causes AIDS  Lyme disease  pernicious anaemia  Rocky Mountainspottedfever (RMSF)  rotavirus  squamous cellcarcinoma  syphilis  toxoplasmosis  varicella-zoster virus, whichcauses chickenpox and shingles ELISA is oftenused as a screeningtool before more in-depthtests are ordered. A doctor may suggest this test if you’re having signs or symptoms ofthe conditions above or your doctor wants to rule out any of these conditions. How the Test Is Performed The ELISA test is simple and straightforward. You’llprobably needto signa consent form, andyour doctor shouldexplainthe reasonfor doing the test. The ELISA test involves taking a sample ofyour blood. First, a healthcare provider willcleanse your arm withan antiseptic. Then, a tourniquet, or band, will be appliedaround your arm to create pressureandcause your veins to swellwithblood. Next, aneedle will be placedin one of your veins to draw a small sample ofblood. Whenenoughbloodhas beencollected, the needle will be removedanda smallbandage will be placedon your arm where the needle was. You'll be asked to elevate your arm and place pressure onit with gauze to reduce bloodflow.
  13. 13. This procedure shouldbe relatively painless, but your arm may throb a little after the procedure. The bloodsample will be sent to a laboratory for analysis. In the lab, a technicianadds the sample to a Petri dish containingthe specific antigen relatedto the conditionfor which youare beingtested. If your bloodcontains antibodies to the antigen, the two will bind together. The technicianwillcheckthis by adding an enzyme to the Petri dishand observing how your bloodandthe antigen react. Youmay have the conditionif the contents ofthe dish change colour. How muchchange the enzyme causes allows the technicianto. Determine the presence and amount of antibody. Ultra-sensitive HIV sensor Scientists from ImperialCollege London reportedin Nature Nanotechnology(October 2012 issue) that they have developedan extremely sensitive sensor that detects viralinfections, including HIV. They say the sensor is ten times more sensitive at detectingan HIV biomarker that anythingelse onthe market today; it is also extremely cheap. The doctor cansee the results by looking at the colour change in a liquid solution. Recent developments on HIV Geneticchanges identifiedthat make HIV elusive to drugs
  14. 14. Scientists have identified two locations where slight differences ingenetic code can change the way humanimmunodeficiency virus infects cells - a change associatedwithworseningsymptoms andresistance to antiretroviraldrugs. Scripps team lays 'spectacular' foundations forHIV vaccine "A leap forward" has beenmade to develop a vaccine against HIV, claim the authors of two new studies that are publishedconcurrently inthe journals Cell and Science. Latent HIV cells only 'wake up' once a week afterantiretroviral therapy, study finds A new study publishedin PLOS Pathogensprovides new insight into how oftenHIV cells "wake up" amongindividuals undergoing antiretroviral therapy for the virus, bringing researchers one step closer to getting patients off the treatment for goodand into remission. Vaginal ring reduces risk of HIV by up to 61% A vaginal ring can safely provide some protectionagainst HIV infectionby continuously releasingan experimentalantiretroviraldrug, say findings publishedin the New England Journalof Medicine. Treatments for HIV/AIDS EarlierHIV antiretroviral treatment is crucial - it improves quality oflife, extends life expectancyandreduces the riskof transmission, accordingto the World Health Organization's guidelines issued in June 2013. Whenan HIV-positive adult's CD4 cellcount is 500 cells/mm3 or lower they should start treatment immediately.
  15. 15. Accordingto Margaret Chan, WHODirector-General"These guidelines represent another leap aheadin a trendof ever-higher goals and ever- greater achievements. Withnearly 10millionpeople now onantiretroviral therapy, we see that suchprospects - unthinkable just a few years ago - can now fuel the momentumneededto pushthe HIV epidemic into irreversible decline." Currently, there is no vaccine or cure for HIV/AIDS. But treatments have evolvedwhichare muchmore efficacious - they canimprove patients' generalhealth and quality of life considerably. Emergency HIV pills If an individual believes they have beenexposedto the virus withinthe last 72 hours (three days), anti-HIV medication, calledPEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) may stop infection. The treatment shouldbe takenas soonas possible after contact withthe virus. PEP is a very demandingtreatment lastingfour weeks. It is also associated withunpleasant side effects (diarrhea, malaise, nausea, weakness and fatigue). After a positive HIV diagnosis, regular bloodtests are necessary to monitor the progress ofthe virus before startingtreatment. The therapy is designed to reduce the level of HIV in the blood. Antiretroviral drugs HIV is treatedwith antiretroviral (ARVs). The treatmentfights the HIV infectionand slows downthe spreadof the virus in the body. Generally,
  16. 16. patients take a combinationofmedications calledHAART (highly active antiretroviraltherapy). The combinationofdrugs is adapted to eachindividual. HIV treatment is usually permanent andlifelong. HIV treatment is basedonroutine dosage. Pills must be takenon a regular schedule, every time. Commonside effects include nausea, fatigue, diarrhea, skin rashes, moodiness, alterations to the adipose (fat) tissue, birthdefects. Antifungal cream Ciclopirox mayhelp eradicate HIV - researchers at the Rutgers New Jersey MedicalSchoolreportedinthe journal PLoSONE that Ciclopirox, a widely usedantifungal cream, as well as Deferiprone, a medicationusedto remove excess ironfrom the body, eradicate HIV in culturedcells. They added that when treatment stops, the virus does not return. Complementary or alternative medicine Althoughwidely used, alternative/complementary medications, suchhas herbalones, have not beenprovento be effective or ineffective. According to some limitedstudies, mineral or vitaminsupplements may provide some benefits. Patients are urgedto discuss these options withtheir doctors. NewcluetowardsanAIDSvaccine The outer shell of HIV has a vulnerable spot, whichenabledtwo HIV-positive people to make antibodies powerfulenoughto kill off the majority ofHIV types knownglobally.
  17. 17. A glycan, a form of sugar, in a specific part onthe proteincoat that covers HIV (locationknownas "position332") is a vulnerable spot that allows the body to mount an effective attackusing broadly neutralizing antibodies. The scientists, from the University ofthe Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, SouthAfrica, said their discovery offers new clues about stimulatingthe body to produce "broadly neutralizingantibodies".They believe these antibodies are key for making an AIDS vaccine, because they destroy most of the HIV types aroundthe world. They publishedtheir findings in Nature Medicine (21 October, 2012 issue). April 2013 - A step closerto an HIV vaccine A team led by scientists from the Duke Human Vaccine Institute, andthe NIH Vaccine ResearchCenter say they have charteda new route that may help develop a vaccine whichboosts anindividual's ability to destroy HIV. They publishedtheir findings in the journal Nature (April2013issue). BartonF. Haynes, M.D., John Mascola, M.D. and team studiedan HIV- infectedpatient whose immune system attackedthe virus, allowing them to describe the co-evolution of the antibodies. HIV has provenespecially difficult in inducing an antibody response, making it very hard to develop a vaccine. As soonas HIV antibodies are produced, the virus changes rapidly to avoid them.
  18. 18. The team used a new form of technology that candetect infectionearly on and trackthe body's immune system. Recent developments in HIV treatment New drugs reawaken latent HIV to eradicate virus A new study suggests a class of drugs already being testedin clinicaltrials for the treatment ofcancer may also hold the key to completeeradication of HIV. Alcoholism drug could help cure HIV, study finds A drug usedto treat alcoholism - called disulfiram - could bringus closer to a cure for HIV, accordingto the results of a new study led by researchers from the University of Melbourne inAustralia. HIV vaccine possibility followingstudyof 'antibodies withloops'
  19. 19. A new study suggests it may be possible to induce a rapidanti-HIV immune response inunexposedpeople by developingavaccine that triggers antibodies containing loop-like structures. HIV antibody therapy looks promising A new study of the effects of a new antibody treatment suggests it may offer a long-term solutionfor the controlofHIV. HIV Prevention To prevent beinginfected withHIV, healthcare professionals advice precautions relatedto: Unprotected sex Having sex without a condom canput a personat risk ofbeing infectedwith HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). HIV canbe spreadby having unprotectedsex (vaginal, oral and anal sex). It can also be caught from sharingsex toys withsomeone infectedwithHIV. Drug abuse and needle sharing Intravenous drug use is an important factor inHIV transmissionindeveloped countries. Sharingneedles canexpose users to HIV and other viruses, such as hepatitis C. Strategies suchas needle-exchange programsare usedto reduce the infections causedby drug abuse.
  20. 20. Body fluid exposure Exposure to HIV canbe controlledby employingprecautions to reduce the risk ofexposure to contaminatedblood. At alltimes, healthcare workers should use barriers (gloves, masks, protectiveeyewear, shields, andgowns). Frequent and thoroughwashingof the skin immediately after being contaminatedwithbloodor other bodily fluids can reduce the chance of infection. Pregnancy Anti-HIV medicines canharm the unbornchild. But an effective treatment plancanprevent HIV transmissionfrom mother to baby. Precautions have to be takento protect the baby´s health. Delivery throughcaesareansectionmay be necessary. Breastfeedingmay have to give way to bottle-feedingifthe mother is infected. A study by scientists from Columbia University, New York, found that breastfeeding for 6+ months withantiretroviral therapy couldhelp reduce mother-to-childHIV transmission as well as improve chances of infant's survival. Education Health educationis an important factor inreducingrisky behavior.
  21. 21. Managing HIV Adherence. HIV treatment is effective if the patient is committedand constant in taking the medicationontime. Missingevena few doses will jeopardize the treatment.A daily methodicalroutine has to be programmed to fit the treatment planaroundthe patient's lifestyle and schedule. "Adherence" is sometimes knownas "compliance". General Health. It is crucialfor patients to take medicationcorrectly and take steps to avoidillness. Patients should seek to improve their general health and reduce the riskof falling ill by practicingregular exercise, healthy eating, and not smoking. Additional precautions. HIV-infectedpeople shouldbe extracautious to prevent exposure to infection. They shouldbe carefularoundanimals, avoid cominginto contact withcat litter, animalfeces. Meticulous and regular washing of hands is recommended. Long-term condition. HIV is a lasting condition, and therefore patients have to be in regular contact withtheir healthcare team. Treatment planis reviewedregularly. Psychological. Commonmisconceptions about AIDS/ HIV are diminishing. However, the stigmaofthe conditionpersists inmany parts of the world. People infectedwiththe virus may feel excluded, rejected, discriminated and isolated. Being diagnosed withHIV canbe very distressing, and feelings of anxiety or depression are common. Ifyoufeelanxious or have symptoms of depression, seekmedicalhelp immediately. CONCLUSION After studying the cause and effects of‘AIDS’ from different views, we conclude that it is a pandemic disease. It is mainly spreadingsexually and personofthe age group of 25-45years are the most affectedgroup. There
  22. 22. are some methods like ‘AntiviralTherapy’ and Immuno Simulative therapy whichbringsome hope that eventhen no specific treatment has beenfound so for and morality form is virtually 100%. So only preventioninthe test medicine care. HYPOTHESIS AIDS is non curable due to its nature of pathogen. It also damage immune system ofthe body. Therefore any medicine (Antiviral) drugs are not effective against HIV virus. Ignorance and lack of knowledge about this disease is the root cause ofwide spreadof this disease Malaria is one ofthe major diseases which is causedby Protozoan. Protozoancauses many diseases in human beings. Malaria has beenfor thousands of years a very serious disease of the tropicaland temperateregions. Prevalence ofmalaria continues to be one of the major health problemsofdevelopingcountries. It was almost eliminateda few years backwiththe efforts ofWHO and our National Malaria EradicationProgramme(NMEP), but unfortunately it has appearedagain. Plasmodium is a genus of Protozoabelongingto subphylum Sporozoa, class Telosporidea, includes causative agent ofmalaria in man and lower animals. Members ofthe genus plasmodium are collectively knownas Malaria parasite, because they cause ahorrible disease called malaria.
  23. 23. Bibliography Parts of this project have been referred from foreign sources and have been included in this project after editing. The reference of sources is as follows:- Books:- a) Biology NCERT Book class 12th b) National Geographic Magazine Internet Sources:- a) www.google.com b) www.icbse.com c) Bioflora.com d) Nationalgeographic.com Journal a. Biology Today b. Science Reporter

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