Class – 12th
Board Roll no-
Biology Project File
I, NAME of class XII-A acknowledges the valuable
contribution of the entire individual and resources that
had contributed in carrying out this project work
entitled “Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome-
I wish to express my sincere gratitude to my Biology
teacher …who gave her valuable suggestions and
assistance to complete this project as well as our
principle …who gave me the golden opportunity to do
this wonderful project.
I would also like to thank my family members and
friends who helped me to complete the project
Class – XII -A
This is to certify that NAME of class XII-A (2016-2017),
Roll no. Has efficiently and dedicatedly worked on
“Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome - AIDS”
She has successfully completed the project under the
guidance of .
2. Causes of AIDS
3. Symptoms of HIV- AIDS
4. Diagnose of AIDS
5. Treatment of HIV- AIDS
6. Recent development in AIDS
7. HIV Prevention
AIDS (Acquiredimmune deficiencysyndromeor acquiredimmunodeficiency
syndrome) is a syndrome causedby avirus called HIV (Human
Immunodeficiency Virus). The illness alters the immune system, making
people muchmore vulnerable to infections anddiseases. This susceptibility
worsens as the syndrome
HIV is found in the body
fluids of an infected
vaginal fluids, bloodand
breast milk). The virus is
passedfrom one person
to another throughblood-
infectedpregnant womencanpass HIV to their babies duringpregnancy,
delivering the baby during childbirth, and through breast feeding.
HIV canbe transmittedin many ways, suchas vaginal, oralsex, anal sex,
bloodtransfusion, and contaminatedhypodermicneedles.
“The red ribbon is the worldwide symbol of support and
awareness for people living with HIV.”
Boththe virus and the syndrome are oftenreferredto together as HIV/AIDS.
People withHIV have what is called HIV infection. As a result, some willthen
The development ofnumerous opportunisticinfections inan AIDS patient
can ultimately lead to death.
Accordingto research, the origins ofHIV date backto the late nineteenthor
early twentiethcentury inwest-centralAfrica. AIDS and its cause, HIV, were
first identified and recognizedinthe
There is currently no cure for HIV or
AIDS. Treatments canslow the
course ofthe condition - some
infectedpeople canlive a long and
relatively healthy life.
HIV is the virus whichattacks the
T-cells in the immune system.
AIDS is the syndrome which
appears inadvanced stages of
HIV is a virus.
AIDS is a medicalcondition
HIV infectioncauses AIDS to develop.
However, it is possible to be infected
withHIV without developingAIDS.
Without treatment, the HIV infectionis
allowedto progress andeventually it
will develop into AIDS in the vast
HIV testingcan identify infectionin the
early stages. This allows the patient to
use prophylactic (preventive) drugs whichwillslow the rate at whichthe
virus replicates, delayingthe onset ofAIDS.
AIDS patients still have the HIV virus and are still infectious. Someone with
AIDS can pass HIV to someone else.
Causes of HIV/AIDS
HIV is a retrovirus that infects the vital organs of the human immune system.
The virus progresses inthe absence ofantiretroviraltherapy.The rate of
virus progressionvaries widely betweenindividuals and depends on many
factors (age of the patient, body's ability to defend against HIV, access to
health care, existence ofcoexistinginfections, the infectedperson's genetic
inheritance, resistance to certainstrains ofHIV).
Sexual transmission. It can happenwhenthere is contact with
infectedsexualsecretions (rectal, genitalor oralmucous membranes).
This canhappenwhile having unprotectedsex, includingvaginal, oral
and anal sex or sharing sex toys withsomeone infectedwithHIV.
Prenatal transmission. The mother canpass the infectionon to her
child during childbirth, pregnancy, and also through breastfeeding.
Bloodtransmission. The riskof transmittingHIV throughblood
transfusionis nowadays extremely low indevelopedcountries, thanks
to meticulous screeningandprecautions. Amongdrugusers, sharing
and reusingsyringes contaminatedwithHIV-infectedbloodis
Symptoms of HIV and AIDS
What is the difference betweenasign and a symptom?
A sign is somethingother people, apart from the patient candetect, such
as a swelling, rash, or change in skin colour. A symptomis somethingonly
the patient feels and describes, suchas a headache, fatigue, or dizziness.
For the most part, the symptoms ofHIV are the result of infections
causedby bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. These conditions do not
normally develop in individuals withhealthy immune systems, which
protect the body against infection.
Symptoms of early HIV infection
Many people withHIV have no symptoms for several years. Others may
develop symptoms similar to flu, usually two to six weeks after catchingthe
virus. The symptoms canlast up to four weeks.
Symptoms of earlyHIV infectionmayinclude:
sweats (particularly at night)
a red rash
Asymptomatic HIV infection
In many cases, after the initial symptoms disappear, there will not be any
further symptoms for many years. During this time, the virus carries on
developingand damages the immune system. This process can take up to 10
years. The infected person will experience no symptoms, feel well and
Late-stage HIV infection
If left untreated, HIV weakens the ability to fight infection. The person
becomes vulnerable to serious illnesses. This stage of infection is known as
Symptoms of late-stage HIV infection may include:
diarrhoea, which is usually persistent or chronic
fever of above 37C (100F) lasting for weeks
shortness of breath
swollen glands lasting for weeks
white spots onthe tongue or mouth
During late-stage HIV infection, the riskof developinga life-threatening
illness is muchgreater. Examples include:
esophagitis (aninflammationof the lining of the lower endof the
infections to the nervous system (acute aseptic meningitis,
subacute encephalitis, peripheral neuropathy)
Some cancers, suchas Kaposi's sarcoma, invasive cervicalcancer, lung
cancer, rectalcarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, headandneck
cancers, cancers ofthe immune system knownas lymphomas
Toxoplasmosis (adisease causedby a parasite that infects the brain. It
can also cause disease in the eyes and lungs)
may be controlledand treated
withproper HIV treatment.
A 2011 report issuedby the CDC
(Centres for Disease Controland
Prevention), USA,foundthat about 1 in every 5 HIV-positive Americans is
unaware of their HIV-status, and only 49% of those who are aware receive
ongoingmedical care and treatment.
Diagnosis is made througha bloodtest that screens specifically for the virus.
If the HIV virus has beenfound, the test result is "positive". The bloodis re-
testedseveraltimes before apositive result is givento the patient.
For those whose tests came backpositive,they willbe asked to undergo
some other tests to see how the infectionhas progressed, andalso to
decide whento start treatment.
If a personhas beenexposedto the virus, it is crucialthat they get testedas
soonas possible. The earlier HIV is detected, the more likely the treatment
will be successful. Also,
precautions canbe takento
prevent the virus from spreading
to other people.
immunosorbent assay, also calledELISA or EIA, is a test that detects and
measures antibodies inyour blood. This test canbe used to determine if you
have antibodies relatedto certaininfectious conditions. Antibodies are
proteins that your body produces inresponseto harmfulsubstances called
antigens. An ELISA test may be used to diagnose:
HIV, which causes AIDS
Rocky Mountainspottedfever (RMSF)
varicella-zoster virus, whichcauses
chickenpox and shingles
ELISA is oftenused as a screeningtool
before more in-depthtests are ordered.
A doctor may suggest this test if you’re
having signs or symptoms ofthe
conditions above or your doctor wants
to rule out any of these conditions.
How the Test Is
The ELISA test is simple and straightforward. You’llprobably needto signa
consent form, andyour doctor shouldexplainthe reasonfor doing the test.
The ELISA test involves taking a sample ofyour blood. First, a healthcare
provider willcleanse your arm withan antiseptic. Then, a tourniquet, or
band, will be appliedaround your arm to create pressureandcause your
veins to swellwithblood. Next, aneedle will be placedin one of your veins
to draw a small sample ofblood. Whenenoughbloodhas beencollected,
the needle will be removedanda smallbandage will be placedon your arm
where the needle was. You'll be asked to elevate your arm and place
pressure onit with gauze to reduce bloodflow.
This procedure shouldbe relatively painless,
but your arm may throb a little after the
The bloodsample will be sent to a laboratory
for analysis. In the lab, a technicianadds the
sample to a Petri dish containingthe specific
antigen relatedto the conditionfor which
youare beingtested. If your bloodcontains
antibodies to the antigen, the two will bind
together. The technicianwillcheckthis by
adding an enzyme to the Petri dishand
observing how your bloodandthe antigen
react. Youmay have the conditionif the
contents ofthe dish change colour. How
muchchange the enzyme causes allows the
technicianto. Determine the presence and
amount of antibody.
Scientists from ImperialCollege London
reportedin Nature Nanotechnology(October
2012 issue) that they have developedan extremely sensitive sensor that
detects viralinfections, including HIV. They say the sensor is ten times more
sensitive at detectingan HIV biomarker that anythingelse onthe market
today; it is also extremely cheap. The doctor cansee the results by looking
at the colour change in a liquid solution.
Recent developments on HIV
Geneticchanges identifiedthat make HIV elusive to drugs
Scientists have identified two locations where slight differences ingenetic
code can change the way humanimmunodeficiency virus infects cells - a
change associatedwithworseningsymptoms andresistance to
Scripps team lays 'spectacular'
foundations forHIV vaccine
"A leap forward" has beenmade to
develop a vaccine against HIV, claim the
authors of two new studies that are
journals Cell and Science.
Latent HIV cells only 'wake up' once a
week afterantiretroviral therapy,
A new study publishedin PLOS Pathogensprovides new insight into how
oftenHIV cells "wake up" amongindividuals undergoing antiretroviral
therapy for the virus, bringing researchers one step closer to getting
patients off the treatment for goodand into remission.
Vaginal ring reduces risk of HIV by up to 61%
A vaginal ring can safely provide some protectionagainst HIV infectionby
continuously releasingan experimentalantiretroviraldrug, say findings
publishedin the New England Journalof Medicine.
Treatments for HIV/AIDS
EarlierHIV antiretroviral treatment is crucial - it improves quality oflife,
extends life expectancyandreduces the riskof transmission, accordingto
the World Health Organization's guidelines issued in June 2013.
Whenan HIV-positive adult's CD4 cellcount is 500 cells/mm3
or lower they
should start treatment immediately.
Accordingto Margaret Chan, WHODirector-General"These guidelines
represent another leap aheadin a trendof ever-higher goals and ever-
greater achievements. Withnearly 10millionpeople now onantiretroviral
therapy, we see that suchprospects - unthinkable just a few years ago - can
now fuel the momentumneededto pushthe HIV epidemic into irreversible
Currently, there is no vaccine or cure for HIV/AIDS. But treatments have
evolvedwhichare muchmore efficacious - they canimprove patients'
generalhealth and quality of life considerably.
Emergency HIV pills
If an individual believes they have beenexposedto the virus withinthe last
72 hours (three days), anti-HIV medication, calledPEP (post-exposure
prophylaxis) may stop infection. The treatment shouldbe takenas soonas
possible after contact withthe virus.
PEP is a very demandingtreatment lastingfour weeks. It is also associated
withunpleasant side effects (diarrhea, malaise, nausea, weakness and
After a positive HIV diagnosis,
regular bloodtests are necessary
to monitor the progress ofthe
virus before startingtreatment.
The therapy is designed to reduce
the level of HIV in the blood.
HIV is treatedwith antiretroviral (ARVs). The treatmentfights the HIV
infectionand slows downthe spreadof the virus in the body. Generally,
patients take a combinationofmedications calledHAART (highly active
The combinationofdrugs is adapted to eachindividual. HIV treatment is
usually permanent andlifelong. HIV treatment is basedonroutine dosage.
Pills must be takenon a regular schedule, every time. Commonside effects
include nausea, fatigue, diarrhea, skin rashes, moodiness, alterations to the
adipose (fat) tissue, birthdefects.
Antifungal cream Ciclopirox mayhelp eradicate HIV - researchers at the
Rutgers New Jersey MedicalSchoolreportedinthe journal PLoSONE that
Ciclopirox, a widely usedantifungal cream, as well as Deferiprone, a
medicationusedto remove excess ironfrom the body, eradicate HIV in
culturedcells. They added that when treatment stops, the virus does not
Complementary or alternative
Althoughwidely used, alternative/complementary medications, suchhas
herbalones, have not beenprovento be effective or ineffective. According
to some limitedstudies, mineral or vitaminsupplements may provide some
benefits. Patients are urgedto discuss these options withtheir doctors.
The outer shell of HIV has a vulnerable spot, whichenabledtwo HIV-positive
people to make antibodies powerfulenoughto kill off the majority ofHIV
A glycan, a form of sugar,
in a specific part onthe
proteincoat that covers
"position332") is a
vulnerable spot that
allows the body to mount
an effective attackusing
The scientists, from the University ofthe Witwatersrand, Johannesburg,
SouthAfrica, said their discovery offers new clues about stimulatingthe
body to produce "broadly neutralizingantibodies".They believe these
antibodies are key for making an AIDS vaccine, because they destroy most
of the HIV types aroundthe world. They publishedtheir findings in Nature
Medicine (21 October, 2012 issue).
April 2013 - A step closerto an HIV vaccine
A team led by scientists from the Duke Human Vaccine Institute, andthe NIH
Vaccine ResearchCenter say they have charteda new route that may help
develop a vaccine whichboosts anindividual's ability to destroy HIV. They
publishedtheir findings in the journal Nature (April2013issue).
BartonF. Haynes, M.D., John Mascola, M.D. and team studiedan HIV-
infectedpatient whose immune
system attackedthe virus, allowing
them to describe the co-evolution
of the antibodies.
HIV has provenespecially difficult in
inducing an antibody response,
making it very hard to develop a
vaccine. As soonas HIV antibodies
are produced, the virus changes
rapidly to avoid them.
The team used a new form of technology that candetect infectionearly on
and trackthe body's immune system.
Recent developments in HIV treatment
New drugs reawaken latent HIV to eradicate virus
A new study suggests a class of drugs already being testedin clinicaltrials
for the treatment ofcancer may also hold the key to completeeradication
Alcoholism drug could help cure HIV, study finds
A drug usedto treat alcoholism - called disulfiram - could bringus closer to a
cure for HIV, accordingto the results of a new study led by researchers from
the University of Melbourne inAustralia.
HIV vaccine possibility followingstudyof 'antibodies withloops'
A new study suggests it may be possible to induce a rapidanti-HIV immune
response inunexposedpeople by developingavaccine that triggers
antibodies containing loop-like structures.
HIV antibody therapy looks promising
A new study of the effects of a new antibody treatment suggests it may
offer a long-term solutionfor the controlofHIV.
To prevent beinginfected
Having sex without a
condom canput a personat
risk ofbeing infectedwith
HIV and other sexually
infections (STIs). HIV canbe
spreadby having unprotectedsex (vaginal, oral and anal sex). It can also be
caught from sharingsex toys withsomeone infectedwithHIV.
Drug abuse and needle sharing
Intravenous drug use is an important factor inHIV transmissionindeveloped
countries. Sharingneedles canexpose users to HIV and other viruses, such
as hepatitis C.
Strategies suchas needle-exchange programsare usedto reduce the
infections causedby drug abuse.
Body fluid exposure
Exposure to HIV canbe controlledby employingprecautions to reduce the
risk ofexposure to contaminatedblood. At alltimes, healthcare workers
should use barriers (gloves, masks, protectiveeyewear, shields, andgowns).
Frequent and thoroughwashingof the skin immediately after being
contaminatedwithbloodor other bodily fluids can reduce the chance of
Anti-HIV medicines canharm the
unbornchild. But an effective
treatment plancanprevent HIV
transmissionfrom mother to baby.
Precautions have to be takento
protect the baby´s health. Delivery
necessary. Breastfeedingmay have to
give way to bottle-feedingifthe
mother is infected.
A study by scientists from Columbia
University, New York, found
that breastfeeding for 6+ months
withantiretroviral therapy couldhelp
transmission as well as improve
chances of infant's survival.
Health educationis an important factor inreducingrisky behavior.
Adherence. HIV treatment is effective if the patient is committedand
constant in taking the medicationontime. Missingevena few doses will
jeopardize the treatment.A daily methodicalroutine has to be programmed
to fit the treatment planaroundthe patient's lifestyle and schedule.
"Adherence" is sometimes knownas "compliance".
General Health. It is crucialfor patients to take medicationcorrectly and
take steps to avoidillness. Patients should seek to improve their general
health and reduce the riskof falling ill by practicingregular exercise, healthy
eating, and not smoking.
Additional precautions. HIV-infectedpeople shouldbe extracautious to
prevent exposure to infection. They shouldbe carefularoundanimals, avoid
cominginto contact withcat litter, animalfeces. Meticulous and regular
washing of hands is recommended.
Long-term condition. HIV is a lasting condition, and therefore patients have
to be in regular contact withtheir healthcare team. Treatment planis
Psychological. Commonmisconceptions about AIDS/ HIV are diminishing.
However, the stigmaofthe conditionpersists inmany parts of the world.
People infectedwiththe virus may feel excluded, rejected, discriminated
Being diagnosed withHIV canbe very distressing, and feelings
of anxiety or depression are common. Ifyoufeelanxious or have symptoms
of depression, seekmedicalhelp immediately.
After studying the cause and effects of‘AIDS’ from different views, we
conclude that it is a pandemic disease. It is mainly spreadingsexually and
personofthe age group of 25-45years are the most affectedgroup. There
are some methods like ‘AntiviralTherapy’ and Immuno Simulative therapy
whichbringsome hope that eventhen no specific treatment has beenfound
so for and morality form is virtually 100%. So only preventioninthe test
AIDS is non curable due to its nature of pathogen. It also damage immune
system ofthe body. Therefore any medicine (Antiviral) drugs are not
effective against HIV virus. Ignorance and lack of knowledge about this
disease is the root cause ofwide spreadof this disease Malaria is one ofthe
major diseases which is causedby Protozoan. Protozoancauses many
diseases in human beings. Malaria has beenfor thousands of years a very
serious disease of the tropicaland temperateregions. Prevalence ofmalaria
continues to be one of the major health problemsofdevelopingcountries. It
was almost eliminateda few years backwiththe efforts ofWHO and our
National Malaria EradicationProgramme(NMEP), but unfortunately it has
appearedagain. Plasmodium is a genus of Protozoabelongingto subphylum
Sporozoa, class Telosporidea, includes causative agent ofmalaria in man
and lower animals. Members ofthe genus plasmodium are collectively
knownas Malaria parasite, because they cause ahorrible disease called
Parts of this project have been referred from foreign sources
and have been included in this project after editing.
The reference of sources is as follows:-
a) Biology NCERT Book class 12th
b) National Geographic Magazine
a. Biology Today
b. Science Reporter