Getting Started• With your table mates brainstorm a list of free morphemes with: three, four and five letters.
What is a free morpheme?• Free morphemes stand alone as words.• They are derived from Anglo-Saxon roots.• It can’t be broken into smaller word parts.• Some examples: help, play, porcupine, salamander.
What is a bound morphemes• Cannot stand alone as words• There are five types:• Prefixes are fixed at the beginning of a word.• Suffixes are fixed to the end.• Greek and Latin roots.
Activities• At your table, you will be given directions to complete an activity together.• You have ten minutes to work.• Be prepared to share your work.
1. Defining common affixesPrefix Definition Suffix Definitionre- Again, back (redo) -ed Past-tense verbsin-, im- Not (injustice, impossible) -s, -es More than oneun- Not (unfriendly) -ing Verb form/present participledis- Not, opposite of (disagree) -ly Characteristic ofen-, Cause to (encode, embrace) -er, -or One who (worker, actor)em-
2. Brainstorm words with the following prefixesInter- (between) Semi- (half) Sub- (under) Mis- (wrong) De- (not, opposite)Interact Semiautomatic Subtract Mistake DeactivateInterview Semicircle Subpar Misfire DeconstructIntervention Semiannual Submarine Miscalculate DefaceInterrelate Semicolon Suburb Misuse DemoralizeInterpret Semifinal Subcategory Mishap Deforestation
3. Brainstorm words with the following suffixes-ic (having -ive (adj. form of -less (without) -ity (state of) -ful (full of)characteristics of) noun)Linguistic Expressive Fearless Infinity CarefulManic Creative Childless Calamity JoyfulToxic Imaginative Clueless Insanity ThankfulArtistic Elusive Senseless Depravity StressfulIdealistic Authoritative Penniless Affinity Helpful
4. Brainstorm words with the following Latin root wordsFract (break) Ject (throw) Port (carry) Voc (voice) Bene (well, good)Fracture Eject Transport Vocal BenefactorInfraction Reject Portal Vocabulary BeneficiaryFraction Rejection Porter Invocation BenevolentDiffract Inject Airport Advocate BenefitFractionally Injection Deport Vocalize Beneficial
5. Brainstorm words with the following Greek rootsMech (machine) Therm (heat) Scope (see) Para (beside) Graph (write, record)Mechanic Thermal Microscope Parallel AutographMechanism Thermometer Telescope Paralegal MimeographMechanically Thermodynamic Periscope Paraprofessional BibliographyMechanized Hypothermia Microscopic Parasite PictographBiomechanics Endothermic Kaleidoscope Parachute Telegraph
6. Assimilation/DissimilationIn- Im- -al -arInept Impossible Use im- when: Paternal CellularIndescribable Immortal In front of b, m, or p Conventional ParticularInsecure Imbalanced SkepticalInoperable ArtificialInfallible General Use –ar when: Root word ends in /l/ sound (cell, particle)
Epenthesis• The process of inserting a sound to create an acceptable sequence.• One example is a and an.• A is for words that begin with a consonant and an is in front of words that begin with a vowel to break up two vowels.
Metathesis• Reversing a sound in a word to avoid an unacceptable combination.• English does not use metathesis between morphemes.• Sometimes young children will reverse sounds, based on their development level.
Discussion• How would you use this information when teaching native English speakers?• How might this change with English language learners?